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Your Fat May Help You Heal– Researcher Extracts Natural Scaffold for Tissue Growth

Adipogel forms a viscous droplet when isolated on a petri dish. After further processing, it can be used as a natural extracellular matrix to support new tissue growth. (Credit: N. Sharma)-ScienceDaily (Mar. 26, 2010) — It frequently happens in science that what you throw away turns out to be most valuable. It happened to Deepak Nagrath, but not for long.–The Rice assistant professor in chemical and biomolecular engineering was looking for ways to grow cells in a scaffold, and he discarded the sticky substance secreted by the cells.–“I thought it was contamination, so I threw the plates away,” said Nagrath, then a research associate at Harvard Medical School.–That substance, derived from adipose cells — aka body fat — turned out to be a natural extracellular matrix, the very thing he was looking for.–Nagrath, who joined Rice in 2009, and his co-authors have since built a biological scaffold that allows cells to grow and mature. He hopes the new material, when suffused with stem cells, will someday be injected into the human body, where it can repair tissues of many types without fear of rejection.—The research by Nagrath and his co-authors appeared last week in the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) Journal. The basic idea is simple: Prompt fat cells to secrete what bioengineers call “basement membrane.” This membrane mimics the architecture tissues naturally use in cell growth, literally a framework to which cells attach while they form a network. When the cells have matured into the desired tissue, they secrete another substance that breaks down and destroys the scaffold.–Structures that support the growth of living cells into tissues are highly valuable to pharmaceutical companies for testing drugs in vitro. Companies commonly use Matrigel, a protein mixture secreted by mouse cancer cells, but for that reason it can’t be injected into patients.–“Fat is one thing that is in excess in the body. We can always lose it,” Nagrath said. The substance derived from the secretions, called Adipogel, has proven effective for growing hepatocytes, the primary liver cells often used for pharmaceutical testing.–“My approach is to force the cells to secrete a natural matrix,” he said. That matrix is a honey-like gel that retains the natural growth factors, cytokines (substances that carry signals between cells) and hormones in the original tissue.–Nagrath’s strategy for growing cells isn’t the only approach being pursued, even at Rice: Another method reported last week in Nature Nanotechnology uses magnetic levitation to grow three-dimensional cell cultures.–But Nagrath is convinced his strategy is ultimately the most practical for rebuilding tissue in vivo, and not only because it may cost significantly less than Matrigel. “The short-term goal is to use this as a feeder layer for human embryonic stem cells. It’s very hard to maintain them in the pluripotent state, where they keep dividing and are self-renewing,” he said.—Once that goal is achieved, Adipogel may be just the ticket for transplanting cells to repair organs. “You can use this matrix as an adipogenic scaffold for stem cells and transplant it into the body where an organ is damaged. Then, we hope, these cells and the Adipogel can take over and improve their functionality.”Nagrath’s co-authors are Nripen S. Sharma, a research associate at Rutgers University, and Martin Yarmush, the Helen Andrus Benedict Professor of Surgery and Bioengineering at Harvard Medical School.—The National Institutes of Health and the Shriners Hospitals for Children supported their research.

Story Source: Adapted from materials provided by Rice University. Journal Reference:–Sharma et al. Adipocyte-derived basement membrane extract with biological activity: applications in hepatocyte functional augmentation in vitro. The FASEB Journal, 2010; DOI: 10.1096/fj.09-135095

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One million signatures for banning GMOs in Europe

 

China’s Soils Ruined by Overuse of Chemical Fertilizers

 

Doctors Say, Reader’s Digest is Wrong
Physicians and Researchers Set the Record Straight about Vitamins

Recipe Cocoa Thermal
Show of the Week 4-5-2010

SAVORY (Satureja sp.) +++ The PH2 entries are for Satureja hortensis L.

