Antioxidant

These Substances possess Antioxidant Properties

 

Amino Acids

 

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) is a potent Antioxidant.  research

Creatine (and presumably forms of Creatine such as Creatine Monohydrate) possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

 

Cysteine is a potent Antioxidant.  People infected with the HIV Virus (responsible for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)) usually exhibit significantly depressed Cysteine levels:  Depressed Cysteine levels are apparent during all phases of HIV infection, from initial infection through to full-blown AIDS. Cysteine helps to prevent some forms of Cancer (however, the N-Acetyl-Cysteine form of Cysteine is more effective for Cancer prevention than regular L-Cysteine). Cysteine minimizes the toxic side-effects of Chemotherapy. Cysteine protects the body from the toxic effects of Radiation Therapy.

Cysteine improves the defense response of T-Lymphocytes.

 

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients have low levels of Cysteine.  Supplemental Cysteine may be useful for CFS patients because of its ability to lower elevated Methemoglobin levels.

Cysteine (especially the N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) form administered via aerosol spray inhaled) alleviates the symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis.  research

 

Cysteine helps to prevent Alcohol-induced Fatty Liver.  research

Cysteine is of assistance to people affected by Obesity as it promotes the use of Adipose Tissue as a source of Energy.

Cysteine enhances the function of the Thyroid Gland.

 

Musculoskeletal System

 

Cysteine alleviates Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Cysteine enhances the growth of Muscles.

 

Nervous System

 

Cysteine alleviates some cases of Manic Depression (presumably due to its role as a precursor for the endogenous production of Glutathione).  research

Cystine possesses Antioxidant properties.

L-Dopa possesses Antioxidant properties.

Methionine (DL form) indirectly acts as an Antioxidant (after its conversion to Cysteine within the body).

N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a potent Antioxidant.  NAC reverses abnormal Blood Clotting. —NAC helps to prevent and reverse Alcohol-induced Hypertension (by detoxifying Acetaldehyde). Cells–NAC inhibits the ability of mutagens to damage Chromosomes.  Research–NAC improves the function of the Mitochondria.  research

 

Digestive System

 

NAC reduces the Inflammation associated with Colitis.  peer-reviewed research

NAC inhibits the ability of Alcohol (ethanol) to damage the Gastric Mucosa.  NAC helps to prevent various types of Cancer:  research

 

NAC exerts antimutagenic effects against a wide variety of mutagenic chemicals.

NAC helps to prevent the metastasis of many types of Cancer:

NAC helps to prevent Bladder Cancer. -NAC helps to prevent Breast Cancer.  -NAC helps to prevent Colon Cancer.  –NAC enhances the effectiveness of immunotherapy in the treatment of Liver Cancer.  research

 

NAC helps to treat Larynx Cancer. –  NAC helps to prevent and treat Lung Cancer. – NAC helps to treat Mouth Cancer.  – NAC helps to prevent Skin Cancer. -NAC enhances the ability of Interleukin 2 (IL-2) to counteract Cancer. –NAC inhibits the replication of the Hepatitis B Virus that causes Hepatitis B.  –NAC enhances the effectiveness of Interferon Alpha in the treatment of Hepatitis C (primarily by counteracting the depletion of Glutathione).–NAC (1,200 mg per day) helps to prevent Influenza infection, reduces the symptoms of existing Influenza infection and reduces the duration of Influenza infections (especially in elderly and chronically ill people).  —

NAC helps to prevent Leukoplakia.

 

Pangamic Acid possesses Antioxidant properties (due to its Dimethyl Glycine component). Health Benefits of Pangamic Acid

 

Aging & Life Extension

 

Pangamic Acid retards the Aging Process (due to the Antioxidant properties of Dimethyl Glycine – a component of Pangamic Acid).

Pangamic Acid possesses Antioxidant properties.

Pangamic Acid may possess Anti Aging or Cellular Longevity possibilities.

 

Cardiovascular System

Pangamic Acid alleviates the symptoms of Angina (due to its Dimethyl Glycine component).

Pangamic Acid alleviates Atherosclerosis.

Pangamic Acid improves Blood Circulation.

Pangamic Acid lowers total serum Cholesterol levels.

Heart Disease can occur as a result of Pangamic Acid deficiency (however some contradictory reports deny that Pangamic Acid deficiency can affect Heart Disease).

 

Detoxification

 

Pangamic Acid protects the body from the toxic effects of some of the constituents of Air Pollution (including Carbon Monoxide).

Pangamic Acid reduces the craving for Alcohol in Alcoholism patients.

Pangamic Acid reduces the symptoms of Hangovers.

 

Immune System

 

Pangamic Acid stimulates the Immune System.–Metabolism

Pangamic Acid protects against Cirrhosis of the Liver.

Pangamic Acid alleviates Fatigue (by preventing the build-up of excessive Lactic Acid within the Muscles of those who exercise heavily).  research

Pangamic Acid alleviate and prevents Hypoxia (by stimulating the transport of Oxygen to the Blood from the Lungs).

Pangamic Acid facilitates detoxification of the Liver.

Pangamic Acid enhances the body’s utilization of Oxygen.

Pangamic Acid facilitates the synthesis of endogenous Proteins.

 

Nervous System

 

Pangamic Acid alleviates the symptoms of Autism–Pangamic Acid stimulates the Central Nervous System (CNS).–Respiratory System–Pangamic Acid alleviates Asthma. Pangamic Acid alleviates Emphysema.

 

Skin–Pangamic Acid alleviates some Skin Ailments.

 

Pangamic Acid Enhances the Function of these Substances

 

Amino Acids–Pangamic Acid acts as a methyl donor in the formation of Methionine.

 

Dietary Sources of Pangamic Acid —(mcg of Pangamic Acid per 100 grams)

 

Cereal Grains: Wholemeal Flour 8 Maize 150 Oats 106 Wheat Germ 70

Wheat Bran 31 Rice Bran 200 Barley            12

Fruit:   Apricot Kernels 65

Meat:   Liver – Pig’s 22

Seeds:  Pumpkin Seeds Brown Rice Sesame Seeds

Yeasts: Brewer’s Yeast 128

 

Taurine possesses minor Antioxidant properties.

Thioproline possesses Antioxidant properties.

 

Tyrosine possesses minor Antioxidant properties.

 

Auxins

 

Many dietary Indoles possess Antioxidant properties.

 

Carbohydrates

 

Beta 1,3 Glucan functions as a potent Antioxidant.

Chondroitin Sulfate is a potent Antioxidant.

 

Carotenoids

 

Alpha-Carotene is a potent Antioxidant (the Antioxidant effects of Alpha-Carotene are approximately 38% greater than those of Beta-Carotene).

