B7 BIOTIN

B7 BIOTIN

Description

Biotin is a water-soluble “B” Group Vitamin.

Health Benefits of Biotin

Cardiovascular System

Anemia may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  [more info]

       Heart abnormalities may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  [more info]

Cells

Biotin is essential for Cell growth:  [more info]

–     Slow Growth may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  references

Digestive System

Biotin may improve the function of the Digestive System by enhancing the actions of those Digestive Enzymes that are present in Pancreatic Juice secreted by the Pancreas.  [more info]

       Nausea may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  references

       Vomiting may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  references

Ears/Hearing

Biotin may alleviate Sensorineural Hearing Loss when the underlying cause of Sensorineural Hearing Loss is Biotinidase deficiency.  references

Excretory System

Biotin may enhance the function of the Kidneys.  [more info]

Immune System

Biotin may be essential for the production of Antibodies.  references

       Biotin may help to prevent and suppress infection by Candida albicans (primarily by preventing Candida albicans from converting to its rhizoid form).  references

       Biotin is required for the production of Lymphocytes (Biotin deficiency results in a reduction in the number of circulating Lymphocytes).  references

Biotin deficiency may cause atrophy (shrinkage) of the Thymus gland.  references

Metabolism

Biotin may help to regulate Blood Sugar (Glucose) levels.  references

       Biotin may alleviate Diabetes Mellitus:  references

–     Biotin (16 mg per day) significantly lowers fasting Blood Sugar levels and may improve overall control of Blood Sugar levels in Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 patients.  references

–     Biotin (9 mg per day) significantly lowers fasting Blood Sugar levels and may improve overall control of Blood Sugar levels in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 patients.  references

–     Biotin may help to prevent and treat (diabetic) Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus patients.

Biotin is closely involved (via its role as a cofactor for various Enzymes) in the endogenous production of Energy and the process of gluconeogenesis.  [more info]

       Fatigue may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  references

       Biotin may reduce Insulin Resistance.  references

Biotin is stored in the Liver and may enhance the function of the Liver.  [more info]

Musculoskeletal System

Biotin may alleviate some cases of Muscle Pain and Muscle Pain may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  references

       Muscle Weakness may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  [more info]

Nervous System

Anorexia Nervosa may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  [more info]

       Loss of Appetite may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  references

       Confusion may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  references

Chronic Biotin deficiency may cause Dementia.  [more info]

       Depression may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  references

       Headaches may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  references

       Nervousness may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.

Biotin (high dosage of 15 – 20 mg per day combined with other “B” Vitamins) may reverse Neuropathy (both Peripheral Neuropathy and Autonomic Neuropathy):

–     Biotin (in large doses) may help to prevent and treat Diabetic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus patients.  references

Poor Reflexes may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  references

Sexual System

Biotin may be useful for the treatment of Endometriosis (by counteracting the toxic effects of excessive Estrogens).  [more info]

       Women have an increased requirement for Biotin during Pregnancy.  references

       Biotin deficiency may lead to atrophy (shrinkage) of the Seminiferous Tubules of the male Testes.  references

Skin/Hair/Nails

Dandruff may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  [more info]

       (Eczematous) Dermatitis may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  references

       Eczema may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency and Biotin may alleviate some cases of Eczema (especially in infants).  references

Biotin may delay the onset of Gray Hair and may retard the further progression of Gray Hair.  references

       Hair Loss may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency:  references

–     Infant Hair Loss may be corrected with a dosage of 10 mg of Biotin daily.  [more info]

Biotin supplements (consumed orally) may slow the rate of Hair Loss in persons affected by Male Pattern Baldness:  references

–     Biotin (applied topically to the Scalp) may facilitate Hair Growth in persons affected by Male Pattern Baldness.

Biotin may alleviate Brittle Nails (by facilitating the deposition of Keratin in the Nails).  references

       Biotin (1,000 mcg per day) may facilitate the growth of Skin tissue and may improve the visual appearance of the Skin:  references

–     Biotin is involved in the deposition of Keratin in the Skin. 

–     Gray complexion of the Skin (which occurs as a result of graying of Mucous Membranes) may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.

