B12 METHLCOBALAMIN

Description

This section outlines the biological function of Vitamin B12 and its therapeutic effects.

Health Benefits of Vitamin B12

Aging and Life Extension

The body’s ability to absorb dietary Vitamin B12 usually declines in tandem with the progression of the Aging Process (and daily supplements of 500 – 1,000 micrograms per day are recommended in order to counteract this impaired absorption in persons over the age of 60). references

Cardiovascular System

Vitamin B12 (400 – 1,000 micrograms per day) may help to prevent many types of Cardiovascular Diseases (by lowering elevated Homocysteine levels – excessive Homocysteine is a risk factor for many Cardiovascular Diseases):

  • Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Atherosclerosis (primarily through its effect on reducing toxic levels of Homocysteine that are implicated in Atherosclerosis). references
  • Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Heart Attacks (by lowering elevated Homocysteine levels). references

Vitamin B12 is required for the formation of Red Blood Cells: references

  • Macrocytic Anemia may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
  • Megaloblastic Anemia may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency and supplemental Vitamin B
    12 alleviates Megaloblastic Anemia. references
  • Pernicious Anemia may occur as a direct result of Vitamin B12 deficiency – Pernicious Anemia can usually be totally rectified by with (either oral or injected) Vitamin B12 supplements: references
  • This attribute of Vitamin B12 is well-accepted even by conventional medical practitioners.
  • Note that although many medical texts specify that Vitamin B12 therapy must utilize Vitamin B12 injections, this is incorrect; a study published in the USA clearly shows that oral Vitamin B12 therapy produces reliable and effective treatment of Vitamin B12 even in severe cases of Pernicious Anemia.

Vitamin B12 may help to protect against the after-effects of (ischemic) Stroke. In addition, Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Strokes (by helping to lower elevated Homocysteine levels). references

Cells

Vitamin B12 may be essential for the integrity of Cell Membranes. [more info]
Vitamin B12 may be essential for the production of all Epithelial Cells. [more info]
Vitamin B12 may help to prevent damage to Chromosomes. [more info]

Optimal Vitamin B12 status during Pregnancy helps to prevent Neural Tube Defects in offspring (women with low Vitamin B12 levels during their Pregnancy have an increased risk of bearing children with Neural Tube Defects). references

Digestive System

Many Celiac Disease patients are found to be deficient in Vitamin B12 (indicating that supplemental Vitamin B12 may benefit Celiac Disease patients). references
Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in Crohn’s Disease patients – this does not imply that Vitamin B12 alleviates Crohn’s Disease but does imply that Crohn’s Disease patients may need to supplement with Vitamin B12 (administered by a physician via injection) in order to avoid Vitamin B12 deficiency – the sole absorption site for Vitamin B12 is in the Ileum (the same site that is most commonly impaired by Crohn’s Disease). references

Vitamin B12 may enhance the general health of the Digestive System. [more info]
Vitamin B12 deficiency may contribute to Hypochlorhydria. [more info]
Pinworms impair the absorption of Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 supplementation may help to overcome this impaired absorption. references

Ears/Hearing

Vitamin B12 deficiency may lead to Age-Related Hearing Loss. references
Vitamin B12 may improve hearing in some cases of (chronic) Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (27% of people afflicted with chronic Noise-Induced Hearing Loss exhibit Vitamin B12 deficiency) – Vitamin B12 may be of benefit due to its ability to enhance the conduction of Nerve Impulses relating to Hearing. references

Some cases of Tinnitus may be attributable to Vitamin B12 deficiency (47% of Tinnitus patients exhibit Vitamin B12 deficiency) – Vitamin B12 may be of benefit due to its ability to enhance the conduction of Nerve Impulses relating to Hearing. references

Eyes/Vision

Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Cataracts. references
Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin form) may help to prevent Glaucoma (by inhibiting the toxicity of Glutamic Acid, a suspected cause of Glaucoma; and by preserving Myelin). references
Vitamin B12 deficiency may impair the function of the Optic Nerve. references

