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Extracts of Canadian first nations medicinal plants, used as natural products, inhibit neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with different antibiotic resistance profiles.

 

Sex Transm Dis. 2011 Jul;38(7):667-71

 

Authors: Cybulska P, Thakur SD, Foster BC, Scott IM, Leduc RI, Arnason JT, Dillon JA

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) has developed resistance to most antimicrobial agents and the antibiotics recommended for therapy are restricted, for the most part, to third generation cephalosporins. In order to investigate new potential sources of antimicrobial agents, the antibacterial properties of 14 Canadian plants used in traditional First Nations’ medicine were tested against Ng isolates having differing antimicrobial susceptibility profiles.

METHODS: Ethanolic extracts of 14 Canadian botanicals, analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, were tested for their antimicrobial activity (disc diffusion and/or agar dilution assays) against susceptible Ng reference strains and a panel of 28 Ng isolates with various antimicrobial resistance profiles. RESULTS: Extracts of Arctostaphylos uva ursi (kinnikinnick or bearberry), Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Prunus serotina (black cherry), and Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) inhibited the growth of all Ng isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 32 μg/mL, 4 to 32 μg/mL, 16 to >32 μg/mL, and 32 to 64 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts of Acorus americanus (sweet flag), Berberis vulgaris (barberry), Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh), Equisetum arvense (field horsetail), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador tea), Ledum palustre (marsh Labrador tea), Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose), Sambucus nigra (elderberry), and Zanthoxylum americanum (prickly ash) had weak or no antimicrobial activity against the Ng isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥256 μg/mL. The phytochemical berberine from H. canadensis inhibited the growth of all Ng isolates. The phytochemicals, salidroside and rosavin, present in R. rosea, also showed inhibitory activity against Ng strains.– CONCLUSION: Canadian botanicals represent a potential source of novel compounds which inhibit Ng, including isolates resistant to antibiotics.—PMID: 21301385 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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How Food Affects Genes

 

Tiny RNA molecules in food eaten can circulate in the bloodstream and turn genes off in the body; what are the implications of eating genetically modified food?

Dr. Mae-Wan Ho

 

Nucleic acids circulating in the bloodstream and Darwin’s theory of pangenesis

 

The age-old adage that you are what you eat has taken a literal turn in the rush of startling findings since the human genome sequence was announced 10 years ago, which overturn every tenet of the genetic determinist ideology that had made the Human Genome Project seem a compelling undertaking —-In 2009, we reported on nucleic acids circulating in the bloodstream that offer golden opportunities for disease diagnosis, and may also play a role in communication between cells within an organism [3] (Intercommunication via Circulating Nucleic Acids, SiS 42). –But would circulating nucleic acids cross species barriers? Yes, according to Liu Yongshen at the Henan Institute of Science and Technology in Xinxiang, China [4]. Furthermore, Charles Darwin was really the first person to have proposed a mechanism for it in his theory of pangenesis. —Darwin’s theory of pangenesis suggested that all cells of an organism shed minute particles, gemmules, which circulate throughout the body and are passed on to the next generation through the germ cells. In that way, the characteristics of the parents are passed on to their offspring. And if the cells of the parents undergo changes during their life time, those changes would also be transmitted to the offspring. Liu described Darwin’s theory of pangenesis in some detail and reviewed both historical and more recent evidence in support of it, including fascinating findings on transmission of characteristics through blood transfusion that have been expurgated from the mainstream account. He concluded that [4]: “a considerable revision of views on Darwin’s Pangenesis must occur before a new comprehensive genetic theory can be achieved.”

Question are raised the potential dangers of genetically modified (GM) nucleic acids in GM food being taken up by cells in our body. –Now, a team of researchers in China have documented just this possibility. Plant nucleic acids are found to survive digestion in the gut, escape into the bloodstream, and taken up into the liver cells to target a very specific gene for silencing [6].—MicroRNAs a new class of signalling molecules between cells-Zhang Chen-Yu and colleagues at Nanjing University, National University of Defence Technology, Changsha, and Tianjin Medical University, have been researching stable microRNAs, which they found circulating in the bloodstream of mammals that are actively secreted from the tissues and cells in the body. In a paper published in 2008 [7], the team presented results suggesting that the miRNAs could serve as a novel class of biomarkers for disease, and later showed that they could act as signaling molecules in intercellular communication.—MicroRNAs (miRNAa) are a class of 19-24 nucleotide long non-coding RNAs that silence an estimated 30 percent of protein-coding genes in mammals after the genes are transcribed. They do so by pairing, usually with complementary sequences in the 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) of the targeted gene transcripts. The targeted genes are involved in a range of vital functions including cell differentiation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), cell proliferation, the immune response, and the maintenance of cell and tissue identity. Dysregulation of miRNAs is linked to cancer and other diseases; and specific miRNA profiles in the blood are potential biomarkers for diagnosis. —Zhang and colleagues had characterized the possible carriers of circulating miRNAs as microvesicles (MVs) shed from almost every cell type under both normal and pathological conditions (rather like Darwin’s gemmules). The MVs carry surface receptors and ligands of the original cells and have the potential to selectively interact with specific target cells to transport lipids, mRNA, proteins, or other signalling molecules between cells. Many MVs also contain miRNAs that could be selectively packaged and delivered into recipient cells where they regulate the expression of target genes and recipient cell function. In other words, miRNAs can serve as a novel class of signaling molecules between cells in the same organism.–To their surprise, Zhang and colleagues found plant miRNAs in the serum and plasma of humans and other mammals [6]. More than half of the plant miRNAs detected are present in MVs. In an extensive series of experiments, they showed that a particularly abundant plant miRNA, MIR168a, can pass through the mouse gut and enter the bloodstream, ending up in various organs especially the liver, where it regulates a specific protein, LDLRAP1, involved in low density lipoprotein uptake.

