Dosages (Papaya) — 1–2 tsp dry leaf/cup water (APA); 1–3 tsp fruit juice (APA); 1–2 tbsp fresh fruit (PED); 1.5–3 g dry fruit (PED); 2.5–5 ml elixir of papaya (PNC); 2.5–5 ml glycerin of papain (PNC); 10–50 mg papain (APA); “Papain may be effective in high doses (daily dose = 1500 mg”) (KOM). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Papaya) — Class 1 (AHP). None known –(WAM). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapetic dosages” (PH2). Admitting no risks for the leaf, Commission E disallows for lack of proof of efficacy (KOM). May interact with warfarin (PH2). There are reports of perforated esophagus following over ingestion of fruits (APA). Papain can cause severe stomach inflammation if taken internally, dermatosis externally. Allergic reactions including asthma possible (PH2). Not to be used during pregnancy (PH2). See accounts for papain in FNF and KOM. Papaya seeds can reverse sterility without affecting libido


Dosages (Parsley) — 100–150 g fresh juice (MAD); 6 g leaf (HH2; KOM; SHT); 1–2 tsp dry leaf/cup water (APA); 1–2 tsp dry root/cup water (APA); 2–4 g root, or in tea (CAN); 2 g root in tea 2–3 ×/day (HH2); 2.5–5 ml liquid root extract (PNC); 1–2 g seed (CAN); 500–1500 mg seed (MAD); 1 tsp (~1.4 g) bruised seed/cup water (APA); 2.5–5 ml liquid seed extract (PNC); 2–4 g herb, or in tea (CAN); 6 g herb (KOM); 2–4 tbsp fresh herb (PED); 3–6 g dry herb (PED); 4.5 g dry herb:22 ml alcohol/23 ml water (PED); 6 g herb or root/day (PH2); 2–4 ml herb or root liquid extract (1:1 in 25% ethanol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 3–4 drops parley oil as diuretic, or 2–4 fl oz infusion 3–4 ×/day (FEL). “The leaves, bruised, are a good application to contusions, swelled breasts, and enlarged glands — reputed to ‘dry up the milk’ (FEL).” Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Parsley) — Class 2b. Contraindicated in nephrosis (AHP). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Commission E approves the herb and root, not the seed (fruit) (KOM). CAN cautions that the apiole in the volatile oil and excessive ingestion can be abortifacient, irritant, photo-toxic, and cause hepatosis. In pregnancy and lactation, parsley should not be ingested excessively (CAN). Myristicin can cause deafness, decrease in pulse rate, giddiness, hypotension, and paralysis, followed by fatty degeneration of the kidney and liver. Myristicin may cross the placenta, leading to fetal tachycardia. Ingestion of 10 g apiole (200 g parsley) may cause acute hemolytic anemia, hepatic dysfunction, nephrosis, and thrombocytopenia pupura (CAN). Parsley may potentiate MAOI activity (CAN). Because of its toxicity, EO should not be used in isolation (KOM). Commission E is rather tough on parsley seed oil, but the indictment, overblown or not, might conceivably be extended to other herbs containing apiole and myristicin. Of apiole, “Large doses of parsley-seed EO and of … apiol bring about vascular congestion and increased contractility of the smooth muscle of the bladder, intestines, and especially the uterus. Parsley seed and oil are therefore often used to bring about abortion.” (BIS) The renal epithelium can be damaged or irritated and cardiac arrhythmias can occur after using parsley seed preparations (BIS). “Large doses of apiol can lead to fatty liver, emaciation, extensive mucosal bleeding, and inflammatory haemorrhagic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract, haemoglobinuria, methaeglobinuria, and anuria. Therapeutic use cannot be endorsed” (Commission E, as interpreted by Bisset, 1994). Commission E reports contraindications: pregnancy and nephrosis; adverse effects: allergic reactions of skin/mucosae (rarely) and phototoxicity. The pure oil is toxic and should not be used. Fruit not permitted for therapeutic use. The EO and its constituent apiole are toxic (AEH). When parsley is decocted it is emmenagogue and abortive. A young woman, in 1992, reportedly died while trying to abort. “Even the common parsley mentioned earlier can cause serious injuries; oedema of the legs, vomiting, haematuria, liver and renal damage have all been observed. However, poisoning by this plant is never accidental, but always voluntary, so the plant can be used safely in preparing food” (FIT67(6):513. 1996). Extracts (Parsley) — Water extracts are antihistaminic (CAN). EO = antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatoregenerative; hypotensive, increases plasma calcium (CAN; PED; PNC). Phthalides are sedative in mice (PNC). Apiole LD50 = 50 mg/kg ivn mouse (CAN); Mmyristicin LD50 = 200 mg/kg ivn mouse (CAN). Seed EO LD50 = 3300 mg/kg orl mouse/rat (HH2). Speaking of apiole or parsley seed EO, MAD says with male guinea pigs, “erzeugt es Kongestion am Penis, anhaltened Erektion and lebhafte geschlechtliche Erregung.” Does that mean it causes or cures priapism? I’ve not heard of this before that I remember. No wonder they call it Petersilie. If this leaks out, 95% of American parsley will not be thrown away as it has been in the past.