Activities (Savory) — Analgesic (f; HH3); Anaphrodisiac[U1] (f; APA); Antialzheimeran (1; COX; FNF); Antiarthritic (1; COX; FNF); Antibacterial (1; APA; CRC; HH3); Anticancer (1; COX; FNF); Antidiuretic (f; CRC); Antiherpetic (1; HH3); Antiinflammatory (1; APA; COX; FNF); Antioxidant (1; CRC; FNF; HH3); Antiseptic (1; HH3; PHR; PH2; PNC); Antispasmodic (1; APA; HH3; PNC); Antiviral (1; HH3; PH2); Aphrodisiac[U2] (f; APA); Astringent (1; APA; CRC; PHR; PH2); Carminative (f; CRC; PNC); COX-2 Inhibitor (1; COX; FNF); Decongestant (1; APA); Diaphoretic (f; CRC); Digestive (f; CRC); Diuretic (1; APA); Expectorant (1; APA; PNC); Fungicide (f; APA); Laxative (f; CRC); Sedative (1; CRC; HH3); Stimulant (f; CRC); Stomachic (f; CRC); Tonic (f; APA; LAF); Vermifuge (f; CRC). Indications (Savory) — Alzheimer’s (1; COX; FNF); Anorexia (f; APA); Arthrosis (1; COX; FNF); Bacteria (1; APA; CRC; HH3); Bite (f; LAF); Cancer (1; COX; FNF); Cancer, mouth (1; COX; JLH); Cancer, throat (1; COX; JLH); Catarrh (f; CRC); Cholecystosis (f; HH3); Cold (1; APA; HH3); Colic (f; CRC); Congestion (1; APA); Constipation (f; CRC); Cough (1; APA); Cramp (1; APA; CRC; HH3; PNC); Diarrhea (1; APA; HH3); Dysmenorrhea (f; HH3); Dyspepsia (1; APA); Enterosis (1; APA; PHR); Fever (f; CRC); Frigidity (f; CRC); Fungus (f; APA); Gas (1; APA; CRC; HH3; PNC); Gastrosis (1; APA; PHR); Hepatosis (f; HH3); Herpes (1; HH3); Infection (1; APA; HH3; PNC); Inflammation (1; APA; COX; FNF); Insomnia (1; CRC; HH3); Mucososis (f; HH3); Mycosis (f; APA); Nausea (f; LAF); Nephrosis (f; HH3); Nervousness (1; CRC; HH3); Otosis (f; CRC); Pain (f; HH3); Salmonella (1; HH3); Sclerosis (f; CRC; JLH); Staphylococcus (1; HH3); Streptococcus (f; HH3); Throat (1; APA); Virus (1; HH3; PH2); Water Retention (1; APA); Worm (f; CRC; HH3). Dosages (Savory) — 1.5 g in tea (HH3); 3 tsp dry herb/day (PHR); (1–2 pediatric)-4 tsp herb/cup water 1–3 ×/day (APA); 0.5–1 tsp tincture 1–3 ×/day (APA). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Savory) — Class 1 (AHP). Applied undiluted to backs of hairless mice, summer savory oil was lethal to half the animals in 48 hours (LAF). LD50 = 1370 orl rat (HH3). An important source of the COX-2 inhibitor, ursolic acid (COX).

 

 

One million signatures for banning GMOs in Europe

GM FOOD— FACTS NOT CROPS

The European Commission has just approved growing genetically modified crops for the first time in 12 years, putting the GM lobby’s profits over public concerns – 60% of Europeans feel we need more information before growing foods that could threaten our health and environment. A new initiative allows 1 million EU citizens a unique chance to make official requests of the European Commission. Let’s build a million voices for a ban on GM foods until the research is done. Sign the petition below and spread the word. Don’t forget to include your address so that all of our
signatures count for the citizens’ initiative.

http://www.avaaz.org/en/eu_health_and_biodiversity/98.php

To the President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso: We call on you to put a moratorium on the introduction of GM crops into Europe and set up an independent, ethical, scientific body to research the impact of GM crops and determine regulation.

Read the rest of this report here
http://www.i-sis.org.uk/banningGMOsInEuropePetition.php

Or read other articles about GM crops here
http://www.i-sis.org.uk/GE-agriculture.php

 

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China’s Soils Ruined by Overuse of Chemical Fertilizers