Immune System

Vitamin B12 may facilitate the production of Antibodies. references
Vitamin B12 may accelerate the recovery from Bacterial & Viral Diseases: references

  • Many (up to 35% of) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients are found to be deficient in Vitamin B12 (indicating that Vitamin B12 supplementation would be beneficial for these persons): references
  • Vitamin B12 may reverse the decline in Mental Function that occurs during the progression of AIDS and supplemental Vitamin B12 has been found to reverse this decline in Mental Function in persons with advanced AIDS.
  • Vitamin B12 may inhibit the replication of the HIV.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency may accelerate the progression of HIV infection to full-blown AIDS.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency increases the susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection. references
  • Vitamin B12 (1 – 2 mg per day) improves the condition of Viral Hepatitis patients: references
  • Vitamin B12 may be useful for the treatment of Hepatitis C. references

Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Breast Cancer. references
Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Cervical Cancer. references
Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Colon Cancer. references

Fever (of unknown origin) is one of the symptoms of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Giardiasis may impair the absorption of Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 supplementation may help to overcome this impaired absorption. references
Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Lung Cancer: references

  • One clinical study demonstrated that 10 mg Folic Acid combined with 500 micrograms Vitamin B12 per day reduced the incidence of precancerous changes in the Lungs of heavy Tobacco smokers.

Vitamin B12 (1 mg per day) may alleviate Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): references

  • In one study, 100% of SLE patients receiving 1mg of Vitamin B12 per day for six weeks experienced complete clearance of SLE lesions.

Vitamin B12 may optimize the ratios of the various types of White Blood Cells and may raises suppressed White Blood Cell counts:

  • Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause a decline in the production of Helper T-Cells. references
  • Vitamin B12 may stimulate the body’s production of Lymphocytes. references
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause a decline in the production of NK Lymphocytes. references

Metabolism

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients often have abnormally low Vitamin B12 levels and supplemental Vitamin B12 (2.5 – 5 mg per day administered via injection or 5 – 10 mg administered orally) may be useful for the treatment of CFS. references
Vitamin B12 (combined with Vitamin B2) may reduce the risk of Alcohol (ethanol)-induced Cirrhosis. references

Vitamin B12 may reduces the risk of Cardiovascular Diseases (such as Atherosclerosis) in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 patients (by lowering elevated Homocysteine levels in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 patients). references
Vitamin B12 may increase Energy levels. references
Vitamin B12 may alleviate the tiredness associated with Fatigue – Fatigue is one of the symptoms of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references

Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Fatty Liver. references
Lethargy may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Vitamin B12 (1 – 2 mg per day) may improve the condition of Viral Hepatitis patients: references

  • Vitamin B12 may be useful for the treatment of Hepatitis C. references

Musculoskeletal System

Vitamin B12 (administered intramuscularly) may alleviate the Pain associated with Backache. references
Vitamin B12 (1 – 3 mg per day for at least three weeks) may alleviate Bursitis (in 92% of cases). references
Fibromyalgia patients often have abnormally low Vitamin B12 levels (indicating that supplemental Vitamin B12 may be useful for the treatment of Fibromyalgia). references

Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin form) may retard the Nerve degeneration that occurs in Muscular Dystrophy patients. references
Vitamin B12 (20 micrograms of the Cyanocobalamin form of Vitamin B12 combined with 6,400 micrograms Folic Acid per day) may improve the grip strength of Osteoarthritis patients with equal efficacy as NSAIDs. references

Vitamin B12 deficiency may contribute to Osteoporosis (due to the role of Vitamin B12 in helping to lower elevated Homocysteine levels. references
Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin form: 10 – 20 mg per day consumed sublingually) may protect against damage to Peripheral Nerves in Polymyalgia Rheumatica patients (but does not alter the underlying cause of Polymyalgia Rheumatica). [more info]

Many Psoriatic Arthritis patients are found to have low serum Vitamin B12 levels. references
Many Rheumatoid Arthritis patients are found to be deficient in Vitamin B12. references