Astaxanthin possesses potent Antioxidant properties (under most conditions its Antioxidant properties are greater than those of either Beta-Carotene and Vitamin E).  research

 

Beta-Carotene is a potent Antioxidant.

Canthaxanthin possesses Antioxidant properties.

Capsorubin possesses Antioxidant properties (it quenches Singlet Oxygen Free Radicals).

Crocin possesses Antioxidant properties.

Crocetin possesses Antioxidant properties.

Lutein possesses Antioxidant properties (particularly against Singlet Oxygen Free Radicals).

Lycopene is a powerful Antioxidant.

 

Enzymes

 

Glutathione Peroxidase is a powerful Antioxidant that directly scavenges Free Radicals.  research

Glutathione-S-Transferase functions as an Antioxidant.

Papain possesses Antioxidant properties.

 

Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is a potent Antioxidant. Heart Muscle which has been damaged after Heart Attacks through blood deprivation and Hypoxia is greatly assisted by injected SOD.—Detoxification–SOD catalyzes the breakdown of Peroxides (especially Hydrogen Peroxide).—Digestive System–SOD (administered via injection) has resulted in excellent regression in Crohn’s Disease patients.–Electromagnetic Radiation–Tissues hardened by Radiation Therapy have been partially restored with injected SOD. –Eyes/Vision–SOD concentrates in the Lens of the Eyes (where it exerts Antioxidant effects).—Hair–SOD (applied topically) stimulates Hair Growth and decreases Hair Loss (by preventing the inhibitory action of Superoxide Free Radicals on Nitric Oxide).  —Exogenous SOD (applied topically) is under investigation for the treatment of Male Pattern Baldness— Heart Muscle which has been damaged after Heart Attacks through blood deprivation and Hypoxia is greatly assisted by injected SOD.—

Detoxification—SOD catalyzes the breakdown of Peroxides (especially Hydrogen Peroxide).–Digestive System—SOD (administered via injection) has resulted in excellent regression in Crohn’s Disease patients.  —Electromagnetic Radiation

Tissues hardened by Radiation Therapy have been partially restored with injected SOD.

–Eyes/Vision–SOD concentrates in the Lens of the Eyes (where it exerts Antioxidant effects).—Hair–SOD (applied topically) stimulates Hair Growth and decreases Hair Loss (by preventing the inhibitory action of Superoxide Free Radicals on Nitric Oxide).

Exogenous SOD (applied topically) is under investigation for the treatment of Male Pattern Baldness—Barley Grass contains a component that is very similar to SOD.–

Herbs–Aloe vera contains SOD (both Mn-SOD and Cu-Zn forms of SOD). -.

Manganese is an essential element of cellular SOD.—Selenium is a cofactor for the production of SOD.—Zinc is an essential component of the mitochondrial form of SOD. –Antioxidants—Copper-Peptide Complexes (e.g. Copper Binding Peptide, Iamin and Tempol) enhance the ability of SOD to deactivate Superoxide Free Radicals and stimulate the production of SOD.—Polyphenols–Apigenin stimulates the activity of SOD. —Pycnogenol increases cellular SOD levels.—-Silymarin increases the activity of SOD.—

 

 

 

 

Enzyme Inhibitors

 

Protease Inhibitors possess Antioxidant properties.

 

Hormones

 

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) possesses Antioxidant properties:  research

 

DHEA protects against Copper-induced lipid peroxidation.

 

Melatonin possesses Antioxidant properties:  caution:  Melatonin’s Antioxidant properties have a narrow dosage range, i.e. very low and very high levels of Melatonin have a pro-oxidant effect.

Melatonin exerts its Antioxidant properties in both aqueous (water-soluble) and lipid (fat-soluble) environments of the body.  It permeates all of the body’s physiological barriers and enters all of the body’s subcellular compartments and is therefore active as an Antioxidant throughout the whole body, including the Brain.

 

Lignans

 

Gomisan A possesses Antioxidant properties.

Secoisolariciresinol is a potent Antioxidant.  research

Sesaminol possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Wuweizisu C possesses Antioxidant properties.

 

Lipids

 

Asiaticoside possesses Antioxidant properties.

Beta-Ecdysterone possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) possesses potent Antioxidant properties:  research

 

The Antioxidant effects of CLA are believed to be 200% greater than those of Beta-Carotene.

 

Ginsenoside Rg1 possesses Antioxidant properties.

Glycyrrhizin possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Resveratrol possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

 

Rosmanol is a potent Antioxidant (its Antioxidant activity is approximately four times greater than that of the synthetic Antioxidant, Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT).

Rosemary is an evergreen shrub with aromatic linear leaves.

 

 

ROSEMARY

 

Rosmarinus officinalis

Rosemary is from the Mint (Labiatae) family.

 

Parts Used

 

Leaves.

 

Health Benefits of Rosemary

 

Cardiovascular System

Rosemary improves Blood Circulation.

Rosemary decreases the permeability and fragility of the Capillaries (due to Diosmin).

Rosemary (leaf extracts) lower Blood Pressure in Hypertension patients.

 

Digestive System

 

Rosemary stimulates the flow of Bile.

Rosemary (infusion used as a mouthwash) alleviates Halitosis.

 

Excretory System–Rosemary increases the production and flow of Urine (i.e. it functions as a diuretic).

 

Hair

 

Rosemary (infusion applied topically to the Hair) enhances and highlights the Hair Color of brunettes and redheads.

Rosemary (oil massaged into the Scalp or Rosemary infusion used as a shampoo) helps to prevent Hair Loss (by stimulating the activities of Hair Follicles).

 

Immune System

 

Rosemary alleviates Allergies (due to the Ursolic Acid content of Rosemary inhibiting Mast Cell degranulation and Histamine release from Mast Cells in the presence of Antigens).

Rosemary helps to prevent Breast Cancer (due to the Carnosol content of Rosemary)

Rosemary kills some forms of Detrimental Bacteria (due to its Volatile Oil components).

Rosemary inhibits some types of Detrimental Fungi.

Metabolism—Rosemary contains several potent Antioxidants (including Carnosol and Rosmanol).

 

Musculoskeletal System

 

Rosemary alleviates Gout (due to its diuretic properties).

Rosemary (oil applied topically) soothes aching Muscles.

Rosemary alleviates Rheumatism.

 

Nervous System

Rosemary stimulates the Central Nervous System (CNS):

Rosemary (oil utilized in Aromatherapy) increases the generation of Beta Waves by the Brain (Beta Waves are associated wakefulness/

Attention).

Rosemary alleviates Headaches of nervous origin (according to folklore).