 

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Choline may help protect the brain from effects of ageing

 

Increased dietary intake of choline may be related to better cognitive performance and protection against memory loss.— The study – published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition – points towards correlation between memory and dietary choline – found in such as saltwater fish, eggs, liver, chicken, milk and certain legumes, including soy( Not suggested ) and kidney beans and sunflower seeds– after researchers found that people with high intakes of choline performed better on memory tests, and were less likely to show brain changes associated with dementia. — The researchers, led by senior researcher Rhoda Au of Boston University School of Medicine, USA, said that their results do not mean that choline is the answer to staving off Alzheimer’s disease, but noted that the findings do add to evidence that nutrition plays a role in the aging of the brain. — However, Au cautioned against looking to any one nutrient as a magic bullet against dementia. [U1]–Diet-dementia link — A number of studies have reported links between diet and nutrition and the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. — The authors noted that choline is the precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and as such has attracted attention as a possibly important nutrient to stave off cognitive decline. They added that the loss of cholinergic neurons is associated with impaired cognitive function – particularly memory loss and Alzheimer disease (AD). —Study details Au and her colleagues analysed population data from the long-running Framingham study. Nearly 1,400 adults aged between 36 and 83 completed a food-frequency questionnaire and then underwent tests of memory and other cognitive abilities, including MRI brain scans. — In general, Au and her team found that men and women who reported high choline intake performed better on the memory tests than those who reported lower intake – however the researchers said that the differences in test performance were small. —“As far as your day-to-day functioning, it would not be an appreciable difference,” said Au. — However, she added, the findings suggest that people with lower choline intakes are more likely to be on a ‘pathway’ toward mental decline than their counterparts with higher intakes. In addition, the team found that people with higher choline intake at the outset were less likely to show areas of “white-matter hyperintensity” – areas believed to be a sign of blood vessel disease – in their MRI brain scans. — Au reiterated that none of the results prove that choline, per se, protects memory or unhealthy brain changes associated with aging. One possibility, she noted, is that some other nutrients present along with choline are responsible for the effects seen. — She added that further studies in humans are needed to back up the current findings. — Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Volume 94, Number 6, pages 1584-1591 , doi: 10.3945/​ajcn.110.008938 “The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort”Authors: C. Poly, J.M. Massaro, S. Seshadri, P.A. Wolf, E. Cho, E. Krall, P.F. Jacques, R. Au

 

Recipe for brain Enhancements—Utilize Choline + Piracetam + Dmae in a ratio of 2:1:1 piracetam 2-choline 1-dmae 1 and you can see the enhancements of thought processes increase—memory retained-analytical thinking increase—a wakening of a dullness

 

Using Lugols iodine 1-4 drops a day will increase brain acquity as well as mood and endurance mentally

 

Consuming Sunflower lecithin or Egg Yolk Lecithin and wheat germ oil will increase brain and coordination

 

Drinking Caffeinated Beverages plus adding b12 1000mcgs-5000mcgs and B1 100mgs –can as well see an increase in brain efficiency

 

Eating nuts and seeds high in saturated fats and omega 6 fats will increase brain health as well as increase phosphorus which is needed fro brain functionality—several tsp daily

 

Coffee does the same as gingko or periwinkle as far as oxygenating the brain and increasing alertness—you can as well utilize ephedrine 8mgs + caffeine 100mgs ( 1 cup of a 14 oz volume)—or take the essential oil of peppermint ( 1 drop ) and add to black coffee

 

The use of nootropics will as well make a huge difference on brain functionality

 

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Recipe for Making your own EFA’s

 

Add 1 part Omega 3 ( walnut oil—chia seed oil—periwinkle oil )

Add 2 parts omega 6 ( evening primrose-sesame seed-sunflower seed-borage-peanut-almond-apricot-any one or any combo to get a 2 part ratio )

Add 1 part of omega 9 ( olive oil-macadamia nut oil-pumpkin seed oil )

Add either essential oil of rosemary or sage or thyme or savoury or oregano –to act as an antioxidant

 

Use 1 tsp several times a day or as needed

 

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TOP I

[U1]I agree—with the many biochemcials in the brain we need to utilize synergy to offset the imbalances and a lot of times it does take more then one thing—but the most part it requires we eliminate the things that are causing the damage to begin with!!
[U2]Omega 6 oils and omega 9