Cropland soils are turning acid from the overuse of nitrogen fertilizers, decreasing productivity, polluting the environment, and contributing huge amounts of greenhouse gas emissions; researchers recommend reducing fertilizer use, but have not considered phasing it out altogether by adopting organic agriculture Dr. Mae-Wan Ho—Intensive chemical agriculture turns soils acid—There has been a significant decline in soil pH since the 1980s in China’s major croplands, mainly from the overuse of nitrogen fertilizers. This was revealed in a study carried out by Chinese, UK and US researchers led by Zhang Fu Suo at the China Agricultural University in Beijing [1]. “Serious soil acidification will threaten food security and environmental safety worldwide,” Zhang said [2]. “Our work has shown that soil quality or soil health should be paid more attention in intensive agricultural production systems receiving high nitrogen and other resource inputs.” The researchers recommend optimal nutrient-management strategies that can significantly reduce nitrogen fertilizer rates without compromising crop yield, but have not considered adopting organic agriculture and phasing out nitrogen fertilizers altogether. –Soils are strongly buffered by inorganic ions, by the weathering of soil mineral, and in the acidic range, by interactions with aluminium and iron, so that its pH remains relatively constant. (pH is a measure of acidity and alkalinity on a scale of 0 to 14; 7 being neutral; it is approximately equal to the negative logarithm (base 10) of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration.) Soils become acid very slowly under natural conditions, over hundreds to millions of years. Old soils and soils in high rainfall regions tend to be more acid. Naturally acid soils occupy approximately 30 percent of the world’s ice-free land and are commonly associated with phosphorus deficiency, aluminium toxicity, and reduced biodiversity and productivity. –Chinese agriculture has intensified greatly since the early 1980s on a limited land area with large inputs of chemical fertilizers. Grain production and fertilizer nitrogen consumption reached 502 Mt and 32.6 Mt respectively in 2007, increasing 54 and 191 percent since 1981. High levels of N fertilizer can acidify soils both directly and indirectly, and the rates of N applied in some regions are very high compared with those of North America and Europe. This has degraded soils and environmental quality in the North China Plain and the Taihu Lake region in south China, traditionally famous for its scenic beauty but now infamously putrid and polluted [3, 4]. –A national soil survey had been conducted during the early 1980s, and pH was determined in all top soils sampled. For comparison, the team collected all published data on top soil pH from 2000 to 2008 and compiled two (unpaired) datasets on the basis of six soil groups according to geography, and two subgroups of cereal crops and cash crops. Both cropping systems receive very high fertilizer inputs compared with other agricultural systems worldwide, especially cash crops like greenhouse vegetables that have expanded rapidly since the 1980s. The results showed significant drops in pH of 0.13 to 0.8 except in the highest pH soils, which represent only a small percentage of Chinese cultivated soils. In all other soil groups, acidification has been greater in cash crops (pH decreased by 0.3 to 0.8) than cereals (0.13 to 0.76) (see Table 1). As the scale is logarithmic, a pH decrease of 0.3 corresponds to a doubling in hydrogen ion activity. Soils in group 1 are the most acidic in south China and have acidified further since the 1980s. Athough the net Ph decreases for group 1 soils were small compared to the other groups, the impact may be more pronounced because these soils are approaching acidity at which potentially toxic metals such as aluminium and manganese could be mobilized. Read the rest of this article here http://www.i-sis.org.uk/chinasSoilRuined.php

 

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Doctors Say, Reader’s Digest is Wrong
Physicians and Researchers Set the Record Straight about Vitamins
(OMNS, Apr 3, 2010) Yes, Reader’s Digest actually said:

“Once upon a time, you believed in the tooth fairy. . . http://www.rd.com/living-healthy/5-vitamin-truths-and-lies/article175625.html )But these doctors disagree: —“From start to finish, the Reader’s Digest article, ‘5 Vitamin Truths and Lies’ was one of the worst bits of propaganda I ever saw. There was not one word in it discussing the benefits of multivitamins, vitamin C, and studies supporting the use of vitamins for preventing cancer and heart disease. Not once was a single dose mentioned. This alone makes the entire effort a farce aimed at a readership that is relying on the publication for accurate information.” Allan N. Spreen, M.D. (Mesa, AZ)

FF”Vitamins are among the safest substances known. They have the most minimal side effects, even in large doses, compared with the death rate due to conventional drugs taken according to the manufacturers’ advice. Vitamin C is among the most powerful immune modulators if given in large doses. Scare stories against the use of vitamins do the public no good.” Erik Paterson, M.D. (Vancouver, BC)