–     Dry Skin or flaky Skin may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.

Biotin may normalize secretions of the Sebaceous Glands.  [more info]

       Seborrhea may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  [more info]

       Seborrheic Dermatitis may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency:  references

–     The most common cause of Seborrheic Dermatitis is Biotin deficiency.

–     In infants Biotin supplementation alone often cures Seborrheic Dermatitis, whilst in adults, supplemental Biotin must be administered concurrently with the other “B” Vitamins in order to effect a cure for this condition.

Smooth, pale Tongue (Glossitis) may occur as a result of Biotin deficiency.  [more info]

Biotin may Enhance the Function of these Substances

Amino Acids

Biotin may facilitate the incorporation of Amino Acids into endogenous Proteins.  [more info]

Carbohydrates

Biotin is involved in the metabolism of Carbohydrates:

–     Biotin may enhance the metabolism of Glucose (primarily via its role in the up-regulation of Glucokinase).  references

Enzymes

Biotin functions as a cofactor for many Carboxylase enzymes by introducing Carbon Dioxide into molecules:

–     Biotin is an essential cofactor for the activation of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (which is involved in the synthesis of Fatty Acids).  references

–     Biotin is an essential cofactor for the activation of Beta-Methylcrotonyl CoA Carboxylase (which is involved in the metabolism of Leucine).

–     Biotin is an essential cofactor for the activation of Propionyl-CoA Carboxylase (which is involved in the disposal of odd chain length fatty acids and portions of the Carbon skeletons of Isoleucine, Methionine, Threonine and Valine; and Pyrimidines).  references

–     Biotin is an essential cofactor for the activation of Pyruvate Carboxylase (which catalyzes the conversion of Pyruvic Acid to Oxaloacetic Acid).  references

Biotin increases the activity of Glucokinase.  references

       Biotin may activate Guanyl Cyclase.  references

Hormones

Biotin may improve Insulin Sensitivity (i.e. it may reduce Insulin Resistance).  [more info]

Lipids

Biotin is involved in the metabolism of Dietary Fats (via various Enzymes).  references

       Biotin is involved in the endogenous synthesis of Fatty Acids.

Nucleic Compounds

Biotin may facilitate the synthesis of endogenous Nucleic Acids.  [more info]

       Biotin may facilitate the synthesis and breakdown of Purines.  [more info]

       Biotin is a cofactor for the synthesis of endogenous Pyrimidines (raw materials for Nucleotides).  [more info]

Proteins

Biotin is involved in the deposition of Keratin into the Hair, Skin and Nails (i.e. Biotin is involved in the process of keratinization).

       Biotin may facilitate the incorporation of Amino Acids into endogenous Proteins.  references

Quinones

Biotin is synergistic with Coenzyme Q10.

Vitamins

Biotin may enhance the function of Vitamin A.  [more info]

       Biotin may enhance the ability of Beneficial Bacteria that reside in the Intestines to manufacture endogenous Vitamin B2.  [more info]

       Biotin may enhance the function of Vitamin B3.  [more info]

Biotin may enhance the function of Vitamin B6.  [more info]

       Biotin may enhance the function of Vitamin B12.  [more info]

       Biotin may improve the absorption of Vitamin C.  [more info]

These Substances may Enhance the Function of Biotin

Microorganisms

Biotin can be synthesized within the body by Beneficial Bacteria within the Digestive Tract:

–     Biotin is manufactured primarily by Bifidobacteria bifidus and Bifidobacteria longum.  references

Minerals

Manganese may improve the body’s utilization of Biotin.  [more info]

       Sulfur is a constituent of the chemical structure of Biotin.  references

Quinones

Coenzyme Q10 is synergistic with Biotin.

Vitamins

Folic Acid may enhance the function of Biotin.  [more info]

These Substances may Interfere with Biotin

Alkaloids

Caffeine may destroy the body’s reserves of Biotin.

Carbohydrates

Sucrose may deplete the body’s reserves of Biotin.

Hormones

Estrogens may interfere with Biotin.