Rosemary (oil massaged into the temples or Rosemary tea consumed internally) improves Memory.

Rosemary (applied topically to the Teeth/Gums) temporarily alleviates the pain associated with Toothache.

 

Respiratory System–Rosemary alleviates the symptoms of Emphysema.

 

Sexual System

Rosemary facilitates and regulates Menstruation.

Rosemary Enhances the Function of these Substances

 

Enzymes

 

Rosemary increases the activity of Quinone Reductase (in the Liver).

Rosemary Counteracts these Potentially Toxic Substances

 

Enzymes–Rosemary (weakly) inhibits the activity of Elastase (an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of Elastin) (due to the Rosmarinic Acid content of Rosemary).  research

 

Hormones

 

Rosemary counteracts the negative effects of Estrogens (Estradiol and Estrone), including the ability of these Estrogens to initiate some types of Cancer.  These effects occur from Rosemary stimulating the microsomal metabolism and glucuronidation of Estrogens in the Liver.

 

 

 

 

Squalene is an Antioxidant.  research

Ursolic Acid possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

 

Metabolic Chemicals

 

NADH is a potent Antioxidant.  research

 

Minerals

 

Germanium is a potent Antioxidant.

Molybdenum possesses Antioxidant properties (due to it ability to activate the Xanthine Oxidase enzyme which is in turn responsible for the production of endogenous Uric Acid).

Selenium possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

 

Vanadium possesses Antioxidant properties.

Zinc possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

 

Nucleic Compounds

 

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) possesses Antioxidant properties (supplemental exogenous RNA possesses these same Antioxidant properties).

 

Organic Acids

 

Alpha-Hydroxy Acids (including Glycolic Acid and Lactic Acid) function as topical Antioxidants (when applied topically to the Skin).  research

Citric Acid possesses Antioxidant properties.

Ellagic Acid possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

 

Ganoderic Acid possesses Antioxidant properties.

Inositol Hexaphosphate (Phytic Acid) possesses Antioxidant properties:  research

 

Inositol Hexaphosphate inhibits the ability of Iron to initiate Lipid Peroxidation.

 

Rosmarinic Acid is a potent Antioxidant.  research

Uric Acid is a powerful Antioxidant.  research

 

Peptides

 

Anserine functions as an Antioxidant.  research

Carnitine functions as a secondary Antioxidant.  research

Carnosine functions as an Antioxidant.  research

Glutathione is a powerful Antioxidant.  research

 

Pharmaceutical Drugs

 

Aspirin possesses Antioxidant properties: Caution:  Aspirin has several toxic side effects.

 

Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics (SOD Mimetics) possess significant Antioxidant properties (they counteract Superoxide Free Radicals in a similar fashion to Superoxide Dismutase).

 

Pigments

 

Melanin functions as an endogenous Antioxidant (e.g. its presence in the Skin as pigmentation is designed to quench certain Free Radicals that are generated by exposure to Ultra-Violet Radiation) – this accounts for its “photo-protective” qualities.

 

Polyphenols

 

Anthocyanidins (including Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin and Petunidin) function as Antioxidants.  research

Anthocyanosides are potent Antioxidants.  research

Caffeic Acid possesses Antioxidant properties.

Catechins are potent Antioxidants.  research

 

Curcuminoids possess potent Antioxidant properties:  research

 

Curcumin possesses potent Antioxidant properties (Curcumin has been shown to be equal in Antioxidant potency to the synthetic Antioxidant, Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA)).  research

 

Delphinidin possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Ellagic Acid possesses potent Antioxidant properties.

Epigallocatechin is a potent Antioxidant.  research

Epigallo-Catechin-Gallate (EGCG) possesses potent Antioxidant properties.  research

 

Ferulic Acid possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Flavonols function as Antioxidants:  research

 

Quercetin functions as a potent Antioxidant.  research

 

Gallic Acid possesses potent Antioxidant properties.

Gamma Oryzanol possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Genistein possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Ginkgolides possess Antioxidant properties.  research

 

Isoflavonoids possess Antioxidant properties:

 

Biochanin A possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Daidzein possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Formononetin possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Genistein possesses Antioxidant properties.

 

Kaempferol possesses Antioxidant properties.

Luteolin is a potent Antioxidant.  research

Myricetin possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Oleuropein is a potent Antioxidant.  research

 

Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) possess Antioxidant properties.  research

Pycnogenol is a patented mixture of Bioflavonoids – it is claimed that its Antioxidant potential is 50 times more powerful than that of Vitamin E and 20 times more powerful than that of Vitamin C.  research

 

Rutin possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Silymarin possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Taxifolin possesses Antioxidant properties Taxifolin is a flavanonol, a type of flavonoid. It can be found in the açaí palm, in the Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) in Russia[1] and in the silymarin extract from the milk thistle seeds. — TAXIFOLIN BENEFITS–Taxifolin is a plant flavonoid occurring in the fruit of milk thistle [S. —marianum]. This fruit has been used since ancient times as a –medicinal plant for the treatment of liver diseases [1]. The extract, –known as sylimarin, contains flavonoids such as sylibin and –taxifolin. Sylibin has been well-studied and its hypocholesterolemic  effect has also been noticed.—CHOLESTEROL-LOWERING ACTIVITIES–In a study of rats, Krecman et al. [2] studied found that pure silybin –was not as effective as silymarin. This suggested that other  constituent(s) of silymarin, in addition to silybin, also have hypocholesterolemic effects. Subsequently, the minor constituent of silymarin, taxifolin, has attracted Andre TheriaultÂ’s  attention, because taxifolin constitutes the flavonoid moiety in the flavolignan silybin. Hence, Andre Theriault and coworkers investigated how taxifolin affected lipid profiles in a study using human hepatoma cell-line, HepG2, as the model system. They had a few key findings: (1) taxifolin inhibits cholesterol synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, (2) taxifolin suppresses HMG-CoA reductase activity and cholesteryl ester formation (3) taxifolin inhibits the synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol and phospholipids and (4) taxifolin decreases the secretion of apoB into LDL-like particles.–ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES–Taxifolin also demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in in-vitro studies. Taxifolin down-regulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). It impeded the calcium influx induced by fMLP (a receptor-mediated activator) or AlF(4)(-) (a G protein-mediated activator) and effectively inhibited the fMLP- or
PMA-induced ROS production with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC
(50)) less than 10microM, possibly through impairing the activation
of NADPH oxidase.[4] REFERENCES–[1] Morazzoni, P., Bombardelli, E. 1995. Silybum marianum. Cardus –marianus Fitoterapia. 66:6-42. [2] Krecman, V., Skottova, N., Walterova, D., Ulrichova, J., Simanek, V. 1998. Silymarin inhibits the development of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Planta
Med. 64:138-142. [3] Casaschi A et al, Inhibitory activity of diacylglycerol
acyltransferase (DGAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) by the flavonoid, taxifolin, in HepG2 cells: potential role in the regulation of apolipoprotein B secretion. Atherosclerosis. 2004 Oct;176(2):247-53. [4] Wang YH Prevention of macrophage adhesion molecule-1 (Mac-1)-dependent neutrophil firm adhesion by taxifolin through impairment of protein kinase-dependent NADPH oxidase activation and antagonism of G protein-mediated calcium influx. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Jun 15; 67(12):2251-62.—-

