Reply To: Scrips 2012

Herbalist Forums Scripts Scrips 2012 Reply To: Scrips 2012


Identification of antiplatelet and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory constituents in betel nut.

Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2011 Jun;9(6):619-25—Authors: Ghayur MN, Kazim SF, Rasheed H, Khalid A, Jumani MI, Choudhary MI, Gilani AH

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible mechanism and the compound(s) responsible for the antiplatelet and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory effects of Areca catechu crude extract (Ac.Cr).
METHODS: Aqueous-methanol (70%) was used for extraction of plant material (betel nut). Antiplatelet activity was measured in human platelet-rich plasma by using a Lumi-aggregometer while anti-AChE activity was measured spectrophotometrically in vitro. In an attempt to find the responsible compound(s) in betel nut for antiplatelet and anti-AChE activities, different commercially available betel nut compounds were tested.
RESULTS: Ac.Cr inhibited platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), platelet-activating factor (PAF), epinephrine and Ca(2+)-ionophore. Ac.Cr was the most potent in inhibiting ADP- and Ca(2+)-ionophore-induced aggregation. In the AChE assay, Ac.Cr showed significant AChE inhibitory activity with almost complete inhibition of the enzyme. Out of the tested compounds, none of the compounds in betel nut showed any antiplatelet effect except for catechin that was the most potent against epinephrine-induced aggregation. Catechin was significantly less potent than Ac.Cr, indicating a presence of additional compound(s) with antiplatelet activity. For the AChE inhibitory effect, only tannic acid, gallic acid, diosgenin and isoguvacine were found to be active, whereby tannic acid was more potent than Ac.Cr.
CONCLUSION: This study shows the possible antiplatelet and AChE inhibitory potential of betel nut while further studies are needed to confirm and identify more compounds in betel nut for these actions.–PMID: 21669165 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in cognition-relevant brain areas of mice treated with a nootropic Amazonian herbal (Marapuama).

Phytomedicine. 2010 Sep 10;

Authors: Figueiró M, Ilha J, Pochmann D, Porciúncula LO, Xavier LL, Achaval M, Nunes DS, Elisabetsky E

The goal of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) used to treat Alzheimer’s patients is an improvement in cholinergic transmission. While currently available AChEIs have limited success, a huge impediment to the development of newer ones is access to the relevant brain areas. Promnesic, anti-amnesic and AChEI properties were identified in a standardized ethanol extract from Ptychopetalum olacoides (POEE), a medicinal plant favored by the elderly in Amazon communities. The purpose of this study was to provide conclusive evidence that orally given POEE induces AChE inhibition in brain areas relevant to cognition. Histochemistry experiments confirmed that the anticholinesterase compound(s) present in POEE are orally bioavailable, inducing meaningful AChE inhibition in the hippocampus CA1 (â¼33%) and CA3 (â¼20%), and striatum (â¼17%). Ellman’s colorimetric analysis revealed that G1 and G4 AChE isoforms activities were markedly inhibited (66 and 72%, respectively) in hippocampus and frontal cortex (50 and 63%, respectively), while G4 appeared to be selectively inhibited (72%) in the striatum. Western blotting showed that POEE did not induce significant changes in the AChE immunocontent suggesting that its synthesis is not extensively modified. This study provides definitive proof of meaningful anticholinesterase activity compatible with the observed promnesic and anti-amnesic effects of POEE in mice, reaffirming the potential of this extract for treating neurodegenerative conditions where a hypofunctioning cholinergic neurotransmission is prominent. Adequate assessment of the safety and efficacy of this extract and/or its isolated active compound(s) are warranted.—PMID: 20833520 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]


Garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation with standard antidiabetic agent provides better diabetic control in type 2 diabetes patients.

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2011 Oct;24(4):565-70–Authors: Ashraf R, Khan RA, Ashraf I

Garlic has been used safely since ancient times as both food and medicine in human populations, but studies of its efficacy in the management of diabetes have yielded conflicting results. This study has evaluated the potential hypoglycemic effects of garlic in type 2 diabetic patients. The study was conducted in diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients (n=60) with fasting blood sugar level above 126 mg/dl to evaluate the effects of adding garlic tablets with standard antidiabetic therapy on blood sugar. Patients were divided randomly into 2 groups. Group 1 (n=30) was given tablet Garlic (KWAI) 300 mg thrice daily + Metformin 500 mg twice daily and Group 2 (n=30) was given Placebo+Metformin 500 mg twice daily respectively for 24 weeks. Serum lipids and fasting blood glucose were measured at week 0, 12 and week 24. Group1 showed significant reduction in fasting blood sugar at week 24 with a percentage decrease of (-3.12 percent) (P = <0.005) as compared to group 2 (0.59 percent). At the end of week 24, GR1 group also showed considerable decrease in mean total cholesterol (6.2 mg/dl, -2.82%, P=<0.005), LDL-C (-3 mg/dl, 2.18% P=<0.005), triglycerides (-5.2 mg/dl, 3.12%, P<0.005) while HDL cholesterol was significantly increased (2.36 mg/dl, 6.72%, P<0.005) as compared to GR2 group. Combination of garlic with typical antidiabetic remedy has shown to improve glycemic control in addition to antihyperlipidemic activity. Garlic may be a good addition in the management of patients with diabetes and hyperlipidemia.—PMID: 21959822 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Recipe—take a garlic extract or supplement and add with it juniper berry and bitter melon—this should in fact increase the efficiency of the organs in regulating insulin—repairing the pancreas—assisting the liver—–this should reduce not only the cholesterol but as well the sugar in the system

