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Estrogen Therapy May Be Associated With Kidney Stones in Postmenopausal Women

 

ScienceDaily (Oct. 12, 2010) — Use of estrogen therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing kidney stones in postmenopausal women, according to a report in the October 11 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.– “Nephrolithiasis [kidney stones] is a common condition that affects 5 percent to 7 percent of postmenopausal women in the United States,” according to background information in the article. “Because the process of kidney stone formation is influenced by a variety of lifestyle and other health-related factors, the true impact of estrogen therapy on the risk of kidney stone formation is difficult to infer from observational studies.” — Using data from the national Women’s Health Initiative study, Naim M. Maalouf, M.D., of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, examined data from two trials: 10,739 postmenopausal women with hysterectomy who received either an estrogen-only treatment or matching placebo and 16,608 postmenopausal women without hysterectomy who received either an estrogen plus progestin treatment or matching placebo. Data were collected for an average of 7.1 years in the estrogen-only trial and 5.6 years for the estrogen plus progestin trial. — A total of 335 cases of kidney stones were reported in the active treatment groups, while 284 cases occurred in the placebo groups. The beginning demographic characteristics and risk factors for kidney stones were similar in the two groups, and the authors found that estrogen therapy was associated with a significant increase in risk of kidney stones. The corresponding annualized incidence rate per 10,000 women per year was 39 in the treatment group and 34 in the placebo group. Development of kidney stones was five times more common in women with a history of kidney stones at the beginning of the study, but was not significantly altered by estrogen therapy. In this trial, estrogen therapy increased the risk of development of kidney stones irrespective of age, ethnicity, body mass index, prior hormone therapy use or use of coffee or thiazide diuretics.The authors conclude that their results “indicate that estrogen therapy increases the risk of nephrolithiasis in healthy postmenopausal women. The mechanisms underlying this higher propensity remain to be determined. In view of the sizable prevalence of nephrolithiasis in this segment of the population, these findings need to be considered in the decision-making process regarding postmenopausal n use.”—Story Source:–The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by JAMA and Archives Journals.–Journal Reference: N. M. Maalouf, A. H. Sato, B. J. Welch, B. V. Howard, B. B. Cochrane, K. Sakhaee, J. A. Robbins. Postmenopausal Hormone Use and the Risk of Nephrolithiasis: Results From the Women’s Health Initiative Hormone Therapy Trials. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2010; 170 (18): 1678 DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.342

 

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Show of the Week January 17 2011

 

Garlic– Recipe for Garlic and Uses- Garlic & Lecithin Recipe

 

Dietary zinc and prostate cancer survival in a Swedish cohort1

Digested green tea compounds show dementia and cancer benefits

 

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Garlic

 

English _ Garlic.

Ayurvedic _ Lashuna, Rasona,

Yavaneshta, Ugragandha, Mahaushadh,

Arishta.

Unani _ Seer, Lahsun.

Siddha/Tamil _ Ullippoondu, Vellaippondu.

Action _ Antibiotic, bacteriostatic, fungicide, anthelmintic, antithrombic, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic. Also used for upper respiratory tract infections and catarrhal conditions.

Key application _ As a supportive to dietary measures for elevated levels

of lipids in blood; as a preventive measure for age-dependent vascular

changes. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO, The British Herbal

Pharmacopoeia.) Also as an antimicrobial. (The British Herbal

Pharmacopoeia). Garlic has been shown to be effective in respiratory

infections and catarrhal conditions. (The British Herbal Compendium.)

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of the bulb as

a brain tonic in epilepsy and psychic disorders. Heavy consumption of garlic prior to surgery led to increased clotting time or reduced platelet aggregation (in human case reports). Garlic tablets at a dose of 400 mg twice daily for 12 weeks reduced platelet aggregation 59% compared with placebo in 80 patients (in human clinical study). (Francis Brinker.) Garlic cloves are high in sulphurcontaining amino acids known as alliin (no taste, no smell, no medicinal action). With crushing or chewing alliin comes into contact with the enzyme alliinase. Alliinase, in less than 6 s, transforms alliin into allicin (strongly medicinal), which breaks down into a number of sulphur compounds including ajoene, vinyldithin and diallyl disulfide, and trisulfide. The antibiotic effect is attributed to allicin; hypoglycaemic effect to allicin and allylprophyldisulphide (also to S-allyl Cysteine sulfoxide); anticarcinogenic activity to diallyl monosulfide; platelet aggregation inhibitory effect to diallyl-di- and tri-sulphides. Ajoene inactivated human gastric lipase, which is involved in digestion and absorption of dietary fats. Diallyltetra, penta-, hexa- and heptasulphides are potential antioxidants. AlliumleptophyllumWall. is equated with Vana Lashuna, Jangali Lahsun. Dosage _1 Bulb=3 g

Garlic inhibits the activity of 5-Lipoxygenase.

Lipids–Garlic inhibits the production of Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). Garlic inhibits the production of Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). Garlic suppresses the production of Thromboxane A2 (TXA2).

Minerals–Garlic helps to prevent the cellular damage caused by excessive Arsenic ingestion.

Garlic facilitates the removal of accumulated Cadmium from the body. Garlic facilitates the removal of accumulated Lead from the body. Garlic facilitates the removal of accumulated Mercury from the body.

Nucleic Compounds–Garlic inhibits the incorporation of Thymidine into the Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) of many types of Cancer Cells (and thereby inhibits the ability of Thymidine to function as a growth factor for some types of Cancer Cells

Garlic increases Glutathione Reductase levels.

Garlic activates Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS).

Hormones—Garlic increases plasma Luteinizing Hormone (LH) levels (due to the Diallyl Disulfide content of Garlic).

Garlic increases Testosterone levels (due to the Diallyl Disulfide content of Garlic increasing Luteinizing Hormone (LH) levels.

Neurotransmitters–Garlic increases plasma Norepinephrine levels

Garlic protects Chromosomes from the damage caused by exposure to Gamma-Rays

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Aged garlic extract delays the appearance of infarct area in a cerebral ischemia model, an effect likely conditioned by the cellular antioxidant systems.

Phytomedicine. 2010 Mar;17(3-4):241-7

Authors: Aguilera P, Chánez-Cárdenas ME, Ortiz-Plata A, León-Aparicio D, Barrera D, Espinoza-Rojo M, Villeda-Hernández J, Sánchez-García A, Maldonado PD

Experimental evidence has shown that some garlic-derived products have a protective effect against ischemic brain injury. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE), establish the therapeutic window, and determine its protective mechanism in a cerebral ischemia model. Animals were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h and treated with 1.2ml/kg body wt.(i.p.) of AGE 30min before, at the beginning of (0R), or 1h after reperfusion. The 0R treatment significantly reduced the size of the infarct area after 2h of reperfusion. Repeated doses subsequent to the 0R treatment (at 1, 2, or 3h after reperfusion) had no effect on the temporal window of protection. The protective 0R treatment with AGE prevented the increase in nitrotyrosine and the decrease in total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and extracellular superoxide dismutase activities induced by MCAO. These data indicate that AGE delays the effects of ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury. However, this treatment itself was not associated with a noticeable improvement in the neurological outcome, or with an effect on the inflammatory response. We conclude that the neuroprotective effect of AGE in the 0R treatment might be associated with control of the free-radical burst induced by reperfusion, preservation of antioxidant enzyme activity, and the delay of other pathophysiological processes.–PMID: 19577455 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Recipe for Garlic and Uses—Take 2 bulbs of garlic and add to blender ( peeled) the add 1 ½ cup of vinegar ( any will do ) then blend for 10 minutes and strain Put into glass container—then take 2 bulbs of garlic ( peeled) and add to a oil or fat again blend for about 10 minutes –strain the mix so only the oil comes out add to glass container –then take these specific vitamins –zinc ( use approximately 100mgs ) Selenium ( 1 mg ) B1 ( 600mgs) then add equal parts of the oil and the vinegar mixes of garlic ( do not use the whole amounts approximately 1-2 oz when doing this of each of the mixes ) blend for 5 minutes then pour this into a seperate container –and use ¼ tsp increments

RThis will have sugar regulating effects—chelating effects ( removing- lead cadmium-mercury-arsenic) Anti Cancer Impact- Strength and endurance increase-anti inflammatory effect-reproductive aid-healing factor-Brain functioning improvement—heart health-liver health-pancreatic support-wound healing properties-Protects against alcohol poisoning—anti glycating of cells-Anti Aging-Antioxidant-Anti Microbial-Anti Bacterial-Anti Fungal—Cholesterol regulating

RThe Garlic vinegar can be utilized as well independently as a tonic –healant—in cooking –as a protectant against differing pathogens in foods-again as a digestive aid-cholesterol impacting and as well has all the other attributes associated with vinegar and garlic-use 1 teaspon as neded or 1 X 3 aday

RThe garlic oil can as well be utilized like the vinegar –use it ½ tsp increments