Dosages (Peppermint) — 1 tbsp (1.5 g) leaf/cup water 3–4 ×/day (APA); 1–2 g leaf/cup 3 ×/day; 0.25–0.5 cup fresh leaf (PED); 6–12 g dry leaf (PED); 6–9 g dry leaf/day (MAB); 1–2 tsp dry leaf/cup water up to 3 ×/day (APA; SKY); 9 g dry leaf/45 ml alcohol/45 ml water (PED); 2 tsp (4.4 g) herb in hot tea (MAD); 2–4 g powdered herb (PNC); 1.5–4 ml fluid herb extract (1:2)/day (MAB); 1 dropper concentrated herb extract or tincture (APA); 1 wineglass gin/herb tincture 3–4 ×/day as diuretic (CEB); 5–15 g herb tincture/day (APA); 3.5–11 ml herb tincture (1:5)/day (MAB); 0.05–0.15 g herb oil (MAD); 0.15–0.6 ml (~ 3–12 drops) herb EO (MAB); 0.05–0.2 ml EO (PNC); 1–2 enteric -coated peppermint oil pills 3 ×/day; 6–12 drops peppermint oil (SHT); 10% peppermint oil in ethanol (transdermal) (SHT); 0.3–2 ml peppermint spirit (PNC); 0.25–1 ml concentrated peppermint water (PNC); 0.2 ml 3 ×/day for irritable colon (SHT); 1–2 capsules for IBS StX (0.2 ml EO) 2–3 ×/day (SKY). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Peppermint) — Class 1 (AHP).“Health hazards not known with proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Not to be used in patients with achlorhydria, biliary or gallbladder obstruction, or gallstones. Concentrated oil may induce dermatosis, flushing and headache, if rubbed on profusely or inhaled. Leaf contains much astringent tannin that can damage the liver and intestine with prolonged use (PED). Commission E reports contraindications for EO: biliary obstruction or inflammation, and severe liver damage. Since the more widely used tea (Camellia sinensis) often contains twice as much tannin as peppermint, this recommendation should be doubly pertinent under tea, or maybe we should name these tannins the more glamorous “OPCs, polyphenols, and pycnogenols” and declare them antioxidant good guys instead of hepatotoxic bad guys (JAD). Rats receiving 100 mg/day peppermint oil develop dose-related brain lesions. Because of its ability to relax GI smooth muscles, peppermint oil may sometimes worsen symptoms of hiatal hernia. Coated pills opening too soon (in stomach) may cause gastralgia and heartburn. Excessive ingestion of the oil is associated with acute renal failure and interstitial nephrosis. Menthol reactions include reported cases of urticaria, allergic cheilitis, stomatosis, and rarely, shaking chills from use of topical menthol products. GI complaints due to use of peppermint preparations include stomatosis, severe esophagitis, gastrosis, unexplained diarrhea, and pancreatitis. Menthol in nasal preparations may cause spasm of the glottis in young children (AEH). Should not be inhaled bysmall children (AEH). Menthol-containing ointments applied to an infant’s nostrils have produced immediate collapse. “Peppermint tea should not be given to infants or very young children because the pungent fragrance can cause gagging” (Castleman, 1996). Estimated LD for menthol in humans may be as low as 2 g. Survival after doses of 8 to 9 g have been reported. I fear APA erred in saying that it took 1 g/kg body weight menthol to be lethal in humans (APA). Estimated LD50 for peppermint oil in humans = 2000–9000 mg (2–9 g). Peppermint oil has an antispasmodic action on isolated segments of ileum (cats and rabbits) at 50 ppm (dilutions no greater than 1:20,000). Extracts (Peppermint) — Peppermint oil antagonizes the spasmogenic action of barium chloride, pilocarpine, and physostigmine. Antispasmodic action of peppermint oil is based on properties that are characteristic of calcium antagonists. Peppermint oil acts competitively with nifedepine and blocks Ca2+-exciting stimuli. It relaxes ileal longitudinal muscles, but less so than papaverine (SHT). Antiviral and carminative effects demonstrated in vivo and in vitro (PNC).