Pharmaceutical Drugs

Pharmaceutical Antibiotics (especially Sulfonamides) and other Sulfur-containing Pharmaceutical Drugs may destroy the Beneficial Intestinal Bacteria that produce endogenous Biotin and some forms of Pharmaceutical Antibiotics may also directly destroy Biotin itself.

       Antiepileptic Drugs may deplete the body’s Biotin reserves.  references

Proteins

Avidin (a Glycoprotein found in Raw Egg Whites) binds with Biotin in the Stomach, decreasing the absorption of Biotin.  references

Recreational Drugs

Alcohol (ethanol) may deplete the body’s reserves of Biotin.  references

No Cautions!

No toxicity or side effects have been observed at any dosage level for Biotin.  For example, high doses of 10 mg (10,000 mcg) per day have been administered to babies without ill-effects occurring.

Dietary Sources of Biotin  note

(mcg of Biotin per 100 grams)

Cereal Grains:            Barley   31    Oatmeal      24

Rice, Brown  12          

Dairy Products:          Milk 2           

Eggs:            Egg Yolks     25         

Fish:       Haddock             Cod 3

Halibut        Mackerel      7

Salmon        Tuna    

Fruits:           Banana 4           

Fungi:           Mushrooms   16          

Herbs:           Alfalfa          Ginsengs

Chickweed          Dandelion   

Goldenseal                

Legumes:            Split Peas     18    Lentils    13

Soya Beans  61          

Meats:          Beef             Kidneys  30

Liver – Chicken   210  Liver      96

Nuts:            Almonds       18    Peanuts 34

Pecan Nuts  27   Walnuts 37

Vegetables:         Cauliflower  17    Kelp      

Corn                   

Yeasts:          Brewer’s Yeast     200      

Dosage Recommendations 

Basic Dosage

Most countries do not have a recommended dietary intake level set for Biotin.  Belgium has set a recommended daily intake level for Biotin at 150 mcg per day.

       Many orthomolecular-enlightened physicians recommend a daily intake of 300 mcg of Biotin.

Optimal Dosage

The optimal daily allowance (ODA) of Biotin (for adults) is 200 – 800 mcg per day.

Therapeutic Dosages

Therapeutic dosages for Biotin range from 300 mcg per day up to 3,000 mcg (3 mg).

       Dosages in the range of 1,000 – 3,000 mcg (1 – 3 mg) per day are normally required before any beneficial effect is noticed when supplemental Biotin is used in the treatment of Hair, Nail and Skin conditions.

       Diabetes Mellitus patients require 8,000 – 9,000 mcg of Biotin per day.

Dietary Intake

The average Western diet supplies approximately 40 mcg of Biotin each day.

Bioavailability  references

Almost 100% of dietary and supplemental Biotin is absorbed by the human body.

Forms of Biotin

A specialized topical form of Biotin is used in Male Pattern Baldness clinics to (hopefully) stimulate Hair Growth.

       Biocytin is a Biotin complex from Brewer’s Yeast comprised of 65.6% Biotin.

Commercial Availability of Biotin

“Singular” Oral Biotin Supplements

Biotin is available from health food stores and mail order supplement companies (worldwide) in the form of:

–     50 mcg tablets

–     300 mcg capsules

–     300 mcg tablets

–     500 mcg tablets

–     600 mcg capsules

–     1,000 mcg tablets

–     1,000 mcg lozenges

–     3,000 mcg tablets

–     5,000 mcg capsules

–     5,000 mcg tablets

–     7,500 mcg capsules

–     loose powder (only sold in the USA)

Formulas

Biotin is an ingredient in most Multi-Vitamin/Mineral formulas.

Topical Products

Biotin is an active ingredient in some topically applied products including:

–     Hair Shampoos

–     Hair Conditioners

–     Hair Loss preventative Scalp treatments.

Chemical Data

Biotin is a white crystal, soluble in hot Water and Alcohol.  It is partially soluble in cold Water and is stable to heat, acids and alkalis.

Chemical Name

cis-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4-d]-imidazoline-4-valeric acid

Molecular Formula

C10H16O3N2S

Molecular Weight

244.3