You can mix equal parts of an extract or tincture of the juniper 1/3 or 33 % -bitter melon 1/3 or 33%-and garlic 1/3 or 33% in a 1 oz or 2 oz glass container and utilize ¼ tsp 3 times a day  either after a meal or before bed

You can as well take the garlic supplement and utilize the tincture of bitter melon and juniper either mixed or separate then use ¼ tsp of each and 1 capsule of garlic

You can take a capsule of each 1— 3 times a day—even though they used the KWAI product the Kyolic will do well formulas like 108-or 110 will be adequate or even just the plain 100


Exercise and Caffeine Change Your DNA in the Same Way


You might think that the DNA you inherited is one thing that you absolutely can’t do anything about, but in one sense you’d be wrong. Researchers have found that when healthy but inactive men and women exercise for a matter of minutes, it produces a rather immediate change to their DNA. Perhaps even more tantalizing, the study suggests that the caffeine in your morning coffee might also influence muscle in essentially the same way. —The underlying genetic code in human muscle isn’t changed with exercise, but the DNA molecules within those muscles are chemically and structurally altered in very important ways. Those modifications to the DNA at precise locations appear to be early events in the genetic reprogramming of muscle for strength and, ultimately, in the structural and metabolic benefits of exercise.–“Our muscles are really plastic,” says Juleen Zierath of Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. “We often say “You are what you eat.” Well, muscle adapts to what you do.  If you don’t use it, you lose it, and this is one of the mechanisms that allows that to happen.”—The DNA changes in question are known as epigenetic modifications and involve the gain or loss of chemical marks on DNA over and above the familiar sequence of As, Gs, Ts, and Cs. The new study shows that the DNA within skeletal muscle taken from people after a burst of exercise bears fewer chemical marks (specifically methyl groups) than it did before exercise. Those changes take place in stretches of DNA that are involved in turning “on” genes important for muscles’ adaptation to exercise.—When the researchers made muscles contract in lab dishes, they saw a similar loss of DNA methyl groups. Exposure of isolated muscle to caffeine had the same effect.–Zierath explained that caffeine does mimic the muscle contraction that comes with exercise in other ways, too. She doesn’t necessarily recommend anyone drink a cup of joe in place of exercise. It’s nevertheless tempting to think that athletes who enjoy a coffee with their workout might just be on to something.—Broadly speaking, the findings offer more evidence that our genomes are much more dynamic than they are often given credit for. Epigenetic modifications that turn genes on and back off again can be incredibly flexible events. They allow the DNA in our cells to adjust as the environment shifts.—“Exercise is medicine,” Zierath says, and it seems the means to alter our genomes for better health may be only a jog away. And for those who can’t exercise, the new findings might point the way to medicines (caffeinated ones, perhaps?) with -Story Source–The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Cell Press, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS. –Journal Reference-Romain Barrès, Jie Yan, Brendan Egan, Jonas Thue Treebak, Morten Rasmussen, Tomas Fritz, Kenneth Caidahl, Anna Krook, Donal J. O’Gorman, Juleen R. Zierath. Acute Exercise Remodels Promoter Methylation in Human Skeletal Muscle. Cell Metabolism, 2012; 15 (3): 405 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2012.01.001



Antioxidants from black tea may aid diabetics
Polysaccharides from black tea may blunt the spike in sugar levels after a meal more than similar compounds from green and oolong tea, and offer potential to manage diabetes, says a new study.

The black tea polysaccharides also exhibited the greatest activity for scavenging free radicals, which are linked to development of diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, according to new findings published in the Journal of Food Science. Interest in tea and its constituents has bloomed in recent years, with the greatest focus on the leaf’s polyphenol content. Green tea contains between 30 and 40 per cent of water-extractable polyphenols, while black tea (green tea that has been oxidized by fermentation) contains between 3 and 10 per cent. Oolong tea is semi-fermented tea and is somewhere between green and black tea. The new research looked at the polysaccharide content of green, black and oolong tea, and measured their ability to inhibit the effects of alpha-glucosidase activity. By inhibiting this carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme, it is possible to reduce the spike in glucose levels in the blood following a meal (postprandial hyperglycemia). If additional studies support the potential effects of the polysaccharides, it could see the black tea extracts positioned in the diabetic supplements market.