Dosages (Rosemary) — 1 tsp (2 g) chopped leaf/cup water (APA; PH2); 4–6 g herb (APA; KOM); 2 tsp (4.2 g) herb in cold or hot tea (MAD); 2–4 ml herb (1:1 in 45% alcohol) 3 ×/day (CAN); let 20 g rosemary steep 5 days in 1 liter wine (PH2); 0.3–1.2 ml rosemary spirit (APA; PNC); 2–4 g shoot in tea 3 ×/day (CAN); 2–4 ml liquid shoot extract (1:1 in 45% ethanol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 3–6 drops internally (FEL); 10–20 drops EO (KOM suggests 1 ml (2 drops) would be more reasonable) (KOM). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Rosemary) — Class 2b. Abortifacient, emmenagogue, and uterotonic (AHP). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). For the leaves, Commission E reports none known. Commission E reports for the root, contraindications: pregnancy, lactation; adverse effects: harmless red discoloration of the urine (AEH). Like any EO, that of rosemary can be toxic in large quantities, causing irritations to the intestines, kidneys, skin, and stomach. Epileptics should be careful with rosemary and other herbs heavy with camphor (CAN). CAN cautions that camphor in the volatile oil may cause convulsions. Michael Castleman is apparently talking about the herb, not the more dangerous EO, when he says, “Like most other herbs, rosemary should be used in large amounts only in consultation with your health care provider. If you are pregnant, you should avoid such amounts because they can cause uterine contractions” (Castleman, 1996). The Herbal PDR scares the pants off us by saying large doses of rosemary leaves (more likely the oil), inadvisedly have been used to attempt abortion, may lead to coma, gastroenterosis, nephrosis, pulmonary edema, spasm, uterine bleeding, vomiting, and even to death. But this seems to be speculation! The PDR concludes “No documented cases have come to light.” Just another dead-end on another bibliographic echo (PHR; PH2). Extracts (Rosemary) — LD50 = 5 ml/kg orl rat, >10 ml/kg der rbt, EO antispasmodic at 25 mg/kg (CAN). Major source of the COX-2 inhibitor, oleanolic acid, at 1% (COX). EO antiseptic against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, molds, Corynebacteria, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, and Vibrio. Carnosol and ursolic acid inhibit many food spoilage microbes Escherichia, Kluyveromyces, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhodotorula = BHA, BHT; carnosol > ursolic acid as antioxidant. Rosemary oil is effective against opportunistic infections like Cryptococcus neoformans (JBU). Rosemary oil as well as its bornyl acetate and cineole are antispasmodic, on smooth muscle (guinea pig ileum) and cardiac muscle (guinea pig atria). In smooth muscle, borneol is considered the most active, by antagonizing acetyl choline. The antispasmodic action of rosemary as preceded by contractile action, due to pinenes, which are spasmogenic on smooth muscle, inactive on cardiac muscle. Rosemary oil relaxes the Oddi’s sphincter contracted by morphine. Activity increases with incremental oil doses reaching an optimum at 25 mg/kg, at which the unblocking effect was immediate. Beyond that dosage, the response was again delayed. Smooth muscle stimulant and analgesic actions have been documented for a rosmaricine derivative (CAN).