Nervous System

Click Here to View Vitamin B12’s Nervous System Health Benefits

Oral Health

Angular Stomatosis (cracks in the corners of the Mouth) may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Burning Mouth Syndrome may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Dry Mouth may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references

Vitamin B12 may alleviate Mouth Ulcers. references
Glossitis (red, sore, smooth Tongue) may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references

Respiratory System

Vitamin B12 may alleviate Asthma. references
Frequent (upper) Respiratory Tract Infections are one of the initial symptoms of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references

Sexual System

Female Infertility may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Male Impotence may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Vitamin B12 (1 – 6 mg per day) may increase Sperm counts in men afflicted with Male Infertility. references

Menorrhagia (abnormally heavy bleeding during Menstruation) may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency and Menorrhagia may accelerate the depletion of the body’s reserves of Vitamin B12. [more info]
Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Miscarriage (by lowering elevated Homocysteine levels). references

Vitamin B12 deficiency during Pregnancy may result in impaired development of Myelin Sheaths in offspring. Vitamin B12 (consumed during Pregnancy) helps to prevent most Neural Tube Defects (especially Spina Bifida). references
Vitamin B12 concentrates in the Seminiferous Tubules of the Testes of the Testicles and Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause atrophy (shrinkage) of the Seminiferous Tubules. references

Skin/Nails

Vitamin B12 (1 mg per day) may alleviate (chronic) Dermatitis. references
Vitamin B12 (1 mg per day) may alleviate some (approximately 60% of) cases of (atopic) Eczema. Vitamin B12 (cream applied topically) may also be an effective treatment for (atopic) Eczema. references

Vitamin B12 (1 mg per day) may alleviate many (approximately 90% of cases of) Hives. references
Excessively dry, overly-rounded and overly-curved Nail ends and/or darkened Nails may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. [more info]
Vitamin B12 therapy may alleviate some cases of Psoriasis. references

Seborrheic Dermatitis may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. [more info]
Vitamin B12 may help to alleviate the Pain associated with the (postherpetic) Neuralgia associated with Shingles. references
Vitiligo patients are often found to have sub-optimal Vitamin B12 levels and supplemental Vitamin B12 may help to restore Skin pigmentation to normal in Vitiligo patients. references
Impaired Abstract Reasoning may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Aggressiveness may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Vitamin B12 (3 mg per day of the Methylcobalamin form) may increase Alertness. references

Vitamin B12 (25 mg per day of the Methylcobalamin form) may improve Muscle function in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients. references
Vitamin B12 (administered concurrently with Folic Acid) may alleviate Anxiety.
Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin form) may accelerate recovery from Bell’s Palsy. references

Vitamin B12 may help to normalize Circadian Rhythm (probably by facilitating the endogenous production of Melatonin). references
Vitamin B12 (3 mg per day of the Methylcobalamin form) may improve Concentration ability. references
Confusion may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references

Vitamin B12 may alleviate Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder. references
Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause Delirium.
Vitamin B12 may improve some aspects (Frontal Lobe function and language skills) of Dementia – Dementia may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency: references

  • Vitamin B12 deficiency may contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s Disease: references
  • Supplemental Vitamin B12 (administered intravenously via injection by a physician) may improve various aspects of Intelligence in Alzheimer’s Disease patients.

Depression may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency: references

  • Vitamin B12 supplementation alleviates many cases of Major Depression (especially in elderly people). references

Vitamin B12 (1 mg consumed immediately prior to falling asleep) may (in approximately 50% of people) cause vivid, brightly colored Dreams – note that tolerance quickly develops to this effect. references
Vitamin B12 may help to rectify some of the underlying biochemical disturbances associated with Down’s Syndrome – for this reason it is a component of many innovative treatments for Down’s Syndrome. references

Vitamin B12 may alleviate Insomnia (by increasing endogenous Melatonin levels early in the night and reducing Melatonin levels at then end of a night’s Sleep). references
Vitamin B12 may improve some aspects of Intelligence.
Vitamin B12 may improve the rate of Learning. references

Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause Mania. references
Memory impairment may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency (due to Vitamin B12 acting as a cofactor in the synthesis of endogenous Ribonucleic Acid within the Neurons of the Brain). references
Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Migraines and may reduce the severity and duration of Migraines. references

Mood changes may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin form) may improve some aspects of Multiple Sclerosis: references

  • Supplemental Vitamin B12 may counteract the degeneration of the Myelin Sheaths of the Central Nervous System that occurs during the progression of Multiple Sclerosis.
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients almost always exhibit a Vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Supplementation with massive doses of Vitamin B12 (oral administration of 60 mg of the Methylcobalamin form) may improve visual and brainstem auditory-evoked nerve potentials by up to 30% in MS patients, but does NOT improve motor function.
  • Note that forms of Vitamin B12 other than Methylcobalamin are unsuccessful for the treatment of MS.

Nervousness is one of the initial symptoms of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Vitamin B12 may facilitate the production of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) within Neurons and the Methylcobalamin form of Vitamin B12 helps to prevent the damage to Neurons caused by exposure to excessive levels of Glutamic Acid: references

  • Vitamin B12 (especially the Methylcobalamin form) may facilitate the regeneration of damaged Axons. references
  • The (active coenzyme) Adenosylcobalamin or Methylcobalamin forms of Vitamin B12 help to maintain the correct Fatty Acids environment in the Myelin Sheaths that surround Neurons: references
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency during Pregnancy may result in impaired development of Myelin Sheaths in offspring.
  • Vitamin B12 (especially the Methylcobalamin form) may facilitate the regeneration of degenerated Presynaptic Terminals. references
  • Vitamin B12 may facilitate the incorporation of the correct Amino Acids (especially Leucine) into Schwann Cells. references

Vitamin B12 may help to alleviate the Pain associated with the (postherpetic) Neuralgia associated with Shingles. references
Vitamin B12 may alleviate Neuropathy. references
Numbness (of the hands and feet) may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references

Vitamin B12 deficiency may be the underlying cause of some cases of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). references
Vitamin B12 (administered concurrently with Folic Acid) may help to control Panic Disorder. [more info]
Paranoia may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references

Poor Reflexes may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Vitamin B12 (administered via intramuscular injection) may reduce the Pain associated with Sciatica. It is speculated that oral Vitamin B12 may also be effective. references
Vitamin B12 may improve the quality of Sleep (by increasing endogenous Melatonin levels early in the night and reducing Melatonin levels at the end of a night’s Sleep). references

Vitamin B12 deficiency may results in subacute degeneration of the Spinal Cord. Persons with Spinal Cord injury are often found to be deficient in Vitamin B12. references
Impaired Sense of Touch may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Vertigo (dizziness) may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency
This section outlines the biological function of Vitamin B12 and its therapeutic effects.

Health Benefits of Vitamin B12

Aging and Life Extension

The body’s ability to absorb dietary Vitamin B12 usually declines in tandem with the progression of the Aging Process (and daily supplements of 500 – 1,000 micrograms per day are recommended in order to counteract this impaired absorption in persons over the age of 60). references

Cardiovascular System

Vitamin B12 (400 – 1,000 micrograms per day) may help to prevent many types of Cardiovascular Diseases (by lowering elevated Homocysteine levels – excessive Homocysteine is a risk factor for many Cardiovascular Diseases):

  • Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Atherosclerosis (primarily through its effect on reducing toxic levels of Homocysteine that are implicated in Atherosclerosis). references
  • Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Heart Attacks (by lowering elevated Homocysteine levels). references

Vitamin B12 is required for the formation of Red Blood Cells: references

  • Macrocytic Anemia may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
  • Megaloblastic Anemia may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency and supplemental Vitamin B12 alleviates Megaloblastic Anemia. references
  • Pernicious Anemia may occur as a direct result of Vitamin B12 deficiency – Pernicious Anemia can usually be totally rectified by with (either oral or injected) Vitamin B12 supplements: references
  • This attribute of Vitamin B12 is well-accepted even by conventional medical practitioners.
  • Note that although many medical texts specify that Vitamin B12 therapy must utilize Vitamin B12 injections, this is incorrect; a study published in the USA clearly shows that oral Vitamin B12 therapy produces reliable and effective treatment of Vitamin B12 even in severe cases of Pernicious Anemia.