RGarlic & Lecithin Recipe—you will need lecithin( sunflower or egg yolk not soy) 1 table spoon—1 whole bulb of garlic-1/4 cup of garlic vinegar-1/4 cup of garlic oil—then add zinc citrate 300mgs ( open capsule ) 600mgs of B1 ( open capsule) selenium 1 mg ( open either 5 capsules at 200 mcg strength or 10 capsules at 100mg strength ) if you like add cq 10 to this 200 mgs ( again depending on capsule strength open the appropriate amount ) and again you can increase these or decrease as you see fit—add all to blender and blend for 10 minutes at medium to high speed—add garlic oil or garlic vinegar if needed if to thick—when done pour into a glass bottle and use ½ tsp several times a day—the impact will be noticeable on the legs a renewed strength will be noticed—this will again impact the Norepinephrine levels of the brain ( flight or fright—clear thinking—cognitive ability-sex drive) cellular health and increases immune health—liver health—cholesterol regulating anti cancer—anti fungal-anti viral-anti bacterial-anti microbial—general tonic as well—can be used on a spread –in yogurt—on foods –taken straight—use ½ tsp several times a day
RThese can be spread on your eggs –integrated in your cooking oils can be used in soups and have the benefits as well as protective properties-mixed in salads or salad dressings

RThe garlic mix with the combo of supplements and vinegar can be used as a supplement—a tonic—immune restorer—immune supporter and again ¼ tsp 1 X3 a day or as needed

 

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Dietary zinc and prostate cancer survival in a Swedish cohort1,2,3

 

1. Mara M Epstein, Julie L Kasperzyk, Ove Andrén, Edward L Giovannucci, Alicja Wolk, Niclas Håkansson, Swen-Olof Andersson,

2. Jan-Erik Johansson, Katja Fall, and Lorelei A Mucci

+ Author Affiliations

1. 1From the Departments of Epidemiology (MME, JLK, ELG, KF, and LAM) and Nutrition (ELG), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; the Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (MME, JLK, ELG, and LAM); the Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden (OA, S-OA, and J-EJ); The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (AW and NH); the Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden (KF); and The Centre for Public Health Services, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland (KF and LAM).

· ↵2 Supported by the National Institutes of Health research training grant R25CA098566 (to MME).

· ↵3 Address reprint requests and correspondence to MM Epstein, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 181 Longwood Avenue, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02115. E-mail: mameyer@hsph.harvard.edu.

Abstract

Background: Zinc is involved in many essential cellular functions, including DNA repair and immune system maintenance. Although experimental evidence supports a role for zinc in prostate carcinogenesis, epidemiologic data are inconsistent; no data on cancer-specific survival have been reported. –Objective: Our objective was to determine whether dietary zinc assessed near the time of prostate cancer diagnosis is associated with improved disease-specific survival. –Design: This population-based cohort consists of 525 men aged <80 y from Örebro County, Sweden, with a diagnosis of prostate cancer made between 1989 and 1994. Study participants completed self-administered food-frequency questionnaires, and zinc intake was derived from nutrient databases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for time to death from prostate cancer as well as death from all causes through February 2009 by quartile (Q) of dietary zinc intake. Models were also stratified by disease stage at diagnosis (localized or advanced). –Results: With a median follow-up of 6.4 y, 218 (42%) men died of prostate cancer and 257 (49%) died of other causes. High dietary zinc intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer–specific mortality (HRQ4 vs Q1: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.94; P for trend = 0.05) in the study population. The association was stronger in men with localized tumors (HR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.66; P for trend = 0.005). Zinc intake was not associated with mortality from other causes. -Conclusion: These results suggest that high dietary intake of zinc is associated with lower prostate cancer–specific mortality after diagnosis, particularly in men with localized disease

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Digested green tea compounds show dementia and cancer benefits
Digested polyphenol compounds from green tea could protect the brain against developing Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia,

The in vitro study, published in Phytomedicine, confirmed that post-digestion, extracts of the phytochemical rich drink shows protective effects for dementia, and could play an important role in protecting the body against cancer. –The researchers investigated whether the protective properties of green tea – which have previously been shown to be present in the undigested, freshly brewed form of the drink – were still ‘active’ once the drink had been digested. –Lead researcher Dr Ed Okello from Newcastle University, U.K.said that just because a consumed food is generally accepted to contain health-boosting properties; it should not be assumed that such compounds will ever be absorbed in the body. –“What was really exciting about this study was that we found when green tea is digested by enzymes in the gut, the resulting chemicals are actually more effective against key triggers of Alzheimer’s development than the undigested form of the tea,” explained Okello –“In addition to this, we also found the digested compounds had anti-cancer properties, significantly slowing down the growth of the tumour cells which we were using in our experiments,” added Okello.

Dementia

Alzheimer’s disease – the most common form of dementia – is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder associated with cognitive dysfunction. The authors noted that “mounting evidence” suggests that beta-amyloid peptides in conjunction with free radical species (such as hydrogen peroxide) in the brain play a significant role in the development and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s. Many previous studies, have suggested that both black and green teas possess protective properties, which have been mainly attributed to their polyphenol content. —Green tea is high in flavan-3-ols, which are believed to be efficient scavengers of highly reactive free radical species, and have been shown to exhibit anti-carcinogenic; hypocholesterolaemic and neuroprotective properties . –Okello said that although research has identified certain compounds as beneficial for health, and in many cases has identified foods with high concentrations of such compounds, he explained that “what happens during the digestion process is crucial to whether these foods are actually doing us any good.” “Flavan-3-ols have been reported to possess properties beneficial to health, [but] they are known to undergo significant metabolism and conjugation in the gastrointestinal tract,” said the researchers. –“It is unknown how such metabolism and conjugation may influence the putative properties of these polyphenols, hence the focus of our study on a digested green tea extract,” they explained.

Digested extract

Green tea extract – from brewed Temple of Heaven, Gunpowder China tea, purchased by the researchers from a local store – was subjected to a simulated gastrointestinal digestion and a ‘colon-available’ extract (CAGTE) was prepared and assessed for its potential protective effects against the damaging effects of hydrogen peroxide and beta-amyloid on neuronal cells in the brain – which are believed to play a role in the development of dementia. –The CAGTE, which represents green tea phytochemicals potentially available after upper gastrointestinal digestion, was found to be depleted in flavan-3-ols when compared to the pre-digested green tea extract; yet was still found to protect cells in a brain neurone model from both hydrogen peroxide and beta-amyloid toxicity. –“At high concentrations, CAGTE exhibited direct anti-proliferative effects, in line with the reputed anti-cancer properties of green tea polyphenols,” wrote the authors. –“The CAGTE, which effectively lacked flavan-3-ols, had a protective effect on beta-amyloid induced toxicity in vitro at 0.03–0.125 μg/ml … This figure is much lower than the 20 μg/ml reported for effective protection in whole green tea extracts,” said the researchers.

Next step

He said that the next step in the research is to investigate whether the beneficial compounds found in the digestion model are produced during digestion in human volunteers that consume green tea polyphenols – for which the team has already secured funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC).

Source: Phytomedicine–Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.11.004 –“In vitro protective effects of colon-available extract of Camellia sinensis (tea) against hydrogen peroxide and beta-amyloid (Aβ(1–42)) induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells” –Authors: E.J. Okello, G.J. McDougall, S. Kumar, C.J. Seal

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Show of the Week Jan 21- 2011

 

Calorie Restricted Diet Prevents Pancreatic Inflammation And Cancer

 

How Calorie-Restricted Diets Fight Obesity and Extend Life Span

 

Fueling the Body on Fat Critical Tuning Dial for Controlling Energy Found

 

Key Enzyme In Fat Absorption Discovered

 

How Progesterone & Estrogen Increases Breast Cancer Risk

 

BRCA1 Gene Found To Inhibit Two Sex Hormones, Not Just One

Anti Estrogenic Antidote

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Calorie Restricted Diet Prevents Pancreatic Inflammation And Cancer

ScienceDaily (Apr. 17, 2008) — Prevention of weight gain with a restricted calorie diet sharply reduced the development of pancreatic lesions that lead to cancer in preclinical research reported April 15 by researchers from The University of Texas at Austin and The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center at the American Association for Cancer Research annual meeting.—The research sheds light on the connection between obesity, calorie intake and pancreatic cancer by comparing a calorie restricted diet, an overweight diet and an obesity-inducing diet in a strain of mice that spontaneously develops pancreatic lesions that lead to cancer.—“Obesity is a known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but the mechanism underlying that relationship is unknown,” said senior author Stephen D. Hursting, Ph.D., professor in M. D. Anderson’s Department of Carcinogenesis and Chair of the Division of Nutritional Sciences at the University of Texas. “Our findings indicate that calorie restriction hinders development of pancreatic cancer, which could have implications for prevention and treatment of pancreatic tumors caused by chronic inflammation and obesity.”–The group’s analysis points to a connection between calorie intake and a protein called Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) -1, with obesity increasing and calorie restriction decreasing levels of IGF-1. IGF-1 is an important growth factor known to stimulate the growth of many types of cancer cells. Inflammatory signaling proteins also were found to be reduced in the blood of the calorie-restricted mice.—“Mice on the heavier diets had significantly more lesions and larger lesions than those on the restricted calorie diet,” said first author Laura Lashinger, Ph.D., a post-doctoral fellow in Hursting’s laboratory. The strain of mice, developed by Susan Fischer, professor in M. D. Anderson’s Department of Carcinogenesis, spontaneously develops lesions associated with pancreatitis – inflammation of the pancreas. These lesions develop into pancreatic cancer and virtually all of these mice die within six to eight months.-The researchers fed the calorie restricted group a diet that was 30 percent lower in calories than that consumed by the overweight group and 50 percent lower than the obese group. Only 7.5 percent of mice on the calorie-restricted diet developed pancreatic lesions at the end of the experiment, and these lesions were so small that none exhibited symptoms of illness. For mice on the overweight diet, 45 percent developed lesions, as did 57.5 percent of those on the obesity-inducing diet. Lesions were also much larger in the overweight and obese mice than the calorie restricted mice.—While calorie restriction has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in multiple species and for a variety of tumor types, its impact had not been well-studied in a model of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death and remains mostly intractable to existing treatments.–The decline in blood levels of inflammatory proteins in the calorie restricted mice makes sense, Lashinger notes, because fat tissue is a major source of inflammatory factors such as cytokines.–[U1]The research was funded by grants from the National Institute of Health and the University of Texas, and is a collaboration between M. D. Anderson’s Department of Carcinogenesis, based at the The Virginia Harris Cockrell Cancer Research Center at M. D. Anderson’s Science Park – Research Division in Smithville, Texas, and the University of Texas at Austin Department of Nutritional Sciences.–Co-authors with Lashinger, Hursting and Fischer are Lauren Malone, Elizabeth Daniels, Nicole Smith, and Susan Perkins of the UT Department of Nutritional Sciences and Amy Pavone of M. D. Anderson’s Department of Carcinogenesis.–Story Source–The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

