B2 RIBOFLAVIN Also known as: Flavin; Flavine; Lactoflavin; Riboflavin; Riboflavine; Vitamin G

B2 RIBOFLAVIN
Also known as: Flavin; Flavine; Lactoflavin; Riboflavin; Riboflavine; Vitamin G

Description

Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble orange-yellow crystal of the “B” Vitamin group.

Topic Contents

Health Benefits of Vitamin B2
Substances Enhanced by Vitamin B2
Toxic Substances Counteracted by Vitamin B2
Substances that Enhance the Function of Vitamin B2
Substances that Vitamin B2 Interferes with

Substances that Interfere with Vitamin B2
Dietary Sources of Vitamin B2
Forms of Vitamin B2
Dosage Recommendations
Bioavailability of Vitamin B2

Biochemical Testing of Vitamin B2 Status

Commercial Availability of Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 may Enhance the Function of these Substances

Amino Acids

Vitamin B2 is essential for the absorption of Tryptophan.

Carbohydrates

Vitamin B2 facilitates the metabolism of Carbohydrates.

Enzymes

Vitamin B2 is essential for the production of Glutathione Reductase. references
Vitamin B2 enhances the function of Glutathione Peroxidase. references
Vitamin B2 is a cofactor for Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR).

Vitamin B2 is a cofactor for the production of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD).

Flavins

Vitamin B2 is an essential component of Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD). references
Vitamin B2 is an essential component of Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN). references

Minerals

Vitamin B2 may enhance the body’s absorption of Iron. references
Vitamin B2 may reduce the body’s urinary excretion of Selenium and may thereby facilitate the retention of Selenium. references

Nucleic Compounds

Vitamin B2 may facilitate the synthesis of endogenous Nucleic Acids.

Peptides

Vitamin B2 may facilitate the recycling of oxidized Glutathione into fresh, active Glutathione.

Proteins

Vitamin B2 may enhance the synthesis of some endogenous Proteins.
Vitamin B2 is involved in the production of Collagen.
Vitamin B2 may increase serum Ferritin (an Iron-storage Protein) levels (in Sickle Cell Anemia patients).

Quinones

Vitamin B2 is an essential cofactor for the endogenous production of Coenzyme Q10.

Vitamins

Vitamin B2 is required for the synthesis of active forms of Folic Acid. references
Vitamin B2 may enhance the absorption of Vitamin B6:

– Vitamin B2 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of dietary Vitamin B6 (e.g. Pyridoxine) to its active endogenous form (Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate).

Vitamin B2 may Counteract these Potentially Toxic Substances

Amino Acids

Vitamin B2 may protect against the neurotoxic effectsof Glutamic Acid. references
Vitamin B2 may play a role in lowering Homocysteine levels (it is a cofactor for the enzyme that catalyzes the production of a specific form of Folic Acid required for the remethylation of Homocysteine to form Methionine). references

Enzymes

Vitamin B2 may inhibit the activity of 5-Alpha Reductase. references

Hormones

Vitamin B2 may inhibit the conversion of Testosterone to Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) – by inhibiting the activity of 5-Alpha Reductase. references

Pharmaceutical Drugs

Doxorubicin’s toxic side effects may be exacerbated in the presence of Vitamin B2 deficiency. references
Vitamin B2 may help to prevent and treat Zidovudine-induced (Lactic) Acidosis. references

Recreational Drugs

Vitamin B2 (combined with Vitamin B12) may reduce the risk of Alcohol (ethanol)-induced Cirrhosis. references
Vitamin B2 may be useful in the treatment of Alcoholism as most Alcoholics are deficient in Vitamin B2.

These Substances may Enhance the Function of Vitamin B2

Carbohydrates

Ribose is a component of the Vitamin B2 molecule. references

Microorganisms

Vitamin B2 may be produced within the body by Beneficial Bacteria within the Digestive Tract.

Minerals

Phosphorus is involved in the conversion of exogenous Vitamin B2 to its active endogenous coenzyme form.

Moulds – Beneficial

Rhizopus oligosporus may increase the Vitamin B2 content of foods into which it is introduced as a culture.

Vitamins

Biotin may enhance the production of Vitamin B2 within the body.
Vitamin C may protect Vitamin B2 from oxidation.

Vitamin B2 may Interfere with these Substances

Vitamins B

Very high doses of Vitamin B2 may cause the excretion of other “B” Vitamins via the Urine.

These Substances/Factors may Interfere with Vitamin B2

Carbohydrates

Psyllium may bind to and prevent the absorption of Vitamin B2.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Light may cause the conversion of Vitamin B2 to its toxic byproduct – Lumiflavin.

Food Processing Methods

The Heat associated with Cooking may destroy Vitamin B2.

Minerals

Excessive consumption of Boron may cause excretion of Vitamin B2. references

Pharmaceutical Drugs

The Contraceptive Pill may interfere with Vitamin B2. references
Doxorubicin may cause the depletion of Vitamin B2. references
Pharmaceutical Antibiotics may interfere with Vitamin B2.
Tricyclic Antidepressants may cause the depletion of Vitamin B2. references

Recreational Drugs

Alcohol (ethanol) may increase the excretion of Vitamin B2. references

Mineral Acids

Boric Acid may bind to and prevent the absorption of Vitamin B2 and may increase the urinary excretion of Vitamin B2. references

No Cautions

There are no known toxic reactions to Vitamin B2..