Dosages (Saffron) — 10–15 stigmata/cup water (APA); 0.5–1.5 g day (APA; HHB); 0.5–2.5 g saffron (PNC); 0.1–1 g powdered saffron (MAD); 15–16 drops tincture (MAD). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Saffron) — Class 2b. Abortifacient, emmenagogue, and uterotonic. Severe side effects may result from ingesting 5 g saffron (LD = 20 g) (AHP).“Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Controversial. The 200 mg/kg dose of saffron alleged to extend the life of cancerous mice translates to 22,000 mg or 22 grams saffron with this 100-kg rat named Jim Duke. Commission E reports no risks for doses up to 1.5 g; however, 5 g is toxic, 10 g is abortive, and 20 g is lethal (AEH; PHR). Conversely, Tucker and DeBaggio report that “ingesting 0.05 oz (1.5 g) of saffron has resulted in death” (TAD). Paradoxically, the life-saving dose is lethal! Preferring to err on the safe side,

Authors: Akhondzadeh S, Shafiee Sabet M, Harirchian MH, Togha M, Cheraghmakani H, Razeghi S, Hejazi SS, Yousefi MH, Alimardani R, Jamshidi A, Rezazadeh SA, Yousefi A, Zare F, Moradi A, Vossoughi A—-RATIONALE: There is increasing evidence to suggest the possible efficacy of Crocus sativus (saffron) in the management of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate AD. METHODS: Fifty-four Persian-speaking adults 55 years of age or older who were living in the community were eligible to participate in a 22-week, double-blind study of parallel groups of patients with AD. The main efficacy measures were the change in the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sums of Boxes scores compared with baseline. Adverse events (AEs) were systematically recorded. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a capsule saffron 30 mg/day (15 mg twice per day) or donepezil 10 mg/day (5 mg twice per day). RESULTS: Saffron at this dose was found to be effective similar to donepezil in the treatment of mild-to-moderate AD after 22 weeks. The frequency of AEs was similar between saffron extract and donepezil groups with the exception of vomiting, which occurred significantly more frequently in the donepezil group. CONCLUSION: This phase II study provides preliminary evidence of a possible therapeutic effect of saffron extract in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry



Dosages (Sage) — 4–6 g/day (AHP); 4–6 g herb (KOM; PH2); 2 tsp (3 g) cut herb/cup water (APA); 1–4 ml liquid herb extract (PNC); 1–4 g leaf, or in tea, 3 ×/day (CAN); 2–3 tsp (3.4–5.1 g) leaf in hot tea (MAD); boil 100 g leaf/liter wine 2 minutes (f; PH2); 2–4 tbsp fresh leaf (PED); 3–6 g dry leaf (PED); 4.5 g dry leaf/2 ml alcohol/23 ml water (PED); 1–4 ml liquid leaf extract (1:1 in 45% ethanol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 0.1–0.3 g EO (KOM; PH2). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Sage) — Class 2b, 2d. Not for long-term use. Do not exceed recommended dose. Alcoholic extracts contraindicated in pregnancy (AHP). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Commission E reports for oral use of leaf, contraindications: pregnancy (EO/alcoholic extracts); adverse effects: prolonged use of EO/alcoholic extracts may produce epileptiform cramps. Other sources report leaf, as herbal tea, should not be used for prolonged period (AEH). “Contraindicated in pregnancy. May interfere with anticonvulsant and hypoglycemic therapies; may potentiate or synergize other sedatives. Human poisoning has followed ingestion of the convulsant EO for acne. In rats, sage oil is subclinically, clinically, and lethally convulsant at 300, 500, and 3200 mg/kg, respectively (CAN). CAN cautions that thujone and camphor in the volatile oil can be convulsant and toxic (CAN). LD50 (EO) = 2600 orl rat, LD50 (EO) = 5000 ind rbt (CAN). Taking more than 15 g or prolonged overuse can lead to thujone-induced convulsions, dizziness, hot flashes, and tachycardia (BIS). No more than 1 cup tea/day during pregnancy, max, for no more than 1 week (WAM). Extracts (Sage) — Fair source of COX-2 inhibiting oleanolic acid at ~0. 1% (COX). The whole sage extract has more activity than the flavonoid extract at inhibiting acetylcholine, histamine, and serotonin-induced muscle contractions. EO active against Bacillus (Gram-positive), Escherichia, Klebsiella (Gram-negative), Salmonella, and Shigella; and among fungi, Candida, Cryptococcus, and Torulopsis (CAN).