FF”This is not the first time Reader’s Digest has written about “bad” vitamins, and they always seem to manage to put it on the front page. But look at their advertising: so much of it is for pharmaceutical drugs. No wonder the article states virtually nothing of the thousands of positive results with vitamins.” James A. Jackson, Ph.D. (Wichita, KS)

FF”The author of the Reader’s Digest article has not understood the articles used to support her arguments. For example, with vitamin C and the common cold, the article appears to refer to the 2007 Cochrane report. However, this report has been updated frequently since 2007. The last update was on February 2nd of this year. Either the reporter did not read the up-to-date review, or she was unable to understand its content. The review applies only to low intakes, and contains major objections that studies of large doses and orthomolecular intakes were not included. All the data were for intakes far below the levels actually claimed to be effective. The summary of the paper does indeed give a misleading impression, but people might expect an intelligent reporter to check the rest of the report before giving advice.” Steve Hickey, Ph.D. (Manchester, UK)

FF”The material was not well-researched, and a bias was clearly in play. 15 pages of drug advertisements in that issue of Reader’s Digest is very telling, indeed.” Thomas E. Levy, M.D. (Colorado Springs, CO)

FF”What a poor job! Reader’s Digest needs to review the literature. Haven’t they read any articles by Dr. Bruce Ames? Do they know what quantities of vitamin C ascorbic were used in the cold studies mentioned in their one-sided report? Do they know of the high doses that showed benefit? Do they know of the many studies that have reported benefit from vitamin E and carotenes? It’s easy to be ignorant but biased. Before a magazine does such a public health disservice, first get the all the facts.”
Michael J. Gonzalez, Ph.D. (San Juan, PR)

FF”As a family practitioner who has prescribed vitamins for many reasons, with beneficial results over the past 25 years, I have removed Reader’s Digest from my waiting room. Unless there is a follow-up article disclaiming most of what was written, I will discourage my patients from reading Reader’s Digest because of their biased and misleading information.”
Stephen Faulkner, M.D. (Duncan, BC)

FFOwen Fonorow of The Vitamin C Foundation adds: —“Why did Reader’s Digest deem it appropriate to publish unbalanced opinions about the value of vitamins in the April 2010 issue? A balanced report would have quoted experts from both sides of the argument. The negative studies of vitamins are biased, utilizing too small amounts, especially of vitamin C, to fairly evaluate the therapeutic use of the vitamins. There is a 70-year-long history of vitamin C research (now more than 80,000 papers) that consistently shows therapeutic results at higher dosages of many thousands of milligrams. Linus Pauling recommended at least 5,000 mg of vitamin C daily for reversing heart disease. It is a serious public health mistake for Reader’s Digest to recommend against a multivitamin.”

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FFRecipe Cocoa Thermal —-you will need cocoa ¼ cup—maple syrup—2 tablespoon—1-2 egg yolks—1/4 cup of either coconut oil or a combo of cocoa and coconut oil ¼ cup —powdered green tea ¼ cup—1 tsp – 1 tablespoon of cayenne pepper—what you will do is blend the yolks with the fat til smooth and then add your maple syrup pour in your powdered cocoa and green tea and cayenne let blend til smooth and thick—pour into a glass container—consume when ever you need to feel a lift —before a work out —after a break—it will have a slight stimulating effect—slight energy boosting—good levels of different antioxidants from the cayenne cocoa ( heart—circulatory—anticancer ….) with the green tea ( antioxidant—lung and stomach protectant—anti cancer ….) the maple syrup will have minerals as well as other therapeutic impact as a preventative—the fats will increase energy—protect against viral infections—brain support—heart—immune system support

 

 

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Flavonoids in Orange Juice Suppress Oxidative Stress from High-Fat, High-Carb Meal-

TURMERIC

Green Food Choice May Not Be So Green

Recipe on Cocoa and Egg Yolk
Megatons of Aluminum to Rain Down from Global Experiment