Forms of Vitamin B2

Dihydrovitamin B2 is an endogenous form of Vitamin B2.
Flavin Mononucleotide (also known as FMN, Riboflavin Monophosphate, Riboflavin Phosphate) is an endogenous form of Vitamin B2.
Riboflavin-5-Phosphate is an easily assimilated form of Vitamin B2.

Lumiflavin is a degraded, detrimental byproduct of Vitamin B2 produced when Vitamin B2 is exposed to Light.

Dosage Recommendations

RDAs

The official RDA of Vitamin B2 for adult males is 1.6 mg per day.
The official RDA of Vitamin B2 for adult females is 1.2 mg per day.
The official RDA of Vitamin B2 for women during the Lactation period is 1.7 mg per day.
The official RDA of Vitamin B2 for women during Pregnancy is 1.7 mg per day.

Therapeutic Dosages

The optimal daily allowance (ODA) of Vitamin B2 (for adults) is 50 – 250 mg per day.
Doses of as low as 10 mg of supplemental Vitamin B2 per day have alleviated Sickle Cell Anemia.
Doses of 10 – 50 mg of Vitamin B2 per day are sufficient to reap the Antioxidant benefits of this Vitamin.

The general therapeutic, non-conservative dose Vitamin B2 is in the range of 10 – 300 mg per day.
Up to 400 mg of Vitamin B2 mg has been used per day in clinical trials that have demonstrated the effectiveness of this Vitamin for the prevention and treatment of Migraines.

Prevalence of Deficiency

Vitamin B2 deficiency is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies. Vitamin B2 deficiency is known medically as Ariboflavinosis.

Frequency of Dosing

The maximum amount of Vitamin B2 that can be absorbed at once is 27 mg, therefore when the total daily dosage exceeds 27 mg, the total daily dosage should be administered in divided dosages not exceeding 27 mg dose.

Bioavailability references

Absorption

Vitamin B2 is readily absorbed from the Small Intestine into the bloodstream which transports it to the body’s tissues.
When more than 27 mg of Vitamin B2 is taken as a single dose, the amount above 27 mg is excreted.
Vitamin B2 supplements are most effectively utilized when consumed with meals.

Storage

Vitamin B2 requires regular replenishment as it is not stored within the body (except for a small amount in the Liver and Kidneys).

Duration of Activity

The elmination half-life of orally-ingested Vitamin B2 is 1.1 – 1.4 hours (66 to 84 minutes).
The terminal half-life of Vitamin B2 is 14 hours.

Excretion

Excess Vitamin B2 is excreted via the Urine – large dosages of supplemental Vitamin B2 can cause Urine to exhibit a yellow-green fluorescent color.
Most Vitamin B2 is excreted from the body in the form of its 7-hydroxymethyl or 8-hydroxymethyl derivatives. Approximately 30% of Vitamin B2 is excreted in an unchanged form. A small amount of Vitamin B2 is excreted via the Bile.

Commercial Availability of Vitamin B2 Supplements

“Singular” Oral Vitamin B2 Products

Vitamin B2 is available from health food stores (worldwide) and internet-based suppliers in the form of:

– 25 mg tablets
– 100 mg capsules
– 200 mg tablets
– powder

The Flavin Mononucleotide form of Vitamin B2 is available from health food stores and internet based suppliers in the form of:

– 25 mg sublingual tablets

The Riboflavin-5-Phosphate form of Vitamin B2 is available from health food stores and internet-based suppliers in the form of:

– 2.5 mg tablets.

Formulas

Vitamin B2 is an ingredient in most multi-vitamin supplements.

Topical Products

Vitamin B2 (in the form of Riboflavin Monophosphate) is a constituent of some topical Eyedrops (e.g. Brite Eyes 15 ml).
Vitamin B2 is one of the constituents of the proprietary Hair growth product named Crinagen that is designed for topical application to the Scalp.

Chemical Data

Chemical Name

7,8-dimethyl-10-ribitylisoalloxazine

Molecular Structure

C17H20N4O6

Molecular Weight

376.4

Dietary Sources of Vitamin B2 note

(mg of Vitamin B2 per 100 grams)

Cereal Grains: Millet 0.38 Wheat Bran 0.35
Wild Rice 0.63 Rice Bran 0.25
Wheat Germ 0.71
Dairy Products: Milk 0.19 Cheese – Cheddar 0.40
Yogurt 0.26 Cheese – Parmesan 0.44
Eggs: 0.30 Egg – Yolk 0.47
Fish: Herring Eel 0.4
Sardines 0.36 Mackerel 0.38
Trout Shellfish
Fruits: Currants
Fungi: Mushrooms 0.46
Herbs: Equisetum Tea
Peppermint Stevia
Pau D’Arco
Legumes: Soybeans 0.31 Pinto Beans 0.21
Split Peas 0.29 Mung Beans 0.21
Meats: Beef 0.40 Liver – Pork 3.10
Liver – Lamb 2.3 Liver – Chicken 1.70
Kidney – Lamb 2.42 Liver – Calf 2.72
Chicken 0.25 Liver 4.2
Pork 0.32 Kidney 2.6
Tongue – Beef 0.29 Rabbit
Nuts: Almonds 0.75 Chestnuts 0.02
Processed Foods: Beef 0.23
Sea Vegetables: Nori
Seeds: Sunflower Seeds
Vegetables: Garlic Spinach 0.14
Avocado Asparagus
Broccoli 0.3 Brussels Sprouts
Green Beans Chilli 0.36
Okra 0.21 Fennel
Yeasts: Brewer’s Yeast 4.30 Torula Yeast 4.28