Vitamin B12 may help to protect against the after-effects of (ischemic) Stroke. In addition, Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Strokes (by helping to lower elevated Homocysteine levels). references

Cells

Vitamin B12 may be essential for the integrity of Cell Membranes. [more info]
Vitamin B12 may be essential for the production of all Epithelial Cells. [more info]
Vitamin B12 may help to prevent damage to Chromosomes. [more info]

Optimal Vitamin B12 status during Pregnancy helps to prevent Neural Tube Defects in offspring (women with low Vitamin B12 levels during their Pregnancy have an increased risk of bearing children with Neural Tube Defects). references

Digestive System

Many Celiac Disease patients are found to be deficient in Vitamin B12 (indicating that supplemental Vitamin B12 may benefit Celiac Disease patients). references
Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in Crohn’s Disease patients – this does not imply that Vitamin B12 alleviates Crohn’s Disease but does imply that Crohn’s Disease patients may need to supplement with Vitamin B12 (administered by a physician via injection) in order to avoid Vitamin B12 deficiency – the sole absorption site for Vitamin B12 is in the Ileum (the same site that is most commonly impaired by Crohn’s Disease). references

Vitamin B12 may enhance the general health of the Digestive System. [more info]
Vitamin B12 deficiency may contribute to Hypochlorhydria. [more info]
Pinworms impair the absorption of Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 supplementation may help to overcome this impaired absorption. references

Ears/Hearing

Vitamin B12 deficiency may lead to Age-Related Hearing Loss. references
Vitamin B12 may improve hearing in some cases of (chronic) Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (27% of people afflicted with chronic Noise-Induced Hearing Loss exhibit Vitamin B12 deficiency) – Vitamin B12 may be of benefit due to its ability to enhance the conduction of Nerve Impulses relating to Hearing. references

Some cases of Tinnitus may be attributable to Vitamin B12 deficiency (47% of Tinnitus patients exhibit Vitamin B12 deficiency) – Vitamin B12 may be of benefit due to its ability to enhance the conduction of Nerve Impulses relating to Hearing. references

Eyes/Vision

Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Cataracts. references
Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin form) may help to prevent Glaucoma (by inhibiting the toxicity of Glutamic Acid, a suspected cause of Glaucoma; and by preserving Myelin). references
Vitamin B12 deficiency may impair the function of the Optic Nerve. references

Immune System

Vitamin B12 may facilitate the production of Antibodies. references
Vitamin B12 may accelerate the recovery from Bacterial & Viral Diseases: references

  • Many (up to 35% of) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients are found to be deficient in Vitamin B12 (indicating that Vitamin B12 supplementation would be beneficial for these persons): references
  • Vitamin B12 may reverse the decline in Mental Function that occurs during the progression of AIDS and supplemental Vitamin B12 has been found to reverse this decline in Mental Function in persons with advanced AIDS.
  • Vitamin B12 may inhibit the replication of the HIV.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency may accelerate the progression of HIV infection to full-blown AIDS.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency increases the susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection. references
  • Vitamin B12 (1 – 2 mg per day) improves the condition of Viral Hepatitis patients: references
  • Vitamin B12 may be useful for the treatment of Hepatitis C. references

Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Breast Cancer. references
Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Cervical Cancer. references
Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Colon Cancer. references

Fever (of unknown origin) is one of the symptoms of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Giardiasis may impair the absorption of Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 supplementation may help to overcome this impaired absorption. references
Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Lung Cancer: references

  • One clinical study demonstrated that 10 mg Folic Acid combined with 500 micrograms Vitamin B12 per day reduced the incidence of precancerous changes in the Lungs of heavy Tobacco smokers.