Study details

“Many efforts have been made to search for effective glucose inhibitors from natural materials,” said lead researcher Haixia Chen. “There is a potential for exploitation of black tea polysaccharide in managing diabetes.” Researchers from Tianjin University isolated three polysaccharide-rich fractions from green, black, and oolong tea. The black tea was found to contain lower molecular weight polysaccharides. Green tea had a range from 9.2 to 251.5 KDa, while black tea polysaccharides ranged from 3.8 to 32.7 KDa. When tested for their ability to inhibit alpha-glucosidase, as well as antioxidant activities relating to hydroxyl radicals and DPPH radicals, the black tea polysaccharides were found to produce the best results, said Chen and co-workers. “The differences in antioxidant activities and glycosidase inhibitory properties among the three polysaccharide-rich fractions appeared to be related to differences in monosaccharide composition and molecular weight distribution of the polysaccharide,” wrote the researchers. —-“Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Capacity of 3 Polysaccharides from Green Tea, Oolong Tea, and Black Tea”–Authors: H. Chen, Z. Qu, L. Fu, P. Dong, X. Zhang

Recipe For Sugar Regulating—take Black Tea and Sage and make a brew out of them—and drink through out the day to minimize the ravages of sugar—this can assist in the reduction of the medications and increase the restoration of the Pancreas


Use Black Coffee and Sage as well—utilize equal parts of both the sage and the Tea or Coffee






Show of the Week March 23 2012

Onion or  Garlic


Urtica Dioica (Nettle)


Induction of insulin secretion by a component of Urtica dioica leave extract in perifused Islets of Langerhans and its in vivo effects in normal


Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB


Health benefits of Savory



Onion or  Garlic

4.13. Allium Sativum L. and Allium Cepa (Garlic and Onion)

Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said “although onion and garlic have a bad smell, they are cures for 70 different illnesses that cannot be cured by any other means”. Onion (A. cepa) and garlic (A. sativa) are closely related vegetables that belong to the Allium class of bulb-shaped plants, which also includes chives, leeks, and scallions. Garlic is used for flavoring in cooking and is unique due to its high sulfur content, along with arginine, oligosaccharides, flavonoids, and selenium, all of which might promote health [116]. The association between the consumption of Allium vegetables and the risk for cancer was assessed in several epidemiologic studies, showing the protective effect of garlic and onion on cancer. In China, high consumption of Allium vegetables was associated with lower incidence of gastric cancer [117, 118]. Additional studies in the Netherlands suggested an inverse correlation between the risk of colorectal, breast, and lung cancers and the consumption of onion and garlic [119]. Steinmetz et al. [120] studied the association between garlic consumption and the risk of colon cancer and found that women who consumed high amounts of garlic had a 50 percent lower incidence of distal colon cancer compared with women who consumed less garlic [120]. The risk of breast cancer was also found to be reduced in women consuming greater amounts of fiber garlic and onions [31], as well as that of esophageal and stomach cancers [121]. Similar findings were noted with reference to the risk of prostate cancer [122, 123], pancreatic cancer [33], and other known cancer types [124]. The amount of garlic consumed in the above studies varied from 2 to 20 g daily (The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for general health promotion for adults recommend a daily dose of 2 to 5 g of fresh garlic). It was noted that although garlic had been used safely in cooking, excessive consumption can cause some side effects, in addition to those of strong breath and body odors [125]. The protective effect of Allium vegetables against tumor progression and against angiogenesis were attributed to its organosulfur compounds especially allicin (an active compound in garlic) and diallyl disulfide [126]. Such compounds are able to block the formation of cancer-causing substances [127], halt the activation of cancer-causing substances [128, 129], enhance DNA repair [130], reduce cell proliferation, or induce apoptosis-programmed cell death (Table 1 and [126, 131]).



Urtica Dioica (Nettle)

The origin of its Latin name, Urtica, means “I burn”, indicative of the stings caused by glandular hairs on the leaves that contain formic acid and histamine, two agents known to cause the stinging and skin irritation after contact. U. dioica leaf has a long history as an herbal remedy and nutritious addition to the diet. Nettle leaves are a rich source of essential amino acids, ascorbic acid, several mineral element, and vitamins, such as iron, provitamin A, and vitamin C [113]. Nettle extracts can be used to treat arthritis, hay fever, kidney problems, pain, and anemia. Nettle extracts possess hypoglycaemic properties and improve glucose tolerance [35]. U. dioica is believed to be antioxidant, immunesuppressive, antirheumatoid, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic [14]. Indeed, its leaf [114] and roots [115] extracts were effective against prostate cancer proliferation.


Induction of insulin secretion by a component of Urtica dioica leave extract in perifused Islets of Langerhans and its in vivo effects in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.
Farzami B, Ahmadvand D, Vardasbi S, Majin FJ, Khaghani Sh.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-5399, Tehran, Iran.

The blood glucose lowering effect of Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle) as a medicinal plant has been noted in old writings such as those of Avicenna. Recently, there has also been other investigators that indicated the hypoglycemic effect of Urtica dioica. But so far, the mechanism of this effect has not been deduced. In this report, a perifusion system is arranged in which an exact number of Langerhans Islets were exposed to several fractions of extracts of Urtica dioica by TLC. The active ingredient fraction named F(1), caused a marked increase in insulin secretion. A simultaneous assay of glucose showed that the increase in insulin level was associated with a decrease in glucose level. Furthermore, the active component of Urtica dioica was found to increase the insulin content of blood sera in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