Shows of the week 4-9-2010

Flavonoids in Orange Juice Suppress Oxidative Stress from High-Fat, High-Carb Meal–ScienceDaily (Mar. 31, 2010) — Eating foods containing flavonoids — orange juice, in this case — along with a high-fat, high-carbohydrate fast-food meal neutralizes the oxidative and inflammatory stress generated by the unhealthy food and helps prevent blood vessel damage, a new study by University at Buffalo endocrinologists shows.–Free radicals, or reactive oxygen species, are known to induce inflammation in blood vessel linings and contribute to the risk of heart attack and stroke. Study researchers say the potent preventative effect of orange juice likely is linked to its heavy load of the flavonoids naringenin and hesperidin, which are major antioxidants. “Our data show, for the first time to our knowledge, that drinking orange juice with a meal high in fat and carbohydrates prevented the marked increases in reactive oxygen species and other inflammatory agents,” says UB’s Husam Ghanim, PhD, first author on the study.–“This did not happen when participants drank water or a sugary drink with the meal,” he says. “These issues of inflammation following a meal are important because the resultant high glucose and high triglycerides are known to be related to the development of cardiovascular events.”–Ghanim is a research assistant professor in UB’s Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism. IThe study appears in the March issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and appeared online ahead of print.–The study involved three groups of 10 normal-weight healthy men and women between the ages of 20 and 40. After an overnight fast, participants ate a 900-calorie breakfast composed of an egg “muffin” sandwich, a sausage “muffin” sandwich and a serving of hash browns. The meal contained 81 grams of carbohydrates, 51 grams of fat and 32 grams protein.—Along with the breakfast, one group drank 300 calories of “not-from-concentrate” orange juice, a second group drank a 300-calorie glucose drink and the third group drank an equal amount of water. All participants were given 15 minutes to finish their food and drink. Blood samples were collected before the meal and at 1, 3 and 5 hours afterwards. There was no significant difference in inflammatory mediators among the groups before the meal.—Analysis of the samples after the meal showed that oxygen free radicals increased an average of 62 percent with water, 63 percent with the glucose and 47 percent with orange juice. There also was an increase in blood components known as toll-like receptors, which play an important role in the development of inflammation, atherosclerosis, obesity, insulin resistance, and injury to cardiac cells than can occur after a blocked vessel is reopened.—Orange juice also prevented a significant increase in SOCS-3, an important mediator of insulin resistance, which contributes to development of type 2 diabetes.—“These data emphasize that a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal is profoundly and rapidly proinflammatory, and that this process occurs at the cellular and molecular level,” says Paresh Dandona, MD, UB distinguished professor of medicine, director of the Diabetes-Endocrinology Center of Western New York at Kaleida Health and senior author on the study.–“In addition, specific proinflammatory genes are activated after the intake of glucose and a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal, and these changes are observed in mononuclear cells that participate in vascular inflammation and insulin resistance,” he says.—“These observations extend our previous work showing oxidative and inflammatory stress following such meals by demonstrating a remarkable increase in the mediators of insulin resistance after a single meal, and the equally remarkable prevention of these changes following the intake of orange juice.”—Dandona emphasizes that vascular inflammation is an essential component of atherosclerosis, and that this inflammation may become permanent if a person consumes similar meals regularly.”The choice of safe foods that are not proinflammatory may provide protection from the unending cycle of postprandial and cumulative inflammation,” he says. “This choice may lower the risk of atherosclerosis and resistance to insulin.”—Additional contributors to the study, are Chang Ling Sia, Mannish Upadhyay, Kelly Korzeniewski, Prabhakar Viswananthan, Sanaa Abuaysheh, and Priya Mohanty.–The research is supported by grants to Dandona from the Florida Department of Citrus, the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association.
Story Source:—Adapted from materials provided by University at Buffalo

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TURMERIC (Curcuma longa L.) +++ Synonym: C. domestica Valeton.