 

Natural antioxidant TAXIFOLIN Dihydroquercetin (2009/3/16)–The Russian manufacturer “Sibirskiy Kedr Ltd.” offers its KNOW HOW product: Baikal Vitamin P, unique reference antioxidant that acts at the cell membranes level and its antioxodant performance leaves behind well-known vitamins A, C, E. We produce the monocrystal TAXIFOLIN Dihydroquercetin with total polymers no exceeding 3%. Dihydroquercetin flavonoid is extracted from Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian larchwood (Larix Dahurica Nurcz) and is produced in the form of yellow odourless powder. Revealing more antioxidant activity than quercetin, rutin, beta-carotene and artificial antioxidants, TAXIFOLIN is a powerful suppressor of oxidative, mold and yeast activity. Its addition to vegetable oils and fats, dehydrated milk, fat-containing confectionary not only prolongs their shelf-life two-three times, but also gives them implicit healthful properties.This healthful activity of the Baikal Vitamin P is real and proved. Defending human DNA from metabolic products, it activates and mobilizes our immune system, slows down the aging processes, prevents and slows down various pathologies. As clinical trials show, this product fights oncological, bronchopulmonary, ophthalmological, skin and cardiovascular diseases. If used as a dietary supplement TAXIFOLIN Dihydroquercetin represents a higly active vitamin-P product that prevents diferrent pathologies at the cell level. As some tests show, systematic preventive year-long TAXIFOLIN Dihydroquercetin addition to some food products (ready-to-cook meat and fish, confectionary, beverages) within minimum dose limits (0,0001-0,00001%) is able to increase average lifespan for 20 – 25 years. The product is certificated in accordance with the Russian Federation law and meets the highest quality world standards.— Dihydroquercetin (DHQ), also known as taxifolin, is a bioflavonoid similar in structure to that of quercetin.  It is extracted from grape leaf extract.  Almost 600 studies conducted over the last 50 years have investigated its effectiveness and safety.  Flavonoids perform two important functions… they strengthen your body’s immune response to attacks from viruses, allergens, and carcinogens and they act as powerful super-antioxidants, protecting your body against free-radical damage, and oxidative stress that can lead to many neurological, cardiovascular, and diabetic diseases.

 

Some Benefits Of DHQ Include

 

 

  1. anti-diabetes effect

 

  1. free radical scavenging and protection from lipid peroxidation

 

  1. reduction of content of low density lipoproteins in liver and serum

 

  1. antitumor effect

 

  1. antimutagenic effect

 

  1. radioprotective effect

 

  1. antiviral effect

 

  1. immuno-regulative (anti-allergic)  and anti-inflammatory effect

 

  1. normalizing influence on cell enzyme systems

 

  1. cholesterol lowering activities

 

 

 

 

Some Article Abstracts Below

 

Anti-diabetes effect

 

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1997 Apr;61(4):651-654 Inhibition of aldose reductase and sorbitol accumulation by astilbin and taxifolin dihydroflavonols in Engelhardtia chrysolepis. Haraguchi H, Ohmi I, Fukuda A, Tamura Y, Mizutani K, Tanaka O, Chou WH Dihydroflavonol taxifolin and its glycoside, astilbin, from Engelhardtia chrysolepis inhibited rat lens and recombinant human aldose reductase. Taxifolin also inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human red blood cells. Furthermore, this dihydroflavonol aglycone maintained the clarity of rat lens incubated with a high concentration of glucose. These dihydroflavonols may be effective for preventing osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. J Med Chem 1988 Jun;31(6):1250-1253 An intensely sweet dihydroflavonol derivative based on a natural product lead compound. Nanayakkara NP, Hussain RA, Pezzuto JM, Soejarto DD, Kinghorn AD The dihydroflavonol dihydroquercetin 3-acetate (1) was isolated as a sweet constituent of the young shoots of Tessaria dodoneifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Cabrera (Compositae). Compound 1 and dihydroquercetin 3-acetate 4′-(methyl ether) (2), a novel synthetic analogue of this natural product lead compound, were rated by a taste panel as being 80 and 400 times sweeter than a 2% w/v sucrose solution, respectively. Synthetic dihydroquercetin 4′-(methyl ether) (3) showed a reduced sweetness intensity when compared to 2, while (+)-dihydroquercetin (4) was devoid of sweetness. Dihydroflavonol derivatives 1-3 represent a new class of potentially noncaloric and noncariogenic intense sweeteners.

 

Free radical scavenging and protection from lipid peroxidation

 

Chem.-Farm. Jornal, 1995. Sept. P.61 Diquertin – new antioxidant and vasoprotector. Kolhir V.K., Tyukavkina N.A.,Bykov V.A. and others.  A laboratory experiment revealed antioxidative and vasoprotective properties of dihydroquercetin (in some cases more effective than quercetin), combined by anti-inflammatory, gastric- and hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic and diuretic effects.  Basing on the results of the experiment of DHQ antioxidant properties it was found that DHQ demonstrates a direct antiradical effect primarily due to the interaction with lipid radicals. However, DHQ (and quercetin ) interaction with super oxide anions is to be considered. The experiments prove that DHQ decreases the tetracycline- and tetrachlorin methane-induced lipid peroxidation of liver microsoms that causes an intensive transaminases removal from the demaged liver cells.

 

 

Biophysics, 1996, V.41-3, P.620 Dihydroquercetin antioxidant properties. Y.O. Teselkin, B.A. Zhambalova, I.V. Babenkova, G.I. Klebanov, N.A. Tukavkinaà The dihydroquercetin influence on the process of liposomal membranes from egg phospholipids peroxidation induced by Fe sulphate and/or system Fe+2- ascorbat was studied. It was shown that dihydroquercetin antioxidative activity is compared with antioxidant activity of alpha-tokoferol. It is suggested, that dihydroquercetin antioxidative effect occurs in scavenging of lipid radicals.  

