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Article printed from Welcome to the Alliance for Natural Health – USA: http://www.anh-usa.org

URL to article: http://www.anh-usa.org/senators-give-supplements-a-lifeline/

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When Overeating, Calories — Not Protein — Contribute to Increase in Body Fat
ScienceDaily (Jan. 3, 2012) — In a study conducted among 25 healthy individuals living in a controlled setting who were randomized to overconsumption of different levels of protein diets, those consuming the low-protein diet had less weight gain compared to those consuming normal and high protein diets, and calories alone, and not protein appeared to contribute to an increase in body fat, according to a study in the January 4 issue of JAMA. The researchers also found that protein did contribute to changes in energy expenditure and lean body mass.—–“Obesity has become a major public health concern with more than 60 percent of adults in the United States categorized as overweight and more than 30 percent as obese,” according to background information in the article. The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation is unclear.–George A. Bray, M.D., of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, La., and colleagues conducted a study to determine whether the level of dietary protein differentially affected body composition, weight gain, or energy expenditure under tightly controlled conditions. The randomized controlled trial included 25 U.S. healthy, weight-stable male and female volunteers, ages 18 to 35 years, with a body mass index between 19 and 30. The first participant was admitted to the inpatient metabolic unit in June 2005 and the last in October 2007. After consuming a weight-stabilizing diet for 13 to 25 days, participants were randomized to receive diets containing 5 percent of energy from protein (low protein), 15 percent (normal protein), or 25 percent (high protein), which they were overfed during the last 8 weeks of their 10- to 12-week stay in the inpatient metabolic unit. Compared with energy intake during the weight stabilization period, the protein diets provided approximately 40 percent more energy intake, which corresponds to 954 calories a day.—All participants in the study gained weight and there were no differences by sex. The rate of weight gain in the low protein diet group was significantly less than in the other 2 groups (6.97 lbs. [3.16 kg] vs. 13.3 lbs [6.05 kg] for the normal protein diet group and 14.4 lbs [6.51 kg] in the high protein diet group).–“Body fat increased similarly in all 3 protein diet groups and represented 50 percent to more than 90 percent of the excess stored calories. Resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure, and body protein did not increase during overfeeding with the low protein diet,” the authors write.-Lean body mass (body protein) decreased during the overeating period by 1.5 lbs. (0.70 kg) in the low protein diet group compared with a gain of 6.3 lbs. (2.87 kg) in the normal protein diet group and 7 lbs. (3.18 kg) in the high protein diet group. Resting energy expenditure (normal protein diet: 160 calories/day; high protein diet: 227 calories/day) increased significantly with the normal and high protein diets.-“In summary, weight gain when eating a low protein diet (5 percent of energy from protein) was blunted compared with weight gain when eating a normal protein diet (15 percent of energy from protein) with the same number of extra calories. Calories alone, however, contributed to the increase in body fat. In contrast, protein contributed to the changes in energy expenditure and lean body mass, but not to the increase in body fat,” the researchers write. “The key finding of this study is that calories are more important than protein while consuming excess amounts of energy with respect to increases in body fat.”

Editorial: Overeating and Overweight — Extra Calories Increase Fat Mass While Protein Increases Lean Mass—-In an accompanying editorial, Zhaoping Li, M.D., Ph.D., and David Heber, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of California, Los Angeles, write that the results of this study “informs primary care physicians and policy makers about the benefits of protein in weight management.” “The results suggest that overeating low protein diets may increase fat deposition leading to loss of lean body mass despite lesser increases in body weight. Policy makers and primary care physicians need to understand the role of the Western diet in promoting overweight and obesity. Because this diet increases the risks of overnutrition through fat deposition beyond that detected by body mass index, the method used to assess the current obesity epidemic and the magnitude of the obesity epidemic may have been underestimated. Clinicians should consider assessing a patient’s overall fatness rather than simply measuring body weight or body mass index and concentrate on the potential complications of excess fat accumulation. The goals for obesity treatment should involve fat reduction rather than simply weight loss, along with a better understanding of nutrition science.” Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by JAMA and Archives Journals.