 

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How Calorie-Restricted Diets Fight Obesity and Extend Life Span

 

Fruits and vegetables are a key part of calorie-restricted diets, which may increase longevity.–ScienceDaily (Dec. 29, 2009) — Scientists searching for the secrets of how calorie-restricted diets increase longevity are reporting discovery of proteins in the fat cells of human volunteers that change as pounds drop off. The proteins could become markers for monitoring or boosting the effectiveness of calorie-restricted diets — the only scientifically proven way of extending life span in animals.–Their study appears online in ACS’ Journal of Proteome Research.–Edwin Mariman and colleagues note that scientists have long known that sharply restricting intake of calories while maintaining good nutrition makes animals live longer and stay healthier. Recent studies suggest that people may gain similar benefits. But scientists know little about how these diets work in humans, particularly their effects on cells that store fat.–The new study focused on proteins in abdominal subcutaneous fat cells from a group of overweight people before and after they went on a five-week-long calorie-restricted diet. The volunteers each lost an average of 21 pounds[U2]. Scientists identified changes in the levels of 6 proteins as the volunteers shed pounds, including proteins that tell the body to store fat. These proteins could serve as important markers for improving or tracking the effectiveness of therapies involving calorie-restricted diets, they say.-Story Source-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by American Chemical Society, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.-Journal Reference–Bouwman et al. The Physiologic Effects of Caloric Restriction Are Reflected in the <i>in Vivo</i> Adipocyte-Enriched Proteome of Overweight/Obese Subjects. Journal of Proteome Research, 2009; 8 (12): 5532 DOI: 10.1021/pr900606m

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Fueling the Body on Fat Critical Tuning Dial for Controlling Energy Found

ScienceDaily (Jan. 5, 2011) — Researchers have found what appears to be a critical tuning dial for controlling whole body energy, according to a new report in the January issue of Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication. When energy levels within cells drop, it sets off a series of events designed to increase the amount of calorie-rich dietary fat that the body will absorb.—This energy reset mechanism is surely critical for survival under natural conditions of scarcity to ensure a steady supply of fuel, the researchers say. Today, many of us who enjoy a Western diet loaded with fat might do better if we could find a way to turn the activity of the so-called AMPK-SRC-2 pathway down.–“Thousands of years ago, this would have been crucial,” said Bert O’Malley of Baylor College of Medicine. “Now it’s trouble because we eat so much fatty food.”[U3]–Earlier studies had shown the enzyme AMPK to be an ancient energy sensor. The enzyme causes cells to consume less energy in the form of ATP and to produce more. AMPK also drives appetite.–The new work shows that AMPK also allows for the optimal absorption of THE MOST ENERGY-RICH FUEL from the diet: fat[U4]. That effect of AMPK depends on its activation of SRC-2, a master control gene whose job is to switch other genes on.—When SRC-2 springs into action, it controls genes that lead to the secretion of bile from the gall bladder into the intestine. “You need bile to emulsify and absorb fat,” O’Malley explained.- Mice lacking SRC-2 fail to absorb fat normally, they report. Those deficiencies can be corrected by restoring bile acids to the gut.[U5]-Together with earlier work, the findings present a “pretty picture” in which SRC-2 is involved in absorbing and storing fat. SRC-2 is also known to play a role in releasing stored glucose from the liver. “It’s all about energy accretion, storage and delivery,” O’Malley says.–This process takes place on a daily basis even when there is already plenty of fat stored in the body. “It’s designed to get in more fat,” he says. “Over evolutionary time, when you didn’t know when the next meal would be, you really couldn’t get enough fat. Now, our next meal is at the corner McDonald’s.”–The discovery reveals a key mechanism linking the cellular energy state with the whole-body energy state and may ultimately have important clinical implications, the researchers say.–“Obesity is all about fat absorption and storage,” O’Malley said. “If you could turn that down, you could have a major effect on a disease that is slowly killing the population.” He says his team is now conducting studies in search of SRC-2 inhibitors that might do exactly that.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Cell Press, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.–Journal Reference–Atul R. Chopra, Ramakrishna Kommagani, Pradip Saha, Jean-Francois Louet, Christina Salazar, Junghun Song, Jaewook Jeong, Milton Finegold, Benoit Viollet, Franco DeMayo, Lawrence Chan, David D. Moore, Bert W. O’Malley. Cellular Energy Depletion Resets Whole-Body Energy by Promoting Coactivator-Mediated Dietary Fuel Absorption. Cell Metabolism, 2011; 13 (1): 35-43 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2010.12.001

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Key Enzyme In Fat Absorption Discovered

ScienceDaily (Mar. 18, 2009) — Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes of Cardiovascular Disease (GICD) have found that a key enzyme involved in absorbing fat may also be a key to reducing it. The enzyme, acyl CoA: [U6]monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 or Mgat2 is found in the intestines and plays an important part in the uptake of dietary fat by catalyzing a critical step in making triglyceride, a kind of fat. –Triglyceride accounts for nearly one-third of the fat eaten by people in developed countries.–Researchers in the laboratory of Robert V. Farese, Jr. MD, found that mice that were genetically modified to lack Mgat2 remain normal on a low-fat diet. However, when fed a high-fat diet that is similar to that eaten by many Americans, the mice do not get fat and do not develop other symptoms of obesity, such as glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia, and fatty livers. The mice eat the same number of calories as other mice, and the calories are fully absorbed. –“Because mice that lack this enzyme do not gain weight on a high-fat diet, it is an intriguing target for future interventions to prevent weight gain and the problems associated with that extra weight,” said Dr. Farese.–The mechanism of action, the researchers identified was that the lack of Mgat2 may reduce the uptake of fat in the small intestine and delay its entry into the blood. This process may dissociate fat from carbohydrate absorption and insulin secretion and ultimately lower the amount of fat stored and used. How this happens is not clear. One possibility is that the absorbed fat is partitioned more to tissues where it is burned up.–“Differences in Mgat2 expression may contribute to the propensity of some people to gain weight from diets rich in fat,” said Eric Yen, PhD, lead author of the study. “Our findings suggest that inhibiting this enzyme in the small intestine might be an effective way to treating metabolic diseases that result from excessive fat intake.”–Results of their study were published in the current issue of the journal Nature Medicine.–Story Source–The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Gladstone Institutes, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS

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How Progesterone & EstrogenIncreases Breast Cancer Risk

ScienceDaily (Jan. 18, 2011) — Researchers have identified how the hormones progesterone and estrogen interact to increase cell growth in normal mammary cells and mammary cancers, a novel finding that may explain why postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy with estrogen plus progestin are at increased risk of breast cancer.–The discovery that both estrogen and progesterone must be present for the increased production of the protein amphiregulin, which binds to mammary cells and promotes cell growth, could lead to new treatment methods for the disease, said Sandra Haslam, director of Michigan State University’s Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Center and lead researcher on the project.–The study, funded by the Department of Defense’s Breast Cancer Research Program and published in Hormones and Cancer, looked at why progesterone combined with estrogen may contribute to increased breast cancer risk. In the study, researchers used both the native hormone, progesterone, and a synthetic compound, progestin — obtaining the same results.—The finding might help explain earlier results from the groundbreaking Women’s Health Initiative showing the risk of breast cancer is significantly greater for postmenopausal women who received hormone replacement therapy with combined estrogen plus progestin compared to women receiving estrogen alone.–“Also, breast cancers that develop in women receiving estrogen plus progestin are more invasive and deadlier,” Haslam said. “What is the progestin doing to increase the risk of tumor growth?”–Along with co-investigator Anastasia Kariagina, a colleague in the College of Human Medicine and Department of Physiology, Haslam identified the protein amphiregulin and its receptor as one potential culprit.—“Amphiregulin — acting through its receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor — along with progesterone leads to the activation of intracellular pathways that regulate cell growth,” Haslam said. “When activated, this promotes normal cell growth and the growth of tumors.”—The study was performed in rats because breast cancers in rats contain receptors for estrogen and progesterone — similar to the human breast — and tumor growth is hormone-dependent, as are the majority of human breast cancers. The research team also confirmed the same phenomenon in human breast cancer cell cultures.–In addition, the research team found that Iressa, a cancer drug that blocks the epidermal growth factor receptor, effectively stopped the proliferation caused by amphiregulin. While those studies were done only in cell cultures and not on tumors growing in animals, the results are promising, Haslam said.—“The results indicate that the interactions between estrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factor receptor pathways may be considered relevant targets for the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancers,” she said. “This may be especially important in premenopausal breast cancer because women produce their own estrogen and progesterone.–“A combined approach of inhibiting both the hormones and the epidermal growth factor receptor may be beneficial for some women in treating hormone-dependent breast cancer.”–Story Source:–The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Michigan State University.–Journal Reference-Anastasia Kariagina, Jianwei Xie, Jeffrey R. Leipprandt, Sandra Z. Haslam. Amphiregulin Mediates Estrogen, Progesterone, and EGFR Signaling in the Normal Rat Mammary Gland and in Hormone-Dependent Rat Mammary Cancers. Hormones and Cancer, 2010; 1 (5): 229 DOI: 10.1007/s12672-010-0048-0