 

Voprosy Pitaniya, 1996, Feb. P.33 Natural flavonoids – food antioxidants and biologically active additives. N.A. Tukavkina, I.A. Rulenko, Y.A. Kolesnik.  The review summarizes literary data about the distribution of flavonoid compounds (FC) in nourishment plants and their antioxidative activity (AOA) when interacting with the structure and pharmacological activity. A problem of the implementation of FS as food antioxidants is discussed. FCs are not xenogenic substances for people and show a low toxicity or the absence of it. FCs normally exceed the known synthetic antioxidants. The regular addition of FC as a perspective direction to provide food of vital importance with medicinal and prophylactic properties is discussed. The advantage of individual flavonoids (quercetin and dihydroquercetin) additives was shown in comparison with FC vegetable compounds. Medicinal and prophylactic food with FC additives are intended for the regions with the unfavorable environmental situation (higher radiation, industrial pollution) and regions influenced by stress factors or with hostile climate conditions.  

 

Biochem Pharmacol, 1988 Mar 15;37(6):989-995 Interaction of flavonoids with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, liposomal membranes and soybean lipoxygenase-1. Ratty AK, Sunamoto J, Das NP The interaction of the antiperoxidative flavonoids namely, quercetin, quercetrin, rutin, myricetin, phloretin, phloridzin, catechin, morin and taxifolin with the 1,1,-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical was demonstrated. Flavonoid-DPPH interaction was looked at in the absence and presence of liposomes so as to reveal some information on bilayers. Perturbations in the lipid bilayers were monitored with the fluorescent probe, dansylhexadecylamine (DSHA). It was observed that the interaction of the flavonoids on the lipid bilayer occurred in the polar zone of the lipid bilayers. The flavonoids were able to scavenge free radicals and could do so in biomembranes. It is suggested that the DPPH free radical abstracts the phenolic hydrogen of the flavonoid molecule and that this could be the general mechanism of the scavenging action of the antiperoxidative flavonoids. The effects of the flavonoids on soybean lipoxygenase-1 were investigated both in buffer and also in liposomal suspension. All the flavonoids studied showed inhibition of the enzyme in both systems but the inhibition was greater in the liposomal suspension. Quercetin was the most potent and it inhibited the lipoxygenase in the liposomal suspension by about 42% while the other flavonoids inhibited the enzyme by about 14-23%. We observed that the effect of myricetin and quercetin on the enzyme was pH dependent.  

 

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996 Jun;60(6):945-948 Protection against oxidative damage by dihydroflavonols in Engelhardtia chrysolepis. Haraguchi H, Mochida Y, Sakai S, Masuda H, Tamura Y, Mizutani K, Tanaka O, Chou WH Dihydroflavonol taxifolin and its glycoside, astilbin, from Engelhardtia chrysolepis were evaluated as antioxidants and radical scavengers. These dihydroflavonols inhibited superoxide anion production in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. Microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase was also inhibited by these flavonoids. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation was inhibited only by the aglycon. Taxifolin protected peroxy radical-damaged mitochondria with no effect on enzyme activity. Furthermore, taxifolin and astilbin protected red cells against oxidative hemolysis. These dihydroflavonols were found to be effective for protecting subcellular systems and red blood cells against oxidative stress in vitro.  

 

Biochem Med Metab Biol 1988 Feb;39(1):69-79 Effects of flavonoids on nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation: structure-activity relationship. Ratty AK, Das NP The in vitro effects of several flavonoids on nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in the rat brain mitochondria was studied. The lipid peroxidation was indexed by measuring the MDA production using the 2-thiobarbituric acid TBA test. The flavonoids, apigenin, flavone, flavanone, hesperidin, naringin, and tangeretin promoted the ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation, the extent of which depended upon the concentration of the flavonoid and ascorbic acid. The other flavonoids studied, viz., quercetin, quercetrin, rutin, taxifolin, myricetin, myricetrin, phloretin, phloridzin, diosmetin, diosmin, apiin, hesperetin, naringenin, (+)-catechin, morin, fisetin, chrysin, and 3-hydroxyflavone, all showed varying extents of inhibition of the nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation, induced by either ascorbic acid or ferrous sulfate. The flavonoid aglycones were more potent in their antiperoxidative action than their corresponding glycosides. Structure-activity analysis revealed that the flavonoid molecule with polyhydroxylated substitutions on rings A and B, a 2,3-double bond, a free 3-hydroxyl substitution and a 4-keto moiety, would confer upon the compound potent antiperoxidative properties.   – inhibition of ferments (mieloperoxinase) supporting peroxidation

 

Chem Biol Interact 1990;73(2-3):323-335 How flavonoids inhibit the generation of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence by activated human neutrophils. Hart BA, Ip Via Ching TR, Van Dijk H, Labadie RP The mechanism by which (a panel of) flanonoids inhibit the production of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CLlum) by activated human neutrophils is subject to this study. CLlum is frequently used as a bio-assay to quantify the effect of xenobiotics on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Most of the flavonoids decreased CLlum by inhibition of ROS production by the cells. Four selected flavonoids (Taxifolin, Eriodictyol, Hesperetin and Luteolin), inhibited myeloperoxidase (MPO) release, while two of these (Taxifolin and Eriodictyol) strongly inhibited MPO activity. Because CLlum is a MPO-dependent process these activities might mask effects of the flavonoids on ROS production. Finally, our results provide evidence that essential determinants for inhibition of O2(-)-release are the OH-groups located in the B-ring of the flavonoid molecule. Flavonoids methylated at a single OH-group in the B-ring are only inhibitory when they react with activated neutrophils in the presence of myeloperoxidase.   – increasing of skin resistance from the influence of active oxygen groups and oxidation products

 