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Cancer-Killing Compound Spares Healthy Cells- Lithocholic acid

ScienceDaily (Jan. 4, 2012) — Lithocholic acid (LCA), naturally produced in the liver during digestion, has been seriously underestimated. A study published in the journal Oncotarget shows that LCA can kill several types of cancer cells, such as those found in some brain tumors and breast cancer.The research team, led by Concordia University, included scientists from McGill University and the Jewish General Hospital’s Lady Davis Institute in Montreal as well as the University of Saskatchewan.–Previous research from this same team showed LCA also extends the lifespan of aging yeast. This time, the team found LCA to be very selective in killing cancer cells while leaving normal cells unscathed. This could signal a huge improvement over the baby-with-the-bathwater drugs used in chemotherapy.–“LCA doesn’t just kill individual cancer cells. It could also prevent the entire tumor from growing,” says senior author Vladimir Titorenko, a professor in the Department of Biology and Concordia University Research Chair in Genomics, Cell Biology and Aging.–What’s more, LCA prevents tumors from releasing substances that cause neighboring cancer cells to grow and proliferate. Titorenko says LCA is the only compound that targets cancer cells, which could translate into tumor-halting power.–This is important for preventing cancer cells from spreading to other parts of the body,” he says, noting that unlike other anti-aging compounds, LCA stops cancer cell growth yet lets normal cells continue to grow.–A wide effect on different types of cancers –The next step for the research team will be to test LCA’s effect on different cancers in mice models. Titorenko expects that LCA will also kill cancer cells in those experiments and lead to human clinical trials. “Our study found that LCA kills not only tumors (neuroblastomas), but also human breast cancer cells,” says Titorenko. “This shows that it has a wide effect on different types of cancers.”–Titorenko emphasizes that unlike drugs used in chemotherapy, LCA is a natural compound that is already present in our bodies. Studies have shown that LCA can be safely administered to mice by adding it to their food. So why is LCA so deadly for cancer cells? Titorenko speculates that cancer cells have more sensors for LCA, which makes them more sensitive to the compound than normal cells.—LCA sensors send signals to mitochondria — the powerhouses of all cells. It seems that when these signals are too strong, mitochondria self-destruct and bring the cell down with them. Simply put, Titorenko and his colleagues engaged in cancer cell sabotage by targeting a weakness to LCA.–This study was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Concordia University Research Chair program.-Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Concordia University. -Journal Reference–Goldberg AA, Beach A, Davies GF, Harkness TA, Leblanc A, Titorenko VI. Lithocholic bile acid selectively kills neuroblastoma cells, while sparing normal neuronal cells.. Oncotarget, 2011 Oct;2(10):761-82 [link]

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Fountain of Youth in Bile- Longevity Molecule Identified

(Bile Acids are Organic Acids that are a constituent of Bile – they occur primarily as Salts. Chemically, Bile Acids are classified as Steroids)

Cholesterol is excreted from the body by Bile Acids. Bile Acids are the body’s only significant mechanism for the elimination of excess Cholesterol from the body. Bile Acids solubilize Cholesterol in the Bile, preventing the precipitation of Cholesterol in the Gallbladder.

Bile Acids facilitate the digestion of Triglycerides from dietary Fats. Bile Acids function as emulsifying agents that render the Fatty Acids from dietary Triglycerides accessible to Pancreatic Lipase.

Bile Acids facilitate the intestinal absorption of Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

Immune System-Bile Acids may suppress Helicobacter pylori.