Vitamin B12 (1 mg per day) may alleviate Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): references

  • In one study, 100% of SLE patients receiving 1mg of Vitamin B12 per day for six weeks experienced complete clearance of SLE lesions.

Vitamin B12 may optimize the ratios of the various types of White Blood Cells and may raises suppressed White Blood Cell counts:

  • Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause a decline in the production of Helper T-Cells. references
  • Vitamin B12 may stimulate the body’s production of Lymphocytes. references
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause a decline in the production of NK Lymphocytes. references

Metabolism

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients often have abnormally low Vitamin B12 levels and supplemental Vitamin B12 (2.5 – 5 mg per day administered via injection or 5 – 10 mg administered orally) may be useful for the treatment of CFS. references
Vitamin B12 (combined with Vitamin B2) may reduce the risk of Alcohol (ethanol)-induced Cirrhosis. references

Vitamin B12 may reduces the risk of Cardiovascular Diseases (such as Atherosclerosis) in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 patients (by lowering elevated Homocysteine levels in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 patients). references
Vitamin B12 may increase Energy levels. references
Vitamin B12 may alleviate the tiredness associated with Fatigue – Fatigue is one of the symptoms of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references

Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Fatty Liver. references
Lethargy may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Vitamin B12 (1 – 2 mg per day) may improve the condition of Viral Hepatitis patients: references

  • Vitamin B12 may be useful for the treatment of Hepatitis C. references

Musculoskeletal System

Vitamin B12 (administered intramuscularly) may alleviate the Pain associated with Backache. references
Vitamin B12 (1 – 3 mg per day for at least three weeks) may alleviate Bursitis (in 92% of cases). references
Fibromyalgia patients often have abnormally low Vitamin B12 levels (indicating that supplemental Vitamin B12 may be useful for the treatment of Fibromyalgia). references

Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin form) may retard the Nerve degeneration that occurs in Muscular Dystrophy patients. references
Vitamin B12 (20 micrograms of the Cyanocobalamin form of Vitamin B12 combined with 6,400 micrograms Folic Acid per day) may improve the grip strength of Osteoarthritis patients with equal efficacy as NSAIDs. references

Vitamin B12 deficiency may contribute to Osteoporosis (due to the role of Vitamin B12 in helping to lower elevated Homocysteine levels. references
Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin form: 10 – 20 mg per day consumed sublingually) may protect against damage to Peripheral Nerves in Polymyalgia Rheumatica patients (but does not alter the underlying cause of Polymyalgia Rheumatica). [more info]

Many Psoriatic Arthritis patients are found to have low serum Vitamin B12 levels. references
Many Rheumatoid Arthritis patients are found to be deficient in Vitamin B12. references

Nervous System

Click Here to View Vitamin B12’s Nervous System Health Benefits

Oral Health

Angular Stomatosis (cracks in the corners of the Mouth) may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Burning Mouth Syndrome may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Dry Mouth may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references

Vitamin B12 may alleviate Mouth Ulcers. references
Glossitis (red, sore, smooth Tongue) may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references

Respiratory System

Vitamin B12 may alleviate Asthma. references
Frequent (upper) Respiratory Tract Infections are one of the initial symptoms of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references

Sexual System

Female Infertility may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Male Impotence may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. references
Vitamin B12 (1 – 6 mg per day) may increase Sperm counts in men afflicted with Male Infertility. references

Menorrhagia (abnormally heavy bleeding during Menstruation) may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency and Menorrhagia may accelerate the depletion of the body’s reserves of Vitamin B12. [more info]
Vitamin B12 may help to prevent Miscarriage (by lowering elevated Homocysteine levels). references

Vitamin B12 deficiency during Pregnancy may result in impaired development of Myelin Sheaths in offspring. Vitamin B12 (consumed during Pregnancy) helps to prevent most Neural Tube Defects (especially Spina Bifida). references
Vitamin B12 concentrates in the Seminiferous Tubules of the Testes of the Testicles and Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause atrophy (shrinkage) of the Seminiferous Tubules. references