 

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BRCA1 Gene Found To Inhibit Two Sex Hormones, Not Just One

 

ScienceDaily (Jan. 26, 2006) — It’s been known that the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 regulates use of estrogen in breast and other cells, but now researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center have discovered that it also controls activity of a second sex steroid hormone, progesterone. —The findings, conducted in cell culture and in mice and reported by the researchers in the January issue of Molecular Endocrinology, could help explain why women who have mutations in their BRCA1 gene are susceptible to a number of different “hormone-dependent” cancers, including those of the breast, endometriun and cervix. —It also has implications for ordinary cancers that arise because a normal BRCA1 gene is under-expressed, said the study’s principal investigator, Eliot Rosen, MD, PhD, professor of oncology, cell biology, and radiation medicine at the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center. —For example, he says that up to 40 percent of breast tumors are deficient in BRCA1, “and it may be that some patients could benefit not only from an anti-estrogen therapy, like tamoxifen, but also from an anti-progesterone agent. —“We don’t know if that is true yet, of course, but it is certainly worth investigating, given our findings,” Rosen said. –The BRCA1 gene and a second gene, BRCA2, were discovered to be breast cancer susceptibility genes in 1994 and 1995, respectively. Women who inherit faulty copies of one of these genes have up to an 80 percent increased risk of developing breast cancer by age 70, and are also more likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer. –Rosen and his research team undertook the study to understand why loss of the BRCA1 gene results in cancers in tissues that are dependent on hormones. They focused on the progesterone hormone, in part, because of the observation that women who use hormone replacement therapy that includes both estrogen and progestin (a synthetic form of progesterone) are at greater risk of developing breast cancer than women who use only estrogen replacement. [U7]–The use of progesterone in the breast is tightly regulated and is primarily activated when growth in cells is needed, such as during the female menstrual cycle and to support a pregnancy. A cell’s use of progesterone and other such hormones is controlled by specific receptor proteins, located inside cells, which bind on to the hormone. This process activates the receptor, which then migrates to the cell nucleus to stimulate gene expression. —To find out what role BRCA1 played in progesterone receptor signaling, the Lombardi research team conducted a series of experiments. In one set of cell culture studies in the laboratory, they used breast cancer cells that were responsive to progesterone, and then genetically manipulated them to either over or under-express the BRCA1 gene in order to assess the gene’s effect on progesterone receptor signaling. –They also used mice in which the BRCA1 gene was partially deleted, but only in breast tissue. The animals were treated with estrogen, or progesterone, or both, and response of the mammary gland was compared with that of normal mice. –In this way, the researchers concluded that BRCA1 interacts physically with the progesterone receptor, and stops it from activating other genes. It does this even in the absence of the progesterone hormone, and, thus, acts as a strong check on errant growth. —“But in mice deficient in BRCA1, we found that estrogen plus progesterone has a particularly large effect in stimulating the growth of mammary epithelial cells − an effect much greater than the effects of either hormone used alone,” Rosen said. —The study was funded by grants from the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation and the National Cancer Institute. Contributing to the study were Yongxian Ma, MD; Pragati Katiyar, MS; Laudette P. Jones, PhD; Saijun Fan, MD, PhD; Yiyu Zhang, MD; and Priscilla A. Furth, MD. –Story Source-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Georgetown University Medical Center

IMy Comment Here—the issue is not about the estrogens and progesterones but rather the bodies ability to utilize them and remove them—the herbalist and other alternative health and healers knew this of yesteryear and would require women to do blood tonics and organ supporting herbs that would alleviate the load of these hormones—In todays times when foods consumed are highly hormonal –Soy – Vege oils ( estrogen imbalancing )-olive oils ( which can increase testosterone) peas ( estrogenic)– and chemicals that are highly xenoestrogenic like dish soaps and laundry soaps and cleaners and pesticide on or in the foods and hormone produced milk and meats—the system may not necessarily lack the gene but rather being so overwhelmed with the load that there is not enough to compensate for the imbalances—the old ways maybe tougher but the work –the thought and suggestions here would be to eliminate the foods causing the overload and to potential fast or reduce drastically consumption and increase foods that are going to reinforce the organs and the gene production to assist in balancing out what is overloaded

 

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Anti Estrogenic Antidote
Because of the overloading of the endocrine and lymphatic system of estrogen three has been a number of reproductive cancers occurring at a higher then normal rate…..if you look up the stats this didn’t happen til the 60’s when cancers of all types started to become more apparent in the USA and Canada…. What changed? The exposure to pesticides had definitely increased, the exposure to toxic pollutants had definitely increased, the removal of foods from the diet which were maligned to be a problem but in fact were not, and new food and dietary guidelines were introduced that were in fact cancer causing, such as soy and margarine, food additives and chemical preservatives, plastics that contained foods and detergents which are xeno-estrogenic characteristics. This means these are synthetic estrogens that will in fact react the same way as plant estrogens but in a higher concentrated levels that will bind to what are known as receptor sites ….these are areas of the body that are triggered by hormones and enzymes which cause a chemical reaction or trigger a signal in the body to perform whatever function that is required. These estrogens coming from with out, are extremely dangerous because of the way they accumulate in the body, and the reaction they cause in the body. In the case of estrogen it will lead to cancer, there are over 50 years of research an data to validate this, and to this day the end result has been the same since we have introduced highly estrogenic foods into the diet, males are becoming more mentally and physically dysfunctional, and women are breaking down more rapidly then there predecessors did. By being exposed to dish soap, latex, fuel oils, carpeting, clothing , fabric softeners, clothing made with synthethics, exhaust fumes from all petro products, including the Idea of biodiesel or bio fuels, this to will exacerbrate a bad condition already existing, and will compound the effect that much more…

 

So how do we heal this condition? How do we reverse the effect? Can we reverse the effect ?…there are herbs, supplements, and vitamins that actually regulate estrogen and remove the excess out of the body, via liver. And through other means of expulsion from the body. There are foods we can eat as well as foods to avoid that will assist us in the regulating of the overloading of the hormones in our system. I will give a list of foods herbs and supplements that will assist in this endeavor to keep us hormonally balanced :….Some of these will be used as a tea, others will be consumed and others used as a supplement….and in some cases used together to remove whatever is afflicting us hormonally….

 

Vitamins:

Zinc

Iodine

Selenium

Magnesium

Sulfur

 

 

 

Herbs that can assist in the removal of estrogen from the body

Watercress

Turmeric

Garlic

Onion

Shallots

Parsely

Mint

Celery Root

Rosemary

Siberian Ginseng

Gota Kola

Thyme

Milk Thistle

Dandelion

Lady’s Thistle

Summer and Winter Savoury

Ginger and Galangal

Balm of Gilead ( balsam poplar )

Perilla

Olive Leaf

Oregano

 

Supplements that will remove estrogen or block it’s effect

NAC

L Cysteine

Methionine

Taurine

 

 

Foods that can remove or block estrogen:

Nuts

Seeds

Omega 9 oils

Avocado

Rice Bran Oil

Wheat Germ Oil

Papaya

Pineapple

Berries

Citrus fruits ( Bioflavonoids )

Oats and Barley ( Whole )

Broccoli and Broccoli Sprouts

Onion Sprouts

Cabbage

Cauliflower

Kohl Rabi

Kale

Parsley

Celery Root

Grass fed Animals ( grain fed will encourage hormone imbalancing due to the excess of omega 6 in the fat rather then 3 ( grass fed cows have 15 times more omega 3 then fish )

Ocean caught fish ( make sure you increase garlic or sulfur based supplement with Vitamin C to offset any potential mercury or lead poisoning of the fish.