New research has identified the role of a bile acid, called lithocholic acid, in extending the lifespan of normally aging yeast—ScienceDaily (Sep. 15, 2010) — The human quest for longer life may be one step closer, thanks to research from Concordia University. Published in the journal Aging, a new study is the first to identify the role of a bile acid, called lithocholic acid (LCA), in extending the lifespan of normally aging yeast. The findings may have significant implications for human longevity and health, as yeast share some common elements with people. “Although we found that LCA greatly extends yeast longevity, yeast do not synthesize this or any other bile acid found in mammals,” says senior author Vladimir Titorenko, Concordia University Research Chair in Genomics, Cell Biology and Aging and a professor in the Department of Biology. “It may be that yeast have evolved to sense bile acids as mildly toxic molecules and respond by undergoing life-extending changes. It is conceivable that the life-extending potential of LCA may be relevant to humans as well.”

Over 19,000 small molecules screened

Titorenko and colleagues screened more than 19,000 small molecules to test their ability to extend yeast-lifespan. Under both normal and stressed conditions, LCA had a major impact.–“Our findings imply that LCA extends longevity by targeting two different mechanisms,” says first author Alexander Goldberg, a Concordia doctoral student. “The first takes place regardless of the number of calories and involves the day-to-day or housekeeping proteins. The second system occurs during calorie-restriction and involves stressor proteins.”—“Regardless of their triggers both of these mechanisms work to suppress the pro-aging process,” he continues.– Bile acids may be beneficial to health—“Although we have an overall idea how LCA works to extend longevity in yeast, we still need to determine if this is the case for other species,” says Titorenko. “We do know from previous studies, however, that bile acids are beneficial to health and longevity. For example, they have shown to accumulate in the serum of long living mice and play a role in improving rodent liver and pancreatic function.”–“This leads us to believe that bile acids have potential as pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of diabetes, obesity and various metabolic disorders, all of which are age-related,” continues Titorenko. “They may indeed offer hope for a healthy aging life.”—This study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canada Foundation for Innovation and the Concordia University Chair Fund.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Concordia University. –Journal References-Alexander A. Goldberg, Vincent R. Richard, Pavlo Kyryakov, Simon D. Bourque, Adam Beach, Michelle T. Burstein, Anastasia Glebov, Olivia Koupaki, Tatiana Boukh‐Viner, Christopher Gregg, Mylène Juneau, Ann M. English, Vladimir I. Titorenko and David Y. Thomas. Chemical genetic screen identifies lithocholic acid as an anti‐aging compound that extends yeast chronological life span in a TOR independent manner, by modulating housekeeping longevity assurance processes. Aging, 2010; 2 (7): 393 [link]–Alexander A. Goldberg, Pavlo Kyryakov, Simon D. Bourque and Vladimir I. Titorenko. Xenohormetic, hormetic and cytostatic selective forces driving longevity at the ecosystemic level. Aging, 2010; 2 (8): 461-470 [link]

 

Show Of The Week January 13 2012

 

Taurine increases bile acid pool size and reduces bile saturation index In the hamster

Dietary Taurine Enhances Cholesterol Degradation and Reduces Serum and Liver Cholesterol

High Dietary Taurine Reduces Apoptosis and Atherosclerosis in the Left Main Coronary Artery

Leaked– US to Start ‘Trade Wars’ with Nations Opposed to Monsanto, GMO Crops

How to Oxygenate yourself

Hydrogen Peroxide Benefits and Data

 

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Taurine increases bile acid pool size and reduces bile saturation index In the hamster

S Bellentani,
M Pecorari,
P Cordoma,
P Marchegiano,
F Manenti,
E Bosisio,
E De Fabiani and
G Galli
+ Author Affiliations

Chair of Gastroenterology, University of Modena, Italy.
Abstract

There is evidence that increased availability of taurine enhances the proportion of taurine-conjugated bile acids in bile. To explore the possibility that taurine treatment could also influence hepatic cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, we fed female hamsters for 1 week and measured both the biliary lipid content and the microsomal level of the rate-limiting enzymes of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis. In these animals the cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was significantly greater in respect to controls (P less than 0.05). The total HMG-CoA reductase activity, as well as that of the active form, was similarly increased. The stimulation of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol synthesis was associated with an expansion of the bile acid pool size in taurine-fed animals. Taurine feeding was observed to induce an increase in bile flow as well as in the rate of excretion of bile acids, whereas the secretion rate of cholesterol in bile was decreased. As a consequence, the saturation index was significantly lower in taurine-fed animals (P less than 0.05). The possible mechanisms through which taurine exhibits the modification of the enzyme activities and of the biliary lipid composition are discussed.