Activities (Turmeric) — Alterative (f; DAD; SUW); Amebicide (1; MPI); Analgesic (1; BIB; COX); Antacid (f; BIB; DAD); Antiaggregant (1; AKT; MAB; SKY); Antiangiogenic (1; MAB); Antiarthritic (1; APA; PED; WHO); Antibacterial (1; APA; MAB; MPI); Anticholeretic (1; DAD); Antidote, arsenic (f; DAD); Antiedemic (1; WHO); Antifertility (1; PH2; PNC); Antihistaminic (1; MAB; MPI; SKY); Anti-HIV (1; MAB); Antiinflammatory (2; APA; KOM; PH2; TRA; WAM); Antiintegrase (1; MAB; WHO); Antileukemic (1; AKT); Antileukotriene (1; BGB); Antilymphomic (1; APA; JAD; MAB); Antimutagenic (1; BGB; MAB); Antioxidant (1; PHR; PH2; WAM; WHO); Antiprostaglandin (1; PH2); Antipsoriatic (1; FNF); Antipyretic (1; BIB; COX); Antiseptic (1; MAB; PH2; PNC); Antispasmodic (1; BIB; SHT); Antithromboxane (1; MAB); Antitumor (1; APA; MAB; PH2; TRA); Antiulcer (1; TRA; WHO); Aperitif (2; BIB; PHR); Astringent (f; BIB); Bitter (1; AKT); Cardioprotective (1; MAB); Carminative (1; APA; MAB; SUW; WHO); Chemopreventive (1; MAB); Cholagogue (1; BGB; SHT; TRA); Choleretic (2; KOM; SHT; TRA; WHO); Cholecystokinetic (2; KOM; SHT; WHO); Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor (1; MAB; PNC); Cytotoxic (1; MAB); Decongestant (f; BIB); Depurative (f; MAB; SUW); Digestive (1; MAB); Diuretic (f; APA; BIB); Dusgeusia (f; KAB); Emmenagogue (1; AHP; DAD); Expectorant (f; BIB); Fibrinolytic (1; MAB); Fungicide (1; MAB); Gastroprotective (1; WHO); Hemostat (f; DAD); Hepatoprotective (2; AKT; APA; DAD; PH2; PNC; TRA); Hepatotoxic (1; MAB); Hypocholesterolemic (1; APA; MAB; TRA; WAM); Hypolipidemic (2; MAB; PHR); Hypotriglyceridemic (1; TRA); Immunostimulant (1; BGB; TRA); Insectifuge (1; PHR); Laxative (f; BIB); Lice (f; HAD); Lipolytic (f; PH2); Litholytic (1; HHB; MAB); Mucogenic (1; WHO); Mucolytic (f; AKT); Myorelaxant (1; WHO); Nematicide (1; MAB); NO Scavenger (1; MAB); ODC Inhibitor (1; MAB); Parasiticide (f; DAD; SUW); Phagocytotic (1; BGB; WHO); Protisticide (1; APA; MPI; PNC); Secretagogue (1; TRA); Secretolytic (1; TRA); Stimulant (f; BIB; SUW); Stomachic (f; BIB); TNF Inhibitor (1; MAB); Tonic (1; SUW); Ulcerogenic (1; APA; MAB; WHO); Uterotonic (1; AHP); Vermifuge (f; KAB; SUW); Vulnerary (1; AKT; KAB). Indications (Turmeric) — Abscess (1; FNF; TRA); Adenopathy (f; DAD; JLH); Allergy (1; WAM); Alzheimer’s (1; COX; FNF); Ameba (1; MPI); Amenorrhea (1; BGB; PH2; WHO); Anorexia (2; BGB; BIB; BRU; PHR; PH2); Arthrosis (1; APA; KAP; MAB; PED; WAM; WHO); Asthma (1; MAB; WHO); Atherosclerosis (1; MAB; SKY); Athlete’s Foot (1; FNF); Bacteria (1; APA; MAB; MPI); Bite (f; BIB; PH2); Bleeding (f; DAD; PED; PH2); Boil (1; DAD; WHO); Bronchosis (f; BIB; PH2); Bruise (f; DAV; PED; PH2; WHO); Bursitis (1; SKY); Cancer (1; APA; BGB; MAB; PH2; TRA); Cancer, abdomen (1; COX; FNF; JLH); Cancer, breast (1; COX; FNF; MAB); Cancer, colon (1; COX; FNF; JLH; JNU); Cancer, joint (1; JLH; MAB); Cancer, mouth (1; COX; FNF; JLH); Cancer, nose (1; COX; FNF; JLH); Cancer, sinew (1; COX; FNF; JLH); Cardiopathy (1; AKT; MAB); Cataract (1; MAB); Catarrh (f; UPW); Chest Ache (f; PH2); Childbirth (f; DAD); Cholecystosis (2; APA; PHR); Cold (f; KAP; PH2); Colic (f; APA; PED; PH2); Coma (f; DAD); Congestion (f; APA; BIB); Conjunctivosis (f; KAB; MAB; PH2; SUW); Constipation (f; BIB; PH2); Coryza (f; KAB); Cramp (1; AKT; BIB; DAD; SHT); Cystosis (f; PH2); Dermatosis (1; AKT; MAB; PH2; SUW; WHO; WOI); Diarrhea (1; APA; WHO); Dropsy (f; DAD); Dusgeusia (f; KAB); Dysmenorrhea (1; AKT; APA; PED; WHO); Dyspepsia (2; KOM; MAB; PH2; WHO); Dysuria (f; DAD); Eczema (1; BGB; KAP; MAB); Edema (1; KAP; PH2; WHO); Elephantiasis (f; DAD); Enterosis (1; AKT; DAD; PH2; WHO); Epilepsy (f; WHO); Epistaxis (f; DAD; PH2); Fever (1; APA; BIB; COX); Fibrosis (1; BGB; MAB); Fungus (1; BIB; MAB; PH2); Gallstone (1; APA; MAB); Gas (1; APA; MAB; PH2; SUW; WHO); Gastrosis (f; PH2); Gonorrhea (f; BIB; KAB); Gray Hair (f; HAD); Headache (f; PH2); Hematemesis (f; DAD; PH2); Hematuria (f; DAD); Hemorrhoid (f; MAB); Hepatosis (2; AKT; APA; DAD; MAB; PED; PHR; PH2; PNC; TRA); High Blood Pressure (1; KAP); High Cholesterol (1; AKT; APA; MAB; TRA; WAM); High Triglycerides (1; MAB; TRA); HIV (1; MAB); Hyperlipidemia (1; MAB); Hysteria (f; DAD); IBS (1; PED); Immunodepression (1; BGB; TRA); Infection (2; MAB; MPI; PH2); Inflammation (2; APA; KOM; PHR; PH2; TRA; WAM; WHO); Itch (f; APA; KAP; PH2); Jaundice (1; MAB; TRA); Laryngosis (1; BIB; COX); Leprosy (f; PH2); Leukemia (1; AKT); Leukoderma (f; DAD); Lymphoma (1; BIB; COX; FNF); Malaria (f; KAP; PH2); Mania (f; DAD); Morning Sickness (1; MAB); Mucososis (f; PH2); Mycosis (1; MAB; PH2); Nephrosis (1; AKT; PH2); Obesity (2; MAB; PHR); Ophthalmia (1; AKT; DAD; PH2); Osteoarthrosis (1; MAB); Ozena (f; KAB); Pain (1; BIB; COX; WHO); Parasite (f; BIB; DAD; KAP; SUW); Polyp (1; COX; JLH; JNU); Psoriasis (1; FNF; MAB); Puerperium (f; MAB); Radiation (1; AKT); Restenosis (1; MAB); Rheumatism (1; BIB; COX; SKY); Rhinosis (1; COX; JLH); Ringworm (f; APA; BIB; KAP; PH2); Scabies (2; BGB); Smallpox (f; DAD); Sore (f; PH2); Sore Throat (f; PH2); Sprain (1; MAB; SUW); Staphylococcus (1; MPI; UPW); Stone (1; HHB; MAB); Stroke (f; PH2); Swelling (1; AKT; COX; PH2; WHO); Syphilis (f; DAD); Trauma (f; AKT); Tumor (1; APA; MAB; PH2; TRA); Ulcer (1; BIB; COX; PED; TRA; WHO); Uveosis (2; AKT); VD (f; BIB; DAD); Vertigo (f; BIB; DAD); Vomiting (f; PH2); Wart (f; JLH); Water Retention (f; APA; BIB); Whitlow (f; JLH); Worm (f; KAB; SUW); Wound (1; APA; BGB; PH2; SUW; WAM); Yeast (1; PED). Dosages (Turmeric) — 4 g turmeric powder in water 1–2 ×/day (MAB); 3–9 g crude turmeric/day (WHO); 4.5–9 g rhizome/day as tea (AHP); 0.1 g rhizome up to 20 g/day (HHB); 1.5–3 g rhizome (KOM); 0.5–1 g rhizome several ×/day between meals, or 1.5–3 g day, often with warm milk (APA); 1 tsp rhizome/cup warm milk (APA); 0.5–1 g oral rhizome infusion 3 ×/day (WHO); 5–14 ml fluid rhizome extract (1:1) divided in 4–5 doses (MAB); 3–5 g fresh herb (PED); 0.3–0.5 g dry herb (PED); 0.4 g dry herb:2 ml alcohol/2 ml water (PED); 1.5–3 g crude drug/day (SHT); 40mg curcumin 3 ×/day (SKY); 1200 mg curcumin (APA); 1 (445 mg) StX capsule 2–3 ×/day (JAD); 300 mg capsules to 3 ×/day (APA). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Turmeric) — Class 2b. Emmenagogue and uterotonic. Contraindicated in patients with bile duct obstruction, gallstones, hyperacidity, and stomach ulcers (AHP; AEH). While in moderate doses, turmeric is said to inhibit cancers, lymphomas and ulcers, overdoses of curcuminoids may possibly be cytotoxic and ulcerogenic, and may lead to diminution of red and white corpuscles. Still, Commission E approves 1.5–3 g/day, not nearly enough to provide 1200 mg curcumin. Commission E also reports contraindications: biliary obstruction; adverse effects: GI irritation from continued use; consult physicians before using if a patient has gallstones (BIS; KOM). At 10% of diet, turmeric caused some loss of hair in rats (MAB). Care should be taken in women who wish to conceive or patients complaining of alopecia (MAB). Rather frightening what one reads in UPW (2000): Laboratory animals treated with it are reported to have been rendered entirely infertile. Women who are pregnant, or children (not yet widely in children) with gallbladder or liver disease or ulcers, should avoid turmeric (WAM). Limit internal use to 10 days (WAM). Extracts (Turmeric) — Fond as I am of synergy and food farmacy, I like the following comments: Curcumin can inhibit estrogen-positive human breast cells induced by estradiol or pesticides individually or mixed. Curcumin and genistein were synergistic, totally inhibiting induction in vitro. Curcuminoids inhibit cancer at initiation, promotion and progression in vitro and in vivo (MAB). Viva curried bean soup, like I am having for lunch. Reportedly as effective as hydrocortisone acetate or indomethacin in experimental inflammation (WHO). Both natural antiinflammatory curcumin (1200 mg/day) and unnatural phenylbutazone (30 mg/day) improved joint swelling, morning stiffness, and walking time in people with rheumatoid arthritis, both better than placebo (WHO). Bruneton notes that the antiinflammatoryED50 of curcumin orally in rats is 48 mg/kg ( = 4.8 g in me) and is apparently devoid of side effects (BRU), while the ipr ED50 is only 2.1 mg/kg, suggesting that the ipr route is 20 times more effective. But I am not into injecting herbs. Enjoy your curried beans, counting on thse synergies. Duke suggests curcumin needs to be compared with Celebrex and Vioxx as a COX-2 inhibitor. EO showed significant antihistaminic and antiinflammatory activity, the latter at 0.1 ml/kg, which translates to 10 ml for me, a rather dangerous dose. At a dose of 1.5 g/day/30 days, turmeric reduced urinary excretion of mutagens in an uncontrolled trial of 16 chronic smokers. In six nonsmoking controls there was no change in urinary secretion. Turmeric had no effect on serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase, blood glucose, creatinine, and lipid profile (MAB). Turmeric extract (~20 mg cur-cumin/day) for 45 days dramatically decreased blood lipid peroxide levels in 18 male subjects (MAB). Curcumin is poorly absorbed (some 15–35% max in rats) orally but if administered with piperine (from black and long pepper), absorption is improved more than 150% in rats. But i human volunteers, 20 mg piperine increases bioavailability of curcumin 20-fold (MAB). One study indicated curcumin and sodium curcuminate were more potent than phenylbutazone in acute and chronic arthritic models, while another found it only 1/10th as effective as ibuprofen. While ulcerogenic in large doses, curcumin is only about one-third as ulcerogenic as the phenylbutazone. In low doses, curcumin had antiulcer activity, protecting against the ulcerogenic activity of phenylbutazone (MAB). 1-Phenylhydroxy-N-pentane stimulates the secretion of secretin, gastrin and bicarbonate, helping maintain the gastric pH in dogs and humans (TRA). LD50 ether extracts 12,200 mg/kg orl rat (MAB), LDlo curcumin >2000 mg/kg orl mus (MAB), LDlo curcumin >5000 mg/kg orl rat (MAB)