Ground flax seed ( due to the fibre content of the lignans which will bind to the estrogens ) Make sure you grind it fresh not store bought

 

Herbal Teas

Any tea that will support the liver and the endocrine system should be used to assist in the removal of any unwanted toxin or increase the antioxidant levels so that the body is able to be more efficient in the removing of unwanted pathogens or hormones

Schizandra berry

Fo Ti Eng

Rehmannia Root

Jiagolan

Milk thistle

Nettle

Dandelion

Burdock

Sarsparilla

Perilla

Parsley

White Pine

Birch

Siberian ginseng

Self Heal

Make sure all teas are drunk without any processed sugar or artificial sweetners…Use Xylitol from birch trees or Unpasteurized honey

 

®®RAW MILK ( not pasteurized ) due to the CLA and Vitamin D content

®®Grass fed Cow’s Butter

®®Seed and Nut Milk

®®Almonds ( due to the phosphorous in it to assist the liver in detoxing the estrogens out)

®®Walnuts ( omega 3 which block estrogen conversion of omega 6 )

®®Pumpkin Seed ( due to the zinc content in regulating hormones )

 

http://augmentinforce.50webs.com/ANTI%20ESTROGEN%20SOLUTIONS.htm#ANTI ESTROGEN SOLUTIONS

 

 

TOP E

[U1]Let’s take a look here, there is an issue with this conclusion—see they did a calorie restricted diet has nothing to do with fat or protein or carb or even other nutrients –calorie restricted —this implies a reduction in everything—so the misleading end of this is to get the reader to see that it is FAT that is the problem—it may very well be —but NOT NECESSARILY–what usually triggers the IGF is sugar ( which increases insulin ) and proteins ( arginine-aspartic acid–precursors to GH and whey protein–not to mention zinc-magnesium-and potassium )—the point here is that IGF is as well utilized to break down fatty acids as well—so again in these type of article pay attention to how they will show you a specific but then lead you to a bad conclusion!!
[U2]21 pounds in 5 weeks is about all anyone should be losing in this time frame–the avg lost should be about 3lbs per week anything more can be a rebounder—it can come back and with more pounds as well–this was avg just over 4 .2 lbs
[U3]Again look at this comment here—we eat to much fatty foods—what FAT—since we have an abundant of choices here –vegetable oils ( soy) canola oils -margarines-fih oils with mercury–these are fats as well and People do consume alot of these as well—and then end result is always illnesss the FAT that they are talking is which one?? and can they then explore is it the fat or the components in the fats which maybe the culprit? again see this for what it is —
[U4]Hmm seems to me that the energy of source for the body isssssss F-A-T
[U5]This maybe the resolution to getting rid of the fat storage or to increase fat efficiency getting Bile salts
[U6]Coenzyme A combines with Acetic Acid (derived from endogenous Pyruvic Acid) to form Acetyl Coenzyme A.

 

Nucleic Compounds–Coenzyme A facilitates the repair of the body’s endodgenous Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA).-Coenzyme A facilitates the repair of the body’s endodgenous Ribonucleic Acid (RNA).

 

These Substances Enhance the Function of Coenzyme A–Amino Acids-By exchanging across sub-cellular membranes, Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) serves as a pool of acetyl groups to regenerate Acetyl-Coenzyme A from free Coenzyme A.

Lipids–Caprylic Acid is rapidly reduced to Coenzyme A in the Liver.

Vitamins–Metabolites of Vitamin B5 (in its Pantethine form) are essential components of the Coenzyme A molecule

 

[U7]Interpret this accurately they are not saying you will not get cancer using estrogen but you will get it more then likely if combining this with progesterone or it’s synthethic progestrin—so in other word we are overloading these receptor sites with an already overloaded system and the genes that regulate these hormones are either inadequate or are not present—so then the alternative would be to reduce the overload-not increase the hormones—by blocking the receptors with more hormones all that is happening is a delaying of a cancer nothing more

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TOP F

HOME

 

Show of the Week January 24- 2011

 

99% of Pregnant Women in US Test Positive for Multiple Chemicals Including Banned Ones-Research

Dangerous Antidepressants

 

OAT VINEGAR

 

Recipe for Oat Vinegar

 

Vinegar

 

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99% of Pregnant Women in US Test Positive for Multiple Chemicals Including Banned Ones-Research

 

ScienceDaily (Jan. 16, 2011) — The bodies of virtually all U.S. pregnant women carry multiple chemicals, including some banned since the 1970s and others used in common products such as non-stick cookware, processed foods and personal care products, according to a new study from UCSF. The study marks the first time that the number of chemicals to which pregnant women are exposed has been counted.–Analyzing data for 163 chemicals, researchers detected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), phenols, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and perchlorate in 99 to 100 percent of pregnant women. Among the chemicals found in the study group were PBDEs, compounds used as flame retardants now banned in many states including California, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ( DDT), an organochlorine pesticide banned in the United States in 1972.—Bisphenol A (BPA), which makes plastic hard and clear, and is found in epoxy resins that are used to line the inside of metal food and beverage cans, was identified in 96 percent of the women surveyed. Prenatal exposure to BPA has been linked to adverse health outcomes, affecting brain development and increasing susceptibility to cancer later in life, according to the researchers. Findings will be published in Environmental Health Perspectives on Jan. 14. The study was not designed to identify direct connections to adverse health outcomes.”It was surprising and concerning to find so many chemicals in pregnant women without fully knowing the implications for pregnancy,” said lead author Tracey Woodruff, PhD, MPH, director of the UCSF Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment.—“Several of these chemicals in pregnant women were at the same concentrations that have been associated with negative effects in children from other studies. In addition, exposure to multiple chemicals that can increase the risk of the same adverse health outcome can have a greater impact than exposure to just one chemical,” said Woodruff, an associate professor in the UCSF Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences.–Exposure to chemicals during fetal development has been shown to increase the risk of adverse health consequences, including preterm birth and birth defects[U1], childhood morbidity, and adult disease and mortality according to the research team. In addition, chemicals can cross the placenta and enter the fetus,[U2] and in other studies, a number of chemicals measured in maternal urine and serum have been found in amniotic fluid, cord blood and meconium, they state.–The researchers analyzed data for 268 pregnant women from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004, a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population.–“Our findings indicate several courses of action. First, additional research is needed to identify dominant sources of exposure to chemicals and how they influence our health, especially in reproduction,” said Woodruff. “Second, while individuals can take actions in their everyday lives to protect themselves from toxins, significant, long-lasting change only will result from a systemic approach that includes proactive government policies.[U3]”–Co-authors of the study are Ami R. Zota and Jackie M. Schwartz of the Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment, UCSF Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences.–Funding for the study was provided by the Pew Charitable Trusts and a grant from the Passport Science Innovation Fund.–Story Source–The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by University of California – San Francisco.–Journal Reference–Tracey J. Woodruff, Ami R. Zota, Jackie M. Schwartz. Environmental Chemicals in Pregnant Women in the US: NHANES 2003-2004. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2011; DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1002727 —

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Dangerous Antidepressants

The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) recently published a study in the journal PLoS One highlighting the worst prescription drug offenders that cause patients to become violent.

Among the top-ten most dangerous are the antidepressants Pristiq (desvenlafaxine), Paxil (paroxetine) and Prozac (fluoxetine).

Concerns about the extreme negative side effects of many popular antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs have been on the rise, as these drugs not only cause severe health problems to users, but also pose a significant threat to society. The ISMP report indicates that, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System, many popular drugs are linked even to homicides.

Most of the drugs in the top ten most dangerous are antidepressants, but also included are an insomnia medication, an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug, a malaria drug and an anti-smoking medication.

As reported in Time, the top ten list is as follows:

[10.] Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq) – An antidepressant that affects serotonin and noradrenaline. The drug is 7.9 times more likely to be associated with violence than other drugs.

[9.] Venlafaxine (Effexor) – An antidepressant that treats anxiety disorders. The drug is 8.3 times more likely to be associated with violence than other drugs.

[8.] Fluvoxamine (Luvox) – A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drug that is 8.4 times more likely to be associated with violence than other drugs.

[7.] Triazolam (Halcion) – A benzodiazepine drug for insomnia that is 8.7 times more likely to be associated with violence than other drugs.

[6.] Atomoxetine (Strattera) – An ADHD drug that is 9 times more likely to be associated with violence than other drugs.

[5.] Mefoquine (Lariam) – A malaria drug that is 9.5 times more likely to be associated with violence than other drugs.

[4.] Amphetamines – This general class of ADHD drug is 9.6 times more likely to be associated with violence than other drugs.

[3.] Paroxetine (Paxil) – An SSRI antidepressant drug that is 10.3 times more likely to be associated with violence than other drugs. It is also linked to severe withdrawal symptoms and birth defects.

[2.] Fluoxetine (Prozac) – A popular SSRI antidepressant drug that is 10.9 times more likely to be associated with violence than other drugs.

[1.] Varenicline (Chantix) – An anti-smoking drug that is a shocking 18 times more likely to be associated with violence than other drugs.

 

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OAT VINEGAR ( WILD OAT )

BACKGROUND: The present study focused on the antioxidant activities of aged oat (Avena sativa L.) vinegar. The antioxidant activities of oat and vinegar have been proved by many previous research studies. It should be noted that oat vinegar, as a novel seasoning, has antioxidant activity.

RESULTS: Oat vinegar showed stronger radical scavenging activities, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation than rice vinegar. The concentrations of polyphenols and flavonoids in oat vinegar were higher than those in rice vinegar. Ethyl acetate extract of oat vinegar possessed the most varieties of phenolic acids and showed the strongest antioxidant activity compared with ethanol and water extracts. At suitable doses of oat vinegar, the malondialdehyde value was decreased, activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were promoted, and hepatic damage induced by (60)Co gamma-irradiation was ameliorated in aging mice.

CONCLUSION: Oat vinegar manifested antioxidant activity which was stronger than that of rice vinegar in vitro and the same as that of vitamin E in vivo.

 

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Antioxidant capacity of oat (Avena sativa L.) extracts. 2. In vitro antioxidant activity and contents of phenolic and tocol antioxidants.
Emmons CL, Peterson DM, Paul GL.

Cereal Crops Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 501 Walnut Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA.