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Dietary Taurine Enhances Cholesterol Degradation and Reduces Serum and Liver Cholesterol Concentrations in Rats Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet1

Hidehiko Yokogoshi*2, Hideki Mochizuki*, Ken Nanami*, Yuko Hida*, Fuyuko Miyachi† and Hiroaki Oda†

; * ; School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan and; † ; Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan

2To whom correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed.

The effect of taurine on hypercholesterolemia induced by feeding a high-cholesterol (HC) diet (10g/kg) to rats was examined. When various amounts of taurine (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 g/kg diet) were supplemented to HC for 2 wk, serum total cholesterol gradually and significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner and normalized at the dose of 10 g taurine/kg, compared with the control (cholesterol free) diet group. By contrast, serum HDL-cholesterol was elevated by taurine supplementation. The HC diet caused a significant decrease in the concentration of taurine in serum, liver and heart compared to that in the control group, and the effective dose of supplemental taurine to improve its reduction was 2.5 g/kg diet. In the hypercholesterolemic rats fed the HC diet, the excretion of fecal bile acids and hepatic cholesterol 7 α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) activity and its mRNA level increased significantly, and the supplementation of taurine further enhanced these indexes, indicating an increase in cholesterol degradation. The abundance of mRNA for Apo A-I, one of the main components of HDL, was reduced by HC and recovered by taurine supplementation. Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that, in hypercholesterolemic rats fed the HC diet, the serum level of the heavier VLDL increased significantly, but taurine repressed this increase and normalized this pattern. Significant correlations were observed between the time- and dose-dependent increases of CYP7A1 gene expression and the decrease of blood cholesterol concentration in rats fed the HC diet supplemented with taurine (time, r = -0.538, P < 0.01, n = 32; dose, r = -0.738, P < 0.001, n = 20). These results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effects of taurine observed in the hypocholesterolemic rats fed the HC diet were mainly due to the enhancement of cholesterol degradation and the excretion of bile acid.

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High Dietary Taurine Reduces Apoptosis and Atherosclerosis in the Left Main Coronary Artery—-Association With Reduced CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Homologous Protein and Total Plasma Homocysteine but not Lipidemia

Anthony Zulli,
Eza Lau,
Bagus P.P. Wijaya,
Xin Jin,
Komang Sutarga,
Grace D. Schwartz,
Jonathon Learmont,
Peter J. Wookey,
Angelo Zinellu,
Ciriaco Carru,
David L. Hare
+ Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Cardiology (A.Z., E.L., B.P.P.W., X.J., K.S., G.D.S., J.L., P.J.W., D.L.H.) and Medicine (A.Z., D.L.H.), University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; and the Department of Biomedical Sciences (A.Z., C.C.), University of Sassari Viale S Pietro, Sassari, Italy.
Correspondence to Anthony Zulli, Vascular Laboratory, Department of Cardiology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia. E-mail azulli@unimelb.edu.au
Abstract