Dosages (Savory) — 1.5 g in tea (HH3); 3 tsp dry herb/day (PHR); (1–2 pediatric)-4 tsp herb/cup water 1–3 ×/day (APA); 0.5–1 tsp tincture 1–3 ×/day (APA). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Savory) — Class 1 (AHP). Applied undiluted to backs of hairless mice, summer savory oil was lethal to half the animals in 48 hours (LAF). LD50 = 1370 orl rat (HH3). An important source of the COX-2 inhibitor, ursolic acid (COX).


Dosages (Tarragon) — 1–2 tsp leaf/cup to 3 ×/day (APA). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Tarragon) — Class 1. 81% of EO may be estragole (AHP). Contains one compound that is carcinogenic in mice (APA). Pregnant women might avoid (APA).“Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2) (but PH2 designates no specific quantified dosage! JAD). LD50 (ill-defined extract) = 215 mg/kg ipr mus (HH2).


Dosages (Thyme) — 2–4 tbsp fresh leaf (PED); 3–6 g dry leaf (PED); 4.5 g dry leaf:22 ml alcohol/23 ml water (PED); 1 tsp herb/cup water 1–3 ×/day (APA); 1–2 g herb/cup several ×/day (KOM; PIP); 3 tsp (~7.2 g) herb in hot tea (MAD); 1–4 g dry herb, or in tea, 3 ×/day (CAN); 1–2 g herb in tea 1-several ×/day (children 1 year old to adults) (WHO); 0.5–1 g herb in tea (children up to 1 year old) (WHO); 1 tsp herb syrup several ×/day (APA); 0.6–4.0 ml liquid herb extract (CAN; PNC); 2–6 ml fluid herb extract (1:2)/day (MAB); 1–2 g fluid herb extract (PIP); 4–8 ml thyme elixir (CAN; PNC); 2–6 ml thyme tincture (1:5 in 45% ethanol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 5–15 ml herb tincture (1:5)/day (MAB); 0.05–0.3 ml herb EO (PNC). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Thyme) — Class 1 (AHP). None known (KOM; WAM). CAN cautions that thymol in the volatile oil can irritate the GI tract and mucous membranes (CAN). Others caution that thyme is an emmenagogue and suggest that the EO be avoided in pregnancy. Toxic symptoms reported for thymol include cardiac arrest, cheilitis coma, convulsions, dizziness, gastralgia, glossosis, headache, hyperemia, inflammation, nausea, respiratory arrest, and vomiting. Thyme oil should not be taken straight, and not applied straight topically. There are no known problems with the use of thyme during pregnancy and lactation, provided the doses do not greatly exceed the amounts used in foods (AHP; CAN). Like any EO, that of thyme, like that of rosemary, can be toxic in large quantities, causing irritations to the intestines, kidneys, skin, and stomach. Michael Castleman raises a cautionary flag I don’t remember seeing elsewhere, “Children under age two should not be given medicinal preparations of thyme, and people with thyroid problems should seek their health-care provider’s advice before taking medicinal doses” (Castleman, 1996). Of course, some people say children under 2 should not be given any medicine. PHR gives us an EO warning template, “Where large skin injuries or acute skin illnesses, severe feverish or infectious diseases, cardiac insufficiency or hypertonia are present, entire-body baths should be carried out only following consultation with a doctor, no matter what the active agent is” (PHR). Thyme toothpastes can cause cracks in the corners of the mouth and a swollen tongue (APA).