Abstract
Oat milling fractions were examined for concentrations of total phenolics, tocols, and phenolic acids and in vitro antioxidant activity to determine their potential as dietary antioxidants. Methanolic extracts of pearling fractions, flour and aspirations from flaking, and trichomes had high, intermediate, and low antioxidant activities, respectively, evaluated by the beta-carotene bleaching method. Pearling fractions were also highest in total phenolics and tocols. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were identified and quantified by HPLC. Three avenanthramides and an unidentified ferulate derivative were also detected. Total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activity, and regression equations that predicted antioxidant activity from phenolic and tocol concentrations were calculated. Antioxidant activity, evaluated by beta-carotene bleaching, was correlated with measures of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and low-density lipoprotein oxidation. These data indicate a potential for oat products, especially those enriched in outer layers of the groat, to contribute to dietary intakes of -antioxidant phytonutrients.

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Potential health benefits of Wild Oats antioxidants avenanthramides
Meydani M.

Vascular Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA. mohsen.meydani@tufts.edu

Abstract
Oats are known to be a healthy food for the heart due mainly to their high beta-glucan content. In addition, they contain more than 20 unique polyphenols, avenanthramides, which have shown strong antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. The polyphenols of oats have also recently been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and anti-itching activity, which may provide additional protection against coronary heart disease, colon cancer, and skin irritation.–PMID: 19941618 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

 

CRecipe for Oat Vinegar—add a cup of groats ( oats with the shell ) in a jar and add vinegar to this and let sit for 10 days on a fridge—this will have fermented the grain with all of it’s content) strain and pour rest into a GLASS container and use as a vinegar on salads or even straight up as a tonic or antioxidant aid

 

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Vinegar

Can be made from any liquid that is capable of being converted into alcohol in a two-step process. The fruit juice or other liquid contains sugar, which is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide gas by the actions of yeast enzymes. The alcohol thus formed combines with atmospheric oxygen by the action of Acetobacter bacteria, forming acetic acid and water. Organic acids and esters derived from the fruit or other source material are also present and are responsible for the flavour and aroma variations of vinegar. Table vinegar contains approximately 4 percent acetic acid. These bacteria work together symbiotically, producing enough acetic acid to prevent invasion by other organisms.–Despite its ancient origin, the technology of vinegar production advanced slowly, improvements consisting principally of better methods of aeration. The Orleans process, best-known of the old methods, used a barrel of about 50 gallons (200 l) capacity. A mash consisting of wine or other alcoholic liquid was poured into the barrel, and a small amount of vinegar containing a mass of vinegar bacteria, called mother of vinegar, was added to start the reaction. One or two small air holes drilled above the liquid level exposed the surface to aeration. The finished vinegar was drawn off through a wooden spigot near the bottom. Care was taken in refilling the barrel with the new charge of raw ingredients to avoid breaking up the surface film of bacteria.—Early in the 18th century, a Dutch technologist, Hermann Boerhaave, found that the rate of acid production in the vinegar process was directly proportional to the amount of surface exposed to air. Thus, subsequent methods attempted to introduce more air into the casks. In the 20th century, continuous aeration—air bubbles pumped through the mash—was developed.–Vinegar’s principal uses are the flavouring of foods and the preservation, or pickling, of meat products, fish, fruit, and vegetables. For use as a condiment, vinegar is often flavoured with garlic, onions, tarragon, or other herbs and spices. Mixed with oil and seasonings it becomes a classic cold sauce—vinaigrette—used as a dressing on vegetable salads and served as a sauce with cold cooked vegetables, meats, and fish. Vinegar is also a common ingredient in marinades and is widely used in the pickling of cucumbers and other vegetables.

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TOP F

[U1]NOWWWWW you have to ask the Question the big one, Why are women getting Vaccinated and or the children or Fetuses in the womb, woman are being purposely infected???? and a MULTITUDE OF CHEMICALS WILL INCREASE ADVERSE HEALTH OUTCOMES????!!!!! DING DING DING –Are We seeing This!!!
[U2]Is this what we want —A violation of fetal Life by having this cross through the placenta!!
[U3]This should not be allowed in the Gov’t’s hands at all—this should be with those of us who have a geniune interest in preerving the Human Race from Gov’t who can easily be bought out by Special interest who mass produce thes toxic waste as well as those who would infect the populace with more infectious disease–the Gov’t has no credibility NONE!!

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TOP G

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Show of the Week Jan 28- 2011

 

Obamacare Bill suggests data chip implants

 

Montrealers Are Feeding Fish Prozac- Research Shows Influence on Brain Activity While Long-Term Consequences Are Unclear

 

CRN– IND guidance could run against spirit of DSHEA–Article 13 American Style

 

Inflammation and Headache Recipes

Council for Responsible Nutrition, Washington, DC

 

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Obamacare Bill suggests data chip implants

 

Coverage under Obamacare will require an implantable microchip.

There’s a pretty starling thing in the bill that 95% of Americans won’t like.

The Obama Health care bill under Class II (Paragraph 1, Section B) specifically includes ‘‘(ii) a class II device that is implantable.” Then on page 1004 it describes what the term “data” means in paragraph 1, section B:

14 ‘‘(B) In this paragraph, the term ‘data’ refers to in
15 formation respecting a device described in paragraph (1),
16 including claims data, patient survey data, standardized
17 analytic files that allow for the pooling and analysis of
18 data from disparate data environments, electronic health
19 records, and any other data deemed appropriate by the
20 Secretary”

What exactly is a class II device that is implantable?

Lets see…
Approved by the FDA, a class II implantable device is a “implantable radiofrequency
transponder system for patient identification and health information.” The purpose of a class II device is to collect data in medical patients such as “claims data, patient survey data, standardized analytic files that allow for the pooling and analysis of data from disparate data environments, electronic health records, and any other data deemed appropriate by the Secretary.”

This sort of device would be implanted in the majority of people who opt to become covered by the public health care option. With the reform of the private insurance companies, who charge outrageous rates, many people will switch their coverage to a more affordable insurance plan. This means the number of people who choose the public option will increase. This also means the number of people chipped will be plentiful as well. The adults who choose to have a chip implanted are the lucky (yes, lucky) ones in this case. Children who are “born in the United States who at the time of birth is not otherwise covered under acceptable coverage” will be qualified and placed into the CHIP or Children’s Health Insurance Program (what a convenient name). With a name like CHIP it would seem consistent to have the chip implanted into a child. Children conceived by parents who are already covered under the public option will more than likely be implanted with a chip by the consent of the parent. Eventually everyone will be implanted with a chip. And with the price and coverage of the public option being so competitive with the private companies, the private company may not survive.

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Montrealers Are Feeding Fish Prozac; Research Shows Influence on Brain Activity While Long-Term Consequences Are Unclear

ScienceDaily (Jan. 22, 2011) — Around one in four Montrealers take some kind of anti-depressant, and according to new research, the drugs are passing into the waterways and affecting fish.–The findings are internationally significant as the city’s sewage treatment system is similar to that in use in other major cities, and moreover, it is reputed to be the third largest treatment system in the world. Lead by Dr. Sébastien Sauvé at the University of Montreal’s Department of Chemistry and André Lajeunesse, a PhD candidate, the research team found that the drugs accumulate in fish tissues and are affecting the fish’s brain activity.—The Saint Lawrence is a major international waterway that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, and it surrounds the island of Montreal. Sauvé has been looking at the chemical pollution of the water system for years. “Montreal has a very basic sewage system — the city basically only removes solids, there’s no disinfecting of the water,” he explained. “In any case, the chemical structure of anti-depressants makes them extremely difficult to remove from sewage, even with the most sophisticated systems available.”–“We know that antidepressants have negative side effects on human beings,” Sauvé said, “but we don’t know how exactly how these chemicals are affecting the fish, and by extension, the Saint Lawrence River’s ecosystem.” Despite a lack of information about the possible toxicity brought from these substances, the research group suggests an interesting tool to track the early biological effects of antidepressants. “Since the acute toxicity of antidepressants is less probable toward aquatic organisms, chronic toxicity remained possible. In this way, the suggested biomarker involved in the serotonin regulation in the brain may represent a promising means of determining subtle biological effects to fish,” explained Lajeunesse. Chronic toxicity means harm resulting from long-term exposure, whereas acute relates to more immediate harm following a single high-dose incident. Serotonin is an important chemical that plays a role in feelings of happiness — it’s sometimes referred to as the “happy hormone.”–Sauvé was quick to point out that there is no immediate danger to humans. “The amount of anti-depressants being released into our river works out to roughly the equivalent of a grain of salt in an Olympic-size swimming pool,” he said. “That’s not enough to affect people, should they are brave enough to go fishing out there — I’d be more worried about the trace metals! Nevertheless, we are seeing an impact on the river’s ecosystem, which should concern cities everywhere.” Further research by other teams will look at exactly what the consequences might be.–This research received funding from the Chemical Management Plan — Health Canada, the St. Lawrence Action Plan and the Canadian Foundation for Innovation. It was published online by Chemosphere on Jan. 5, 2011. Christian Gagnon, François Gagné, and Séverine Louis at Environment Canada and Patrick Čejka at the Montreal Sewage Treatment Plant contributed to the findings.

Story Source-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by University of Montreal, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.-Journal Reference-André Lajeunesse, Christian Gagnon, François Gagné, Séverine Louis, Patrick Čejka, Sébastien Sauvé. Distribution of antidepressants and their metabolites in brook trout exposed to municipal wastewaters before and after ozone treatment – Evidence of biological effects. Chemosphere, 2011; DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.12.026

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CRN– IND guidance could run against spirit of DSHEA–Article 13 American Style

As the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prepares final guidance on Investigational New Drugs (INDs) a leading trade group has warned of the damaging effect on nutrient research that could follow if the application of INDs is not modified from the current draft guidance.