Environ Mutagen 1981;3(4): 401-419 Mutagenicities of 61 flavonoids and 11 related compounds. Nagao M, Morita N, Yahagi T, Shimizu M, Kuroyanagi M, Fukuoka M, Yoshihira K, Natori S, Fujino T, Sugimura T The mutagenicities of 61 flavonoids (naturally occurring flavonoid aglycones and flavonal glycosides and synthetic flavonoids) and those of 11 compounds structurally related to flavonoids were tested with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA98. Among the 22 flavone derivatives tested, only wogonin was strongly mutagenic, while five derivatives, apigenin triacetate, acacetin, chrysoeriol, pedalitin, and pedalitin tetraacetate, were only weakly mutagenic. Two bisflavonyl derivatives, neither of which has a 3-hydroxyl group, were not mutagenic. Of the 16 flavonol derivatives tested, all except 3-hydroxyflavone and the tetra- and penta-methyl ethers of quercetin were mutagenic. Of the five flavanone derivatives tested, only 7,4-dihydroxyflavanone was mutagenic, showing weak activity. Of the four flavanolol derivatives tested, hydrorobinetin and taxifolin were weakly mutagenic. Of the six isoflavone derivatives tested, tectorigenin was weakly mutagenic. Of the 11 compounds in the miscellaneous group structurally related to flavonoids, only isoliquiritigenin was mutagenic, showing weak activity. For the emergence of strong mutagenicity, the double bond between positions 2 and 3 and the hydroxyl group at position 3 are required, except in wogonin, which does not have a hydroxyl group at position 3 but is strongly mutagenic to TA100. The 3-O-acetyl ester of flavonol, quercetin, was mutagenic with S9 mix, but 3-O-methyl ethers were not. Six flavonol glycosides, three quercetin glycosides and three kaempferol glycosides were mutagenic after preincubation with “hesperidinase,” a crude extract of Aspergillus niger. Of 66 flavonoid agylcones and compounds structurally related to flavonoids, quercetin was the strongest mutagen. The carcinogenicity of this compound should be clarified because it is ubiquitously found in vegetables.  

 

Reduction of content of low density lipoproteins in liver and serum

 

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996 Mar;60(3):513-515 Effect of astilbin in tea processed from leaves of Engelhardtia chrysolepis on the serum and liver lipid concentrations and on the erythrocyte and liver antioxidative enzyme activities of rats. Igarashi K, Uchida Y, Murakami N, Mizutani K, Masuda H The effects of astilbin in Kohki tea, which is produced from the leaves of Engelhardtia chrysolepis Hance (Chinese name, huang-qui), and of an aglycone of astilbin, taxifolin, on the serum and liver lipid concentrations, and on the erythrocyte and liver antioxidative enzyme activities were determined with rats fed on a cholesterol-free diet. The total liver cholesterol concentration tended to be decreased by feeding with astilbin, and significantly decreased by feeding with taxifolin. The liver phospholipid concentration was decreased by feeding with both astilbin and taxifolin. In addition, astilbin and taxifolin lowered the serum and liver TBARS concentrations, but did not influence the serum and liver antioxidative enzyme activities, suggesting the possibility that these compounds acted to lower the TBARS concentration by their direct antioxidative action in vivo, almost without influencing the antioxidative enzyme activities.   Chem.-Farm. Jornal 1995 Sept. P.61 – Diquertin – new antioxidant and vasoprotector. – Kolhir V.K., Tyukavkina N.A.,Bykov V.A. and others

 

Antitumor effect   – inhibition of reverse transcriptase- an important factor of cancergenesis

 

J Nat Prod 1992 Feb;55(2): 179-183 Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase activity. Chu SC, Hsieh YS, Lin JY Several flavonoids were tested for their effects on Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase activity. Four groups of flavonoids, namely flavones, flavanones, flavonols, and flavanonols, were studied, and it was found that flavonols and flavanonols were very active in this regard while flavones and flavanones displayed very low activity. Among the flavonoids tested, fisetin, quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, morin, (+/-)-taxifolin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin were shown to be highly effective in inhibiting the reverse transcriptase activity. Structure-activity relationship analysis of these flavonoids revealed that the simultaneous presence of free hydroxyl groups at positions 3 and 4′ enhanced the reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity. Replacement of the 3-hydroxyl group with a monosaccharide or of the 4′-hydroxyl group with a methyl group reduced inhibitory activity. The double bond at position 2 and 3 of the flavonoid’s pyrone ring is not essential for inhibiting reverse transcriptase activity. The flavonoids studied demonstrated ability to inhibit the reverse transcriptase activity using either (rA)n(dT)12-18 or (rC)n(dG)12-18 as template-primers.   – different tumor cells antiproliferative effect  

 

Anticancer Drugs 1992 Oct;3(5):525-530 Differential inhibition of proliferation of human squamous cell carcinoma, gliosarcoma and embryonic fibroblast-like lung cells in culture by plant flavonoids. Kandaswami C, Perkins E, Drzewiecki G, Soloniuk DS, Middleton E Jr We investigated the antiproliferative effect of two polyhydroxylated (quercetin and taxifolin) and two polymethoxylated (nobiletin and tangeretin) flavonoids against three cell lines in tissue culture. Tangeretin and nobiletin markedly inhibited the proliferation of a squamous cell carcinoma (HTB 43) and a gliosarcoma (9L) cell line at 2-8 micrograms/ml concentrations. Quercetin displayed no effect on 9L cell growth at these concentrations, while at 8 micrograms/ml it inhibited HTB 43 cell growth. Taxifolin slightly inhibited HTB 43 cell growth at 8 micrograms/ml, while moderately inhibiting HTB 43 cell growth at 2-8 micrograms/ml. The proliferation of a human lung fibroblast-like cell line (CCL 135) was relatively insensitive to low concentrations of the above flavonoids.   – possible inhibition of malignant transformation of lymphocytes.  

 

Cancer Lett 1993 May 14;69(3):191-196 In vitro effects of natural plant polyphenols on the proliferation of normal and abnormal human lymphocytes and their secretions of interleukin-2. Devi MA, Das NP The growth of two human lymphoid tissue derived cell lines, IM-9 and Molt-4 cells together with normal lymphocytes was studied in the presence of several plant natural products. Amongst the 11 test compounds studied, the flavonoids (fustin, taxifolin, phloretin) and the polyphenol tannic acid were potent inhibitors. At concentrations ranging from 10-50 microM they exerted varying degrees of inhibition on Molt-4 cell and normal lymphocyte cell proliferation but not on the non-malignant (IM-9) cells. The order of potency was tannic acid > phloretin > taxifolin > fustin. The IL-2 level was also enhanced in the Molt-4 but inhibited in normal lymphocytes. However, its level remained unchanged in the IM-9 cells. The amount of IL-2 secreted could be directly correlated to the percentage cell growth inhibition for only Molt-4 cells. Interestingly, our findings suggest the possibility of exploiting the natural plant polyphenols for their possible use in the treatment of lymphocyte malignancy.