Dosages (Turmeric) — 4 g turmeric powder in water 1–2 ×/day (MAB); 3–9 g crude turmeric/day (WHO); 4.5–9 g rhizome/day as tea (AHP); 0.1 g rhizome up to 20 g/day (HHB); 1.5–3 g rhizome (KOM); 0.5–1 g rhizome several ×/day between meals, or 1.5–3 g day, often with warm milk (APA); 1 tsp rhizome/cup warm milk (APA); 0.5–1 g oral rhizome infusion 3 ×/day (WHO); 5–14 ml fluid rhizome extract (1:1) divided in 4–5 doses (MAB); 3–5 g fresh herb (PED); 0.3–0.5 g dry herb (PED); 0.4 g dry herb:2 ml alcohol/2 ml water (PED); 1.5–3 g crude drug/day (SHT); 40mg curcumin 3 ×/day (SKY); 1200 mg curcumin (APA); 1 (445 mg) StX capsule 2–3 ×/day (JAD); 300 mg capsules to 3 ×/day (APA). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Turmeric) — Class 2b. Emmenagogue and uterotonic. Contraindicated in patients with bile duct obstruction, gallstones, hyperacidity, and stomach ulcers (AHP; AEH). While in moderate doses, turmeric is said to inhibit cancers, lymphomas and ulcers, overdoses of curcuminoids may possibly be cytotoxic and ulcerogenic, and may lead to diminution of red and white corpuscles. Still, Commission E approves 1.5–3 g/day, not nearly enough to provide 1200 mg curcumin. Commission E also reports contraindications: biliary obstruction; adverse effects: GI irritation from continued use; consult physicians before using if a patient has gallstones (BIS; KOM). At 10% of diet, turmeric caused some loss of hair in rats (MAB). Care should be taken in women who wish to conceive or patients complaining of alopecia (MAB). Rather frightening what one reads in UPW (2000): Laboratory animals treated with it are reported to have been rendered entirely infertile. Women who are pregnant, or children (not yet widely in children) with gallbladder or liver disease or ulcers, should avoid turmeric (WAM). Limit internal use to 10 days (WAM). Extracts (Turmeric) — Fond as I am of synergy and food farmacy, I like the following comments: Curcumin can inhibit estrogen-positive human breast cells induced by estradiol or pesticides individually or mixed. Curcumin and genistein were synergistic, totally inhibiting induction in vitro. Curcuminoids inhibit cancer at initiation, promotion and progression in vitro and in vivo (MAB). Viva curried bean soup, like I am having for lunch. Reportedly as effective as hydrocortisone acetate or indomethacin in experimental inflammation (WHO). Both natural antiinflammatory curcumin (1200 mg/day) and unnatural phenylbutazone (30 mg/day) improved joint swelling, morning stiffness, and walking time in people with rheumatoid arthritis, both better than placebo (WHO). Bruneton notes that the antiinflammatoryED50 of curcumin orally in rats is 48 mg/kg ( = 4.8 g in me) and is apparently devoid of side effects (BRU), while the ipr ED50 is only 2.1 mg/kg, suggesting that the ipr route is 20 times more effective. But I am not into injecting herbs. Enjoy your curried beans, counting on thse synergies. Duke suggests curcumin needs to be compared with Celebrex and Vioxx as a COX-2 inhibitor. EO showed significant antihistaminic and antiinflammatory activity, the latter at 0.1 ml/kg, which translates to 10 ml for me, a rather dangerous dose. At a dose of 1.5 g/day/30 days, turmeric reduced urinary excretion of mutagens in an uncontrolled trial of 16 chronic smokers. In six nonsmoking controls there was no change in urinary secretion. Turmeric had no effect on serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase, blood glucose, creatinine, and lipid profile (MAB). Turmeric extract (~20 mg cur-cumin/day) for 45 days dramatically decreased blood lipid peroxide levels in 18 male subjects (MAB). Curcumin is poorly absorbed (some 15–35% max in rats) orally but if administered with piperine (from black and long pepper), absorption is improved more than 150% in rats. But i human volunteers, 20 mg piperine increases bioavailability of curcumin 20-fold (MAB). One study indicated curcumin and sodium curcuminate were more potent than phenylbutazone in acute and chronic arthritic models, while another found it only 1/10th as effective as ibuprofen. While ulcerogenic in large doses, curcumin is only about one-third as ulcerogenic as the phenylbutazone. In low doses, curcumin had antiulcer activity, protecting against the ulcerogenic activity of phenylbutazone (MAB). 1-Phenylhydroxy-N-pentane stimulates the secretion of secretin, gastrin and bicarbonate, helping maintain the gastric pH in dogs and humans (TRA). LD50 ether extracts 12,200 mg/kg orl rat (MAB), LDlo curcumin >2000 mg/kg orl mus (MAB), LDlo curcumin >5000 mg/kg orl rat (MAB).