The Washington DC-based Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN) submitted comments to the FDA highlighting why nutrient research could sometimes be applied in both the pharma and food spheres.–A demarcation between the two would defeat the intention of the 1994 Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act (DSHEA), it said, and called for certain types of research o be exempt from NDI requirements.

“While CRN agrees that a product’s intended use should dictate its regulatory category, we question the rationale for allowing a product’s regulatory category to drive scientific inquiry,” the CRN’s vice president of scientific and regulatory affairs, Duffy MacKay wrote in a nine-page submission.

MacKay wrote his group was concerned, “some aspects of the Draft Guidance may have the unintended consequence of acting in opposition to the spirit” of DSHEA, and create, “unnecessary obstacles to the continued scientific study of dietary supplements.”

He added that DSHEA had authorized the establishment of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study the benefits of dietary supplements in maintaining health and preventing chronic disease and so ‘dietary supplements’ had been mandated to be studied in a pharma and nutra ways.

“The potential for a dietary supplement to have a dual definition, which is dependent on its intended use, has resulted in much confusion amongst the research community.”

Nutrients versus drugs

Industry is concerned some nutrients like omega-3s or probiotics may require IND’s if they are to be studied, and that there will be a bias to disease endpoints as there are no validated endpoints for wellness.

“For example, an investigator interested in evaluating a yogurt product from the grocery store that contains beneficial bacteria for its ability to prevent constipation in a healthy population would be required to file an IND. This seems incongruent with the intent of the IND…”

MacKay highlighted further clarity was needed because:

· Much nutrient research was academia, not commercial driven and academia need to be alerted to the guidance and its implications for their work, especially when an IND is required.

· Cost and proprietary science concerns would see companies pulling out of the scientific process if INDs are required for certain trials.

· IND approaches across various sectors are not unified and an IND policy in the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). The current system may see an inundation of INDs.

· Many nutrients possess a variability that does not fit the IND model.

· Obtaining an IND does not necessarily improve study safety or quality.

He pointed out a grey area in that DSHEA does not permit a, “product that does not contain an article authorized for investigation as a new drug, antibiotic, or biological for which substantial clinical investigations have been instituted and for which existence of such investigations has been made public.”

But the FDA has indicated a citizen’s petition, such as the one currently being appraised for a hormone produced by Canadian firm Ovos Natural Health, could be a way to have nutrients that have been subject to drug research classified as dietary supplements, via the New Dietary Ingredients route.

MacKay called for the FDA to specify financial penalties for conducting trials without INDs.

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Inflammation and Headache Recipes

 

Headaches—Body aches—Aches in places where you have aches

Lets make a remedy—Lets start out with something conventional and give it a boost

Aspirin 81 mg or a generic that is 81mg –Uneneterocoated—1 caplet with with 100-200 mgs of magnesium and 1/8 tsp of cayenne pepper or 1 capsule at 500mgs—take together

 

Take White Willow Extract or tincture put into a glass container and add 1 ½ oz to ½ oz of cayenne tincture—Mix Well and then take ¼-1/2 tsp

 

Dlpa 500 -750 mgs with 200 mgs of magnesium citrate

 

Bay Leaf Extract with Cayenne Pepper 1:1 ratio ( equal parts say ½ oz to a ½ oz ) mix well and take ¼ -1/2 tsp

 

White Willow or FeverFew 1/8 cup with 6-8 leaves of Bay Leaf in a 2 pint pot of water—drink a 4-6 oz serving several times a day

 

Breatheing in the Essential oil of lavender

 

Body Ache

Using Vicks as a body Rub or make your own cream by adding Peppermint 8 drops—Camphor 8 drops —Eucalyptus 8 drops and Wintergreen 8 drops with a red or black pepper extract 1 oz and fuse in bees wax and coconut oil ½ cup of coconut oil and ¼ cup of wax or less if you want a lotion –add 1 oz of alcohol and heat together in a double broiler or a ban marie heat til all soft –wne at this point then take a blender and pour content in glass container—allow for cooling then apply this liberally and even on chest cavity for congestion the apply this where pain exist

 

Using Pine oil 4 drops and Camphor oil 4 drops and mix with 4 oz of peanut oil and massage in pained areas or areas of intense out break

 

Take a bath in Magnesium sulfate or magnesium chloride1 cup per bath –will alleviate pain

 

Some of these can apply to menstrual pain as well—body aches—prostrate inflammation—leg problems—circulatory problems—muscle joint pain Back aches and the list goes on

 

 

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Show Of the Week January 31- 2011

 

Nutrients that can Induce Sleep

 

Some things that can carry Melatonin

 

Tryptophan (Trp) Content of Various Foods

 

Stages of Sleep

 

 

Nutrients That Can Induce Sleep

5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) increases total Sleep time.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine improves the quality of Sleep and reduces the optimal number of hours of Sleep required.

Phenylalanine reduces the amount of Sleep time required.

Tryptophan (500 – 4,000 mg per night) reduces the amount of time taken to fall asleep (Sleep latency) when taken one to two hours prior to retiring.

 

Antioxidants—Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) reduces the amount of Sleep time that is required for optimal health.

 

Hormones—-Supplemental, exogenous Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (50 mg per day) improves the quality of Sleep (especially in people aged 40 and over).

Human Growth Hormone (hGH) helps to regulate and facilitate Sleep:

Endogenous hGH is released during Slow-Wave Sleep and helps to regulate REM Sleep. Exogenous, supplemental hGH has been demonstrated to restore Slow-Wave Sleep and REM Sleep patterns to normal. Supplemental, exogenous Melatonin decreases the relative proportion of the Drowsiness and Stage 1 Sleep and increases the relative proportion of Stage 2, Slow-Wave and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Supplemental Melatonin greatly reduces the number of movements during Sleep, reduces the time taken to fall asleep after retiring (Sleep latency), reduces the body’s core temperature during Sleep and improves the subjective quality of Sleep without increasing next-morning Drowsiness.

 

Progesterone helps to restore normal Sleep cycles.

Exogenous Vasopressin improves the quality of Sleep, increases total Sleep time and increases the quantity of Slow-Wave Sleep.

 

Lipids

 

Exogenous Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) infused into the Cerebral Ventricles (in a clinical setting) induces natural Sleep.

 

Minerals

 

Magnesium (when consumed just prior to retiring) improves the quality of Sleep. Potassium improves the quality of Sleep and reduces the frequency of awakenings after the onset of Sleep.

 

Neurotransmitters

 

Acetylcholine helps to maintain Sleep. It controls the amount of sensory input that reaches the Brain during Sleep and increases the stimulus barrier (increasing the threshold of sensory inputs before wakiing occurs) during Sleep. Optimal Acetylcholine allows sleepers to remain asleep through minor noises and other disturbances. Light sleepers are likely to have sub-optimal Acetylcholine.

 

Supplemental, exogenous Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) (1,000 – 3,000 mg administered sublingually at night) facilitates Sleep. research

 

Smart Drugs

 

Diapid alleviates some Sleep disorders.

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) reduces the amount of Sleep required by approximately one hour per night (this effect occurs after six weeks of continuous DMAE use):

DMAE makes it easier for most people to get fall asleep Sleep at night.

DMAE users experience a sounder Sleep and after six weeks of continuous DMAE use, most people report waking earlier and having a clearer mind upon waking.

 

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) facilitates both Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep and Slow-Wave (deep or non-REM) Sleep. research

Minaprine improves the quality of Sleep (when taken early in the day):

Minaprine users report awakening with reduces tiredness in the morning.

Caution: Minaprine should not be consumed at night as it can prevent Sleep.

 

Vitamins

 

Choline improves the quality of Sleep. It helps to keep an individual asleep after they have fallen asleep (via its role as a precursor for Acetylcholine, the Neurotransmitter that helps to prevent unnecessary interruptions to Sleep from non-threatening stimuli).

Inositol (1,000 – 10,000 mg taken at bedtime) improves the quality of Sleep (by assisting Vitamin B3 to bind to the Benzodiazepine Receptors in the Brain).

Vitamin B3 (200 – 1,000 mg of the Niacinamide form of Vitamin B3 taken at bedtime) improves the quality of Sleep (by binding to the Benzodiazepine Receptors of the Brain).

Vitamin B6 improves the quality of Sleep (by functioning as a cofactor for the production of Serotonin).

Vitamin B12 improves the quality of Sleep (by increasing endogenous Melatonin levels early in the night and reducing Melatonin levels at then end of a night’s Sleep).

Vitamin E improves the quality of Sleep.

 

These Foods/Herbs Improve the Quality of Sleep

 

Fruits—Grapefruit (juice consumed at night) improves the quality of Sleep.

 

Herbs—-Astragalus improves the quality of Sleep (it has been demonstrated to increase Sleep time in animal studies).

Catuaba reputedly improves the quality of Sleep.

Damiana helps some people to Sleep better (according to anecdotal reports).

Essiac (a mixture of Herbs – primarily Sheep Sorrel) improves the quality of Sleep (according to anecdotal reports).

Ginkgo biloba rectifies impaired Sleep quality in persons using Tricyclic Antidepressants and may also improve Sleep quality in normal, healthy persons: Ginkgo biloba reduces the duration of Stage 1 Sleep in persons using Tricyclic Antidepressants and may also reduce the duration of Stage 1 Sleep in normal, healthy persons. Ginkgo biloba enhances the quality of Slow-Wave Sleep (deep Sleep) in persons using Tricyclic Antidepressants and may also enhance the quality of Slow-Wave Sleep in normal, healthy persons.