 

Antimutagenic effect

 

plant flavonoids. Huang MT, Wood AW, Newmark HL, Sayer JM, Yagi H, Jerina DM, Conney AH Myricetin, robinetin and luteolin inhibited the mutagenic activity resulting from the metabolic activation of benzo[a]-pyrene and (+/-)-trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[a]-pyrene by rat liver microsomes. These naturally occurring plant flavonoids and seventeen additional flavonoids and related derivatives with phenolic hydroxyl groups inhibited the mutagenic activity of (+/-)-7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10- tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2), which is an ultimate mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene. Several flavonoids without phenolic hydroxyl groups or with methylated phenolic hydroxyl groups were inactive. The mutagenic activity of 0.05 nmol of BP 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 towards strain TA 100 of S. typhimurium was inhibited 50% by incubation of the bacteria and the diol-epoxide with myricetin (2 nmol), robinetin (2.5 nmol), luteolin (5 nmol), quercetin (5 nmol), 7-methoxyquercetin (5 nmol), rutin (5 nmol), quercetin (5 nmol), delphinidin chloride (5 nmol), morin (10 nmol), myricitrin (10 nmol), kaempferol (10 nmol), diosmetin (10 nmol), fisetin (10 nmol), or apigenin (10 nmol). Considerably less antimutagenic activity was observed for dihydroquercetin, naringenin, robinin, D-catechin, genistein, kaempferide and chrysin. Pentamethoxyquercetin, tangeretin, nobiletin, 7,8-benzoflavone, 5,6-benzoflavone, and flavone, which lack free phenolic groups, were inactive. The antimutagenic activity of hydroxylated flavonoids results from their direct interaction with B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 since the rate of disappearance of the diol-epoxide from cell-free solutions in 1:9 dioxane:water was markedly stimulated by myricetin, robinetin and quercetin. Myricetin was a highly potent inhibitor of the mutagenic activity of bay-region diol-epoxides of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene and dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, but higher concentrations of myricetin were needed to inhibit the mutagenicity of the chemically less reactive benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide and bay region diol-epoxides of benz[a]anthracene, chrysene and benzo[c]phenanthrene.    

 

Radioprotective effect

 

Pharmacology and toxicology 1975. V.38(5) P.607 Pharmacological and radioprotective properties of some gamma-pyrone derivatives (flavonons and flavonols). T.Y.Iluchenok, A.I. Homenko, L.M. Frigidova et al. The gamma-pyron derivatives obtained on the base of quercetin extracted from Daur and Siberian larch timber are low toxic compounds and don’t significantly change either arterial pressure or breath, causes no oppression effect on the central nerve system, shows a markedly anti-inflammatory effect on healthy and irradiated animals, displays a radioprotective and antihistaminic activity, and also controls noradrenalin, dophamin and homovanilin acid metabolism in the mouse cerebrum. Investigations of biologically active compositions and anti-radiate means among the gamma-pyrone are perspective. Voprosy Pitaniya 1996 Feb. P.33 – Natural flavonoids – food antioxidants and biologically active additives. – N.A. Tukavkina, I.A. Rulenko, Y.A. Kolesnik    

 

Antiviral effect

 

J Med Virol 1987 May;22(1):57-66 Effect of antiviral substances on hepatitis A virus replication in vitro. Biziagos E, Crance JM, Passagot J, Deloince R The effect of protamine, atropine, selenocystamine, taxifolin, and catechin on the infectivity and antigenicity of the cell culture-adapted hepatitis A virus (HAV) strain CF 53 was studied. The toxicity on uninfected PLC/PRF/5 cells was examined for each antiviral compound by morphological and biochemical methods, in order to determine concentrations without cytotoxic effect. At these concentrations, protamine and taxifolin, added to infected cells for a 15-day period, caused concentration-dependent reductions in the infectivity and antigenicity of HAV. Atropine also caused a concentration-dependent reduction of HAV infectivity but did not affect the antigenicity of the virus. At the highest concentration used, 50 micrograms/ml of protamine, 59 micrograms/ml of taxifolin, and 50 micrograms/ml of atropine, the infectious viral titer reduction was 1.56, 0.77, and 0.68 log10, respectively. Selenocystamine and catechin had no effect on HAV replication.

 

Immuno-regulative (anti-allergic)and anti-inflammatory effect

 

Chem.-Farm. Jornal 1995 Sept. P.61 – Diquertin – new antioxidant and vasoprotector. – Kolhir V.K., Tyukavkina N.A.,Bykov V.A. and others   – antihistaminic effect Agents Actions 1985 Apr;16(3-4):147-151 Kinetics of the inhibitory effect of flavonoids on histamine secretion from mast cells. Bronner C, Landry Y The effect of cromoglycate and of natural flavonoids on histamine release from peritoneal rat mast cells induced by compound 48/80 and ionophore A23187 was studied according to preincubation time of mast cells with drugs and to incubation time of cells with the triggering agent. Preincubation of cells with cromoglycate, dihydroquercetin and amentoflavone, a biflavonoid, decreased the potency of drugs to inhibit the ionophore-induced release; the optimal inhibitions were observed when drugs were added simultaneously with the ionophore A23187. In contrast, a short preincubation (2 min) of cells with quercetin or luteolin decreased their inhibitory effect on the ionophore-induced release, whereas a longer preincubation increased the inhibition. When compound 48/80 was used to trigger histamine secretion, the inhibitory potencies of all the compounds used were decreased according to preincubation time. Dihydroquercetin (taxifolin), previously considered as inactive, showed an interesting cromoglycate-like behaviour.   Pharmacology and toxicology 1975. V.38(5) P.607 – Pharmacological and radioprotective properties of some gamma-pyrone derivatives (flavonons and flavonols). – T.Y.Iluchenok, A.I. Homenko, L.M. Frigidova et al.   —-

 

Immunopharmacology 1984 Apr;7(2):115-126 Comparison of the effects of quercetin with those of other flavonoids on the generation and effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Schwartz A, Middleton E Jr In previous studies (Schwartz et al., 1982) we showed that the naturally occurring plant flavonoid quercetin can inhibit both the in vitro generation and effector function of alloantigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In the present studies, several additional flavonoids of different chemical classes were tested similarly to determine whether structure-function relationships exist. We have found that some other flavonoids, e.g. apigenin , fisetin , hesperetin and chalcone also can inhibit both CTL generation and effector function, with the effective concentration varying with the specific flavonoid tested. On the other hand, flavonoids such as rutin, naringin and catechin were inactive in both systems. Taxifolin ( dihydroquercetin ) differed from all the other flavonoids in that it was a relatively active inhibitor of CTL generation, but was essentially unable to inhibit CTL effector function. The presence of a double bond at position C-2-3 in the flavone and flavonol aglycones, a keto group at C-4, B ring hydroxylation and/or a free hydroxyl group at C-3 may be associated with activity. We also show that the effects of some, but not all, of the flavonoids active in our systems can be blocked by Cu2+ ions. Therefore, chelation of divalent cations such as Cu2+ cannot explain the function of all flavonoids in these systems.