Abbreviations and Meanings


ALA alpha-linolenic acid DMBA 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

AMP adenosine monophosphate (a carcinogen)

APA American Pharmaceutical Association dml dermal

APB as-purchased basis EBV Epstein-Barr virus

ARC Aloe Research Council ED50 effective dose at which 50% of sub-

ATP adenosine triphosphate jects are “cured,” “effected,”

BAL Baluchistan, as based on KAB “affected,” or “altered”

BO body odor e.g. for example

BPC British Pharmacopoeia EO essential oil

BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy EPA eicosapentaenoic acid

cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate EPO Evening Primrose oil cf compare with ERT estrogen replacement therapy

CFS chronic fatigue syndrome etc. et cetera

CHD coronary heart disease ext extract

chd child f folklore, not yet substantiated

ckn chicken frg frog

g gram

GA glycyrrhetinic acid

GABA gamma-amino-butyric acid

GC Garcinia cambogia

GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease

GFG green farmacy garden

GI gastrointestinal

GLA gamma-linolenic acid

GMO genetically modified organism

gpg guinea pig

GTF glucosyl-transferase

h (as a score for an activity or indication) homeopathic

HCA hydroxycitric acid

HCN hydrocyanic acid

HDR Herbal Desk Reference; online version under my

(MBS) Medical Botany Syllabus

HFR human fatality reported

HLE human leukocyte elastase

HMG hydroxymethylglutarate

hmn human

HRT hormone replacement therapy

iar intraarterial

IBD inflammatory bowel disease

IBS irritable bowel syndrome

IC inhibitory concentration

ICMR Indian Council of Medical Research

ID50 inhibitory dose at which 50% of activity

is inhibited

IgE immunoglobulin-E

igs intragastric

ihl inhalation

IL interleukin

ims intramuscular

inc incorporated

ind intradermal

inf infusion

ipr intraperitoneal

ith intrathecal

ivn intravenous

LD50 lethal dose at which 50% of experimental

population is killed

LDlo lowest reported lethal dose

lf leaf

l liter



MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitor

MDR multidrug resistant

mg milligram

MIC used differently by various sources; minimum inhibiting concentration or mean inhibiting concentration

mky monkey

ml milliliter

MLD used differently by various sources; Merck meaning minimum lethal dose; some other sources meaning mean lethal dose, and some do not define it (with apologies to the reader from the compiler)

mM millimole

MMP-9 matrix metalloproteinase-9

mus mouse

NH3 ammonia

NIDDM noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

NKC natural killer cell

NO nitric oxide

NWP Northwest Province or Pushtu (dialect

at border of northwestern Afghanistan)

OCD obsessive compulsive disorder

ODC ornithine-decarboxylase

OPC oligomeric procyanidin

ORAC oxygen radical absorbance capacity

orl oral

OTC over the counter (or approved for sale in Europe)

oz ounce

PA pyrrolizidine alkaloids

PAF platelet aggregating factor

par parenteral

pc personal communication

PEITC phenethylisothiocyanate

pers. comm. personal communication

PG prostaglandin

pgn pigeon

PKC protein kinase C

PMS premenstrual syndrome

pp pages

ppm parts per million

PSA prostate-specific antigen

PTK protein tyrosine kinase

rbt rabbit

RSV respiratory syncytial virus

RT reverse transcriptase

SAD seasonal affective disorder

SAM S-adenosylmethionine

scu subcutaneous

SF Stephen Foster

SGPT serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase

SL sesquiterpene lactones

SLE systemic lupus erythematosus

SN serial number (when followed by a


SOD superoxide dismutase

SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

sup suppository

TAM traditional Ayurvedic medicine

tbsp tablespoon

TCM traditional Chinese medicine

THC tetrahydrocannabinol

TNF tumor necrosis factor

tsp teaspoon

unk unknown

uns unspecified

UTI urinary tract infection

UV ultraviolet

VD venereal disease

VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor

VOD veno-occlusive disease

Vol volume

wmn woman

WPW Wolff-Parkinson-White (syndrome)

X solitary X in the title line of the herb



[U1]a wartlike growth on the skin, usually in the region of the anus or genitals
[U2]A benign tumor composed of fibrous or muscle tissue, especially one that develops in the uterus.
[U3]Swollen testicles

[U4]a benign encysted tumor of the skin, esp. on the scalp, containing sebaceous matter; a sebaceous cyst
[U5]A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of several types of tissues and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing and defense against pathogens.[1]
[U6]Development of teeth

[U7]Winter Savoury

[U8]Summer Savoury
[U9]The uncontrolled or involuntary discharge of urine.