 

Lavender (oil used in Aromatherapy) and tincture or tea improves the quality of Sleep.

Passion Flower induces a restful Sleep free from frequent awakenings and disturbances (by means of its constituent Harmala Alkaloids sedating the Central Nervous System).

Siberian Ginseng normalizes Sleep patterns.

Valerian improves the quality of Sleep.

Vanillin or Vanilla assist in the relaxation and inducing of sleep

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Recipes for Sleep—Glycine 500mgs + Inositol 500mgs 30 min before bed

Taurine 500mgs + magnesium—Gaba 500mgs + Niacinamide 250-500mgs

Melatonin- Trytophan 500mgs + Niacin 50 mgs Vanilla 10 drops + Lavender tincture 10 drops in 2 oz of water—Passion flower 10 drops + St John’s wort

Valerian tincture + Passion Flower10 drops of each in water—Utilize an of these combinations 30 minutes before going to bed and do not Mix Under any circumstance with anything from the pharmacy that is drug related

 

Some things that can carry Melatonin

 

Melatonin: Natural food and non-food sources of melatonin

 

Melatonin is a molecule synthesized in the brain by the pineal gland and in the gastrointestinal tract. Melatonin is also synthesized in other organisms including plants.

Melatonin is believed to be responsible for the synchrony of circadian rhythm, modulating sleep patterns with day and night.

Melatonin is an antioxidant and protects tissues from oxidative damage by free radical elements. Further more, melatonin induces synthesis of endigenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismtase (SOD).

Several researches indicate that melatonin protects the gastrointestinal tract from irritation, reduces stress-induced lesion formation and heals ulcer.

Below are lists containing natural plant sources of melatonin. Melatonin content is in nanogram (ng) per gram of plant sample

Melatonin source

Melatonin content (ng/g)

Huang-qin

7,110

St. John’s wort, flower

4,390

Fever few, green leaf

2,450

Fever few, gold leaf

1,920

St. John’s wort, leaf

1,750

White mustard seed

189

Black mustard seed

129

Wolf berry seed

103

Fenugreek seed

43

Sunflower seed

29

Fennel seed

28

Alfalfa seed

16

Green cardamom seed

15

Tart cherry fruit (Montmorency)

15

Flax seed

12

Anise seed

7

Coriander seed

7

Celery seed

7

Poppy seed

6

Milk thistle seed

2

Tart cherry fruit (Balaton)

2

Melatonin source

Melatonin content [ng/g]

Feverfew, fresh leaf

> 1,300

Feverfew, dried leaf

>7,000

Almond seed

39

Pimpinella peregrina, dried root

38

Sunflower seed

29

Fennel seed

28

Lemon verbena, young plant

22

Balm mint, young plant

16

Green cardamom seed

15

Artcherry, Montmorency, fruit

15–18

Anise seed

7

Tall fescue seed

5

oat seed

1.8

Indian corn seed

1.3

Rice seed

1

Red radish root tuber

0.6

Japanese radish , stem and leaves

0.6

Tomato fruit

0.5

Ginger tuber

0.5

 

 

In using this chart keep in mind this is nanogram which means 1 billionth of a mg

So that implies a small amount—so in order to get any benefit from these sources you would have to consume them in adequate amounts st johns is 4,390 per gram 0r 1000-mgs so if you took 5 grams you would get over 2 mgs which is what the pill is usually between 1-3 miligrams

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Tryptophan (Trp) Content of Various Foods

 

 

Food↓

Protein
[g/100 g of food]↓

Tryptophan
[g/100 g of food]↓

Tryptophan/Protein [%]↓

egg, white, dried

81.10

1.00

1.23

spirulina, dried

57.47

0.93

1.62

cod, atlantic, dried

62.82

0.70

1.11

soybeans, raw

36.49

0.59

1.62

pumpkin seed

33.08

0.57

1.72

cheese, Parmesan

37.90

0.56

1.47

Caribou

29.77

0.46

1.55

sesame seed

17.00

0.37

2.17

cheese, cheddar

24.90

0.32

1.29

sunflower seed

17.20

0.30

1.74

pork, chop

19.27

0.25

1.27

Turkey

21.89

0.24

1.11

Chicken

20.85

0.24

1.14

Beef

20.13

0.23

1.12

Salmon

19.84

0.22

1.12

lamb, chop

18.33

0.21

1.17

perch, Atlantic

18.62

0.21

1.12

Egg

12.58

0.17

1.33

wheat flour, white

10.33

0.13

1.23

baking chocolate, unsweetened

12.9

0.13

1.23

Milk

3.22

0.08

2.34

rice, white

7.13

0.08

1.16

oatmeal, cooked

2.54

0.04

1.16

potatoes, russet

2.14

0.02

0.84

 

Stages of Sleep
Usually sleepers pass through five stages: 1, 2, 3, 4 and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. These stages progress cyclically from 1 through REM then begin again with stage 1. A complete sleep cycle takes an average of 90 to 110 minutes. The first sleep cycles each night have relatively short REM sleeps and long periods of deep sleep but later in the night, REM periods lengthen and deep sleep time decreases.

Stage 1 is light sleep where you drift in and out of sleep and can be awakened easily. In this stage, the eyes move slowly and muscle activity slows. During this stage, many people experience sudden muscle contractions preceded by a sensation of falling.

In stage 2, eye movement stops and brain waves become slower with only an occasional burst of rapid brain waves. When a person enters stage 3, extremely slow brain waves called delta waves are interspersed with smaller, faster waves. In stage 4, the brain produces delta waves almost exclusively. Stages 3 and 4 are referred to as deep sleep or delta sleep, and it is very difficult to wake someone from them. In deep sleep, there is no eye movement or muscle activity. This is when some children experience bedwetting, sleepwalking or night terrors. In 2008 the sleep profession in the US eliminated the use of stage 4. Stages 3 and 4 are now considered stage 3.

In the REM period, breathing becomes more rapid, irregular and shallow, eyes jerk rapidly and limb muscles are temporarily paralyzed. Brain waves during this stage increase to levels experienced when a person is awake. Also, heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, males develop erections and the body loses some of the ability to regulate its temperature. This is the time when most dreams occur, and, if awoken during REM sleep, a person can remember the dreams. Most people experience three to five intervals of REM sleep each night.

Infants spend almost 50% of their time in REM sleep. Adults spend nearly half of sleep time in stage 2, about 20% in REM and the other 30% is divided between the other three stages. Older adults spend progressively less time in REM sleep.

As sleep research is still a relatively young field, scientists did not discover REM sleep until 1953 when new machines were developed to monitor brain activity. Before this discovery it was believed that most brain activity ceased during sleep. Since then, scientists have also disproved the idea that deprivation of REM sleep can lead to insanity and have found that lack of REM sleep can alleviate clinical depression although they do not know why. Recent theories link REM sleep to learning and memory.

Stage

Frequency (Hz)

Amplitude (micro Volts)

Waveform type

awake

15-50

<50

 

pre-sleep

8-12

50

alpha rhthym

1

4-8

50-100

theta

2

4-15

50-150

splindle waves

3

2-4

100-150

spindle waves and slow waves

4

0.5-2

100-200

slow waves and delta waves

REM

15-30

<50

 

The waveform during REM has low amplitudes and high frequencies., just like the waking state. Early researchers actually called it “paradoxial sleep”.

According to the results of a study completed by Statistics Canada, the amount of sleep a person gets each night depends on a variety of factors, including gender, marital and employment statuses. More…

The functions of many organ systems are linked to the sleep cycle.

Endocrine system—Most hormone secretion is controlled by the circadian clock or in response to physical events. Sleep is one of the events that modify the timing of secretion for certain hormones. Many hormones are secreted into the blood during sleep. For example, scientists believe that the release of growth hormone is related in part to repair processes that occur during sleep. Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, which are involved in maturational and reproductive processes, are among the hormones released during sleep. In fact, the sleep-dependent release of luteinizing hormone is thought to be the event that initiates puberty. Other hormones, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone, are released prior to sleep.— Both sleep and circadian effects interact to produce the overall rhythmic pattern of the pituitary and pituitary-dependent hormones. Some of the 24-h hormonal rhythms depend on the circadian clock (ACTH, cortisol and melatonin), or are sleep related (prolactin and TSH). GH secretion is influenced by the first slow wave sleep (SWS) episode at the beginning of the night. Pulses of prolactin and GH are positively linked to increases in delta wave activity, i.e. deepest phases of sleep, occurring primarily during the first third of the night. Pulses of TSH and cortisol are related to superficial phases of sleep. As a result of the consolidation of the sleep period, the wake-sleep transition is associated with physiological changes with the endocrine system being part of the adaptive mechanism to reduce physical activity during sleep—-
Renal system—Kidney filtration, plasma flow, and the excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium, and calcium all are reduced during sleep. These changes cause urine to be more concentrated during sleep. —There is also sleep-related increase in plasma aldosterone levels; an increase in prolactin secretion. There is increased parathyroid hormone release during sleep, which may affect calcium excretion. In general, the following are reduced during sleep: glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, filtration fraction, and the excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium, and calcium. Smaller quantities of more concentrated urine are excreted during NREM sleep than during wakefulness; during REM sleep urine excretion is reduced and concentrated to a greater extent than during NREM sleep.

Alimentary activity–In a person with normal digestive function, gastric acid secretion is reduced during sleep. In those with an active ulcer, gastric acid secretion is actually increased and swallowing occurs less frequently.