Skin/Nails

Vitamin B12 (1 mg per day) may alleviate (chronic) Dermatitis. references
Vitamin B12 (1 mg per day) may alleviate some (approximately 60% of) cases of (atopic) Eczema. Vitamin B12 (cream applied topically) may also be an effective treatment for (atopic) Eczema. references

Vitamin B12 (1 mg per day) may alleviate many (approximately 90% of cases of) Hives. references
Excessively dry, overly-rounded and overly-curved Nail ends and/or darkened Nails may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. [more info]
Vitamin B12 therapy may alleviate some cases of Psoriasis. references

Seborrheic Dermatitis may occur as a result of Vitamin B12 deficiency. [more info]
Vitamin B12 may help to alleviate the Pain associated with the (postherpetic) Neuralgia associated with Shingles.
Vitiligo patients are often found to have sub-optimal Vitamin B12 levels and supplemental Vitamin B12 may help to restore Skin pigmentation to normal in Vitiligo patients.
Various nutrients and endogenous chemicals whose function or production is enhanced in the presence of Vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 may Enhance the Function of these Substances

Amino Acids

Vitamin B12 may facilitate the methylation of Histidine within the body.
Vitamin B12 may facilitate the conversion of Homocysteine to Methionine.
Vitamin B12 may facilitate the conversion of Methionine to Cysteine.

Vitamin B12 may facilitate the synthesis of endogenous S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe). references
Vitamin B12 may facilitate the methylation of Serine within the body.

Carbohydrates

Vitamin B12 may improve the metabolism of Carbohydrates.

Enzymes

Vitamin B12 is a cofactor for Methionine Synthase (the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion (remethylation) of Homocysteine to Methionine). The Methylcobalamin form of Vitamin B12 is utilized for this purpose. references
Vitamin B12 is a cofactor for Methylmalonyl CoA Mutase (the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-Methylmalonyl CoA to Succinyl CoA (a step required for the synthesis of some Fatty Acids).

Growth Factors

Vitamin B12 is necessary for the optimal production of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). references

Hormones

Vitamin B12 may facilitate the production of Melatonin. references

Lipids

Vitamin B12 may improve the metabolism of dietary Fats.
The Adenosylcobalamin coenzyme form of Vitamin B12 may help to maintain the correct Fatty Acids in the Myelin Sheaths around Neurons.

Neurotransmitters

Vitamin B12 may facilitate the production of Acetylcholine. references
Vitamin B12 may increase the body’s levels of Histamine.

Nucleic Compounds

Vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of endogenous Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). references
Vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of endogenous Purines and Pyrimidines.
Vitamin B12 increases the synthesis of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) within the Brain’s Neurons. references

Vitamin B12 is an essential cofactor for the synthesis of Nucleoproteins (including the Nucleosomes – Chromosomes and Ribosomes).

Proteins

Vitamin B12 may enhance the synthesis of endogenous Proteins:

  • Vitamin B12 facilitates the body’s production of optimal levels of Hemoglobin. references

Quinones

Vitamin B12 is an essential cofactor for the endogenous synthesis of Coenzyme Q10.

Vitamins

Vitamin B12 may enhance the function of Biotin.
Vitamin B12 may counteract the impairment in Learning ability associated with insufficient Acetylcholine production caused by Choline deficiency. references
Vitamin B12 may enhance the function of Folic Acid: references

  • Vitamin B12 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of the Methyl Tetrahydrofolate (Me-THF) form of Folic Acid to the Tetrahydrofolate (THF) form of Folic Acid (as required for the SAM Cycle).
  • Vitamin B12 is essential for the conversion of active Folic Acid (Tetrahydrofolic Acid) to its storage form – Methyl Folate; and the endogenous Methylcobalamin form of Vitamin B12 is responsible for the transfer of methyl groups from Tetrahydrofolic Acid to Homocysteine.

Vitamin B12 may enhance the function of Vitamin A.
Vitamin B12 may enhance the function of Vitamin B1.
Vitamin B12 may enhance the function of Vitamin B3.
Vitamin B12 may enhance the function of Vitamin B6.