We sought to determine whether taurine could specifically protect against coronary artery disease during an atherogenic diet and whether taurine affects the lipid profile, metabolites of methionine, and endothelial atherogenic systems. Rabbits were fed one of the following diets for 4 weeks: (1) control diet; (2) 0.5% cholesterol+1.0% methionine; or (3) 0.5% cholesterol+1.0% methionine+2.5% taurine. Endothelial function was examined, and the left main coronary artery atherosclerosis was quantified by stereology and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry to determine the endothelial expression of proteins related to the NO, renin-angiotensin, endoplasmic reticulum, and oxidative stress systems, as well as apoptosis. Taurine normalized hyperhomocysteinemia (P<0.05) and significantly reduced hypermethioninemia (P<0.05) but not lipidemia. The intima:media ratio was reduced by 28% (P=0.034), and atherosclerosis was reduced by 64% (P=0.012) and endothelial cell apoptosis by 30% (P<0.01). Endothelial cell CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein was normalized (P<0.05). Taurine failed to improve hyperlipidemia, endothelial function, or endothelial proteins related to the NO, renin-angiotensin, and oxidative stress systems. Taurine reduces left main coronary artery wall pathology associated with decreased plasma total homocysteine, methionine, apoptosis, and normalization of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein. These results elucidate the antiapoptotic and antiatherogenic properties of taurine, possibly via normalization of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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Leaked– US to Start ‘Trade Wars’ with Nations Opposed to Monsanto, GMO Crops

The United States is threatening nations who oppose Monsanto’s genetically modified (GM) crops with military-style trade wars, according to information obtained and released by the organization WikiLeaks. Nations like France, which have moved to ban one of Monsanto’s GM corn varieties, were requested to be ‘penalized’ by the United States for opposing Monsanto and genetically modified foods. The information reveals just how deep Monsanto’s roots have penetrated key positions within the United States government, with the cables reporting that many U.S. diplomats work directly for Monsanto. The WikiLeaks cable reveals that in late 2007, the United States ambassador to France and business partner to George W. Bush, Craig Stapleton, requested that the European Union along with particular nations that did not support GMO crops be penalized. Stapleton, who co-owned the Dallas/Fort Worth-based Texas Rangers baseball team with Bush in the 1990s, stated–“Country team Paris recommends that we calibrate a target retaliation list that causes some pain across the EU since this is a collective responsibility, but that also focuses in part on the worst culprits. The list should be measured rather than vicious and must be sustainable over the long term, since we should not expect an early victory. Moving to retaliation will make clear that the current path has real costs to EU interests and could help strengthen European pro-biotech voices.”

The Leaked Political Agenda Behind Monsanto’s GMO Crops

The ambassador plainly calls for ‘target retaliation’ against nations who are against using Monsanto’s genetically modified corn, admittedly linked to organ damage and environmental devastation. Amazingly, this is not an isolated case. In similar newly released cables, United States diplomats are found to have pushed GMO crops as a strategic government and commercial imperative. Furthermore, the U.S. specifically targeted advisers to the pope, due to the fact that many Catholic bishops and figureheads have openly denounced GMO crops. In fact, the Vatican has openly declared Monsanto’s GMO crops as a ‘new form of slavery’.[U1] “A Martino deputy told us recently that the cardinal had co-operated with embassy Vatican on biotech over the past two years in part to compensate for his vocal disapproval of the Iraq war and its aftermath – to keep relations with the USG [US government] smooth. According to our source, Martino no longer feels the need to take this approach,” says the cable.—Perhaps the most shocking piece of information exposed by the cables is the fact that these U.S. diplomats are actually working directly for biotech corporations like Monsanto. The cables also highlight the relationship between the U.S. and Spain in their conquest to persuade other nations to allow for the expansion of GMO crops. Not only did the Spanish government secretly correspond with the U.S. government on the subject, but the U.S. government actually knew beforehand how Spain would vote before the Spanish biotech commission reported their decision regarding GMO crops. The cable states–“In response to recent urgent requests by [Spanish rural affairs ministry] state secretary Josep Puxeu and Monsanto, post requests renewed US government support of Spain’s science-based agricultural biotechnology position through high-level US government intervention.”—-Monsanto has undoubtedly infiltrated the United States government in order to push their health-endangering agenda, and this has been known long before the release of these WikiLeaks cables. The U.S. is the only place where Monsanto’s synthetic hormone Posilac is still used in roughly 1/3 of all cows, with 27 nations banning the substance over legitimate health concerns. Despite Monsanto’s best attempts at incognito political corruption, nothing can stop the grassroots anti-Monsanto movement that is taking over cities and nations alike

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