 

Normalizing influence on cell enzyme systems

 

– endocytosis and lisosomal enzyme activity regulation Life Sci 1986 Aug 25;39(8):717-726 Effects of flavonoids on enzyme secretion and endocytosis in normal and mucolipidosis II fibroblasts. Vladutiu GD, Middleton E Jr The effect of flavonoids on beta-hexosaminidase transport and endocytosis has been studied in cultured human skin fibroblasts. In mucolipidosis II fibroblast cultures, characterized by their preferential secretion of most newly synthesized hydrolases, quercetin and phloretin (200 microM) inhibited beta-hexosaminidase synthesis as well as total culture-associated enzyme activity. Taxifolin induced a 2.4-fold increase in the total enzyme activity without altering the intra- and extracellular distribution of the enzyme. Rutin, although less effective, also stimulated an overall increase in total enzyme. The flavonoid effects were all concentration-dependent. Very little effect was observed in either the distribution or the total beta-hexosaminidase activity in normal fibroblast cultures. Taxifolin and hesperitin inhibited receptor-mediated endocytosis of beta-hexosaminidase by fibroblasts up to 50% of control uptake. Naringin, quercetin, and phloretin moderately inhibited uptake by 30% while rutin and fisetin had no effect. The results demonstrate that certain naturally occurring flavonoids affect the secretion of lysosomal enzymes as well as their endocytosis by fibroblasts. Since most individuals ingest up to one gram per day of these substances, flavonoids may prove to have significant effects on normal lysosomal enzyme physiology.  

 

Cholesterol Lowering Activities

 

In a study of rats, Krecman et al. [2] studied found that pure silybin was not as effective as silymarin. This suggested that other constituent(s) of silymarin, in addition to silybin, also have hypocholesterolemic effects. Subsequently, the minor constituent of silymarin, taxifolin, has attracted Andre TheriaultÂ’s attention, because taxifolin constitutes the flavonoid moiety in the flavolignan silybin. Hence, Andre Theriault and coworkers investigated how taxifolin affected lipid profiles in a study using human hepatoma cell- line, HepG2, as the model system. They had a few key findings: (1) taxifolin inhibits cholesterol synthesis in a dose- and time- dependent manner, (2) taxifolin suppresses HMG-CoA reductase activity and cholesteryl ester formation (3) taxifolin inhibits the synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol and phospholipids and (4) taxifolin decreases the secretion of apoB into LDL-like particles.  [1] Morazzoni, P., Bombardelli, E. 1995. Silybum marianum. Cardus marianus Fitoterapia. 66:6-42. [2] Krecman, V., Skottova, N., Walterova, D., Ulrichova, J., Simanek, V. 1998. Silymarin inhibits the development of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Planta Med. 64:138-142. [3] Casaschi A et al, Inhibitory activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) by the flavonoid, taxifolin, in HepG2 cells: potential role in the regulation of apolipoprotein B secretion. Atherosclerosis. 2004 Oct;176(2): 247-53. [4] Wang YH Prevention of macrophage adhesion molecule-1 (Mac- 1)-dependent neutrophil firm adhesion by taxifolin through impairment of protein kinase-dependent NADPH oxidase activation and antagonism of G protein- mediated calcium influx. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Jun 15;67(12):2251-62.

 

 

 

Zingerone possesses Antioxidant properties.

 

Proteins

 

Albumin functions as an Antioxidant (it scavenges some types of Free Radicals).

Chlorophyll possesses Antioxidant properties.

Chlorophyllin (the Sodium Copper salt of Chlorophyll) functions as an Antioxidant.  research

Lactoferrin is a potent Antioxidant (it inhibits Oxidation (lipid peroxidation) in some types of Cells).  research

 

Whey Protein functions as an Antioxidant (due to the Lactoferrin and Lactoperoxidase content of Whey Protein).  research

 

Quinones

 

Coenzyme Q10 possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid (NDGA) is a potent Antioxidant.

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

 

Smart Drugs

 

Bromocriptine exerts Antioxidant effects that scavenge Hydroxyl Free Radicals.  research

Centrophenoxine possesses Antioxidant properties that protect the Brain from Free Radical damage.  research

Hydergine is a powerful Antioxidant that protects the Brain and Liver from Free Radical damage.

 

Idebenone is a powerful Antioxidant.  research

L-Dopa possesses Antioxidant properties.

Pyritinol possesses Antioxidant properties:

 

Pyritinol scavenges Hydroxyl Free Radicals.

 

Vinpocetine possesses Antioxidant properties (it is comparable to Vitamin E in terms of its Antioxidant potential).  research

 

Sulfuric Compounds

 

Allicin possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Alliin possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Dithiolthiones possess Antioxidant properties.

Glucosinolates possess Antioxidant properties.

 

Synthetic Antioxidants

 

Ethoxyquin is a potent Antioxidant.  research

 

Vitamins

 

Inositol is an Antioxidant:  research

 

Inositol scavenges Hydroxyl Free Radicals.

 

Lipoic Acid possesses Antioxidant properties (it quenches Hydroxyl Free Radicals).  research

Para Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Tocotrienols possess potent Antioxidant properties.  research

 

Vitamin A is a lipid Antioxidant.  research

Vitamin B1 is a potent Antioxidant.  Metabolism

Vitamin B1 possesses strong Antioxidant properties.

Vitamin B1 (especially the Fursultiamine (TTFD) form of Vitamin B1) (150 mg per day) improves several aspects of Athletic Performance:

The TTFD form of Vitamin B1 (150 mg per day) improves grip strength and leg strength;  and inreases VO2 max in athletes.

Many Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients are found to be deficient in Vitamin B1 (indicating that Vitamin B1 may be useful for the treatment of CFS).

Vitamin B1 retards the process of Cross-Linking.

Vitamin B1 is essential for the production of Energy (due to its essential role in the oxidation of Pyruvic Acid).

Fatigue can occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency

 

Vitamin B2 possesses Antioxidant properties.

Vitamin B5 is a potent Antioxidant.  research

 

Vitamin B6 possesses Antioxidant properties.

Vitamin C possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Vitamin E possesses Antioxidant properties (it is a major Antioxidant in Cell Membranes).  research

Vitamin K is an Antioxidant – it protects the Liver (but not the Muscles) from Free Radicals damage and is approximately 80% as effective as Vitamin E for preventing the oxidation of Linoleic Acid.  research

 

Other Substances

 

Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) research and Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) are potent Synthetic Antioxidant chemicals that are often added to Processed Foods during their manufacture.

 

Volatile Oils

 

Carnosol possesses Antioxidant properties.  research

Epirosmanol and Isorosmanol are powerful Antioxidants that are both four times more powerful than Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT).

Shogaol possesses Antioxidant properties