Dietary Sources of Vitamin B12 note

True Vegan Diets contain almost no Vitamin B12 and Vegetarians are more prone to Vitamin B12 deficiency than non-vegetarians. references

(micrograms of Vitamin B12 per 100 grams)

Algae: Spirulina * 160
Dairy Products: Milk 3 Cheese – Cheddar 1.5
Whey 2 Cheese – Edam 1.8
Cheese – Swiss 1.8 Cheese – Blue 1.4
Cheese – Cottage 1.0
Eggs: Egg Yolk 2
Herbs: Fenugreek
Meats: Kidneys 30 Liver – Beef 80
Liver – Lamb 104 Liver – Chicken 25
Lamb 2.1 Rabbit
Beef 1.8
Processed Foods: Miso Tempeh 5
Seafood: Clams 98 Cod 2
Mackerel 10 Herring
Oysters Haddock 1.3
Sardines 17 Trout 5
Salmon 4 Tuna 3
Haddock 1.3 Flounder 1.2
Scallops 1.2 Halibut 1
Swordfish 1
Sea Vegetables: Kelp Kombu 27
Nori 55
Yeasts: Brewers Yeast
Forms of Vitamin B12

Adenosylcobalamin (also known as ado-Cbl; Cobamamide; Coenzyme B12; Deoxyadenosylcobalamin; Dibencozide; Dimethyl Benzimidazole-
cobamide Coenzyme) is an active endogenous coenzyme form of Vitamin B12 that helps to maintain the correct Fatty Acids in Myelin, the fatty sheath surrounding Nerves. Adenosylcobalamin is formed endogenously and its impaired biosynthesis can lead to a condition known as Methylmalonic Academia. Approximately 70% of the Liver’s Vitamin B12 reserves are in the form of Adenosylcobalamin. Although some manufacturers produce this form of Vitamin B12 in supplemental form, it is more expensive than Cyanocobalamin. Most supplemental Cyanocobalamin is converted within the Intestines to Adenosylcobalamin.

Cobalamin (Cbl) is a general term for all Vitamin B12-like compounds (i.e. compounds that contain the Dimethylbenzimidazolylcobamide nucleus that characterizes Vitamin B12).
Cyanocobalamin (also known as Cytamen) is a complex of Cyanide and Cobalamin.This form of Vitamin B12 is the form most commonly found in Vitamin B
12 supplements. It must be converted to either of the active Coenzyme forms within the body in order to exert therapeutic effects. It is not as effective as the Adenosylcobalamin, Methylcobalamin or Hydroxocobalamin forms of supplemental Vitamin B12 but is more stable than the Hydroxocobalamin form. The Liver converts approximately 1% of Cyanocobalamin to the Methylcobalamin form of Vitamin B12. Most supplemental Cyanocobalamin is converted within the Intestines to Adenosylcobalamin.

Hydroxocobalamin (also known as Hydroxocobemine; Hydroxycobalamin; Vitamin B12b) is the ideal form of supplemental Vitamin B12 (due to it remaining in circulation for longer than other forms of Vitamin B12). This form is only administered via intramuscular (IM) injection. Hydroxocobalamin differs from Cyanocobalamin by the presence of a Hydroxyl Ion in place of the Cyanide Ion.
Mecobalamin is a form of Vitamin B12 that is suitable for intravenous injection (by a physician).

Methylcobalamin (also known as met-Cbl; MeCbl; Methyl-B12) is an active endogenous Coenzyme form of Vitamin B12 that transfers a Methyl group from an inactive form of Folic Acid to Homocysteine forming Methionine. This is the only active endogenous coenzyme form of Vitamin B12 that is available as a supplement (in tablet form). Methylcobalamin accounts for approximately 70% of the total Blood Plasma Vitamin B12 reserves. Clinical trials have shown that supplemental Methylcobalamin is greatly superior to other forms of Vitamin B12 supplements in terms of its ability to enhance human health. The Liver converts approximately 1% of the Cyanocobalamin form of Vitamin B12 to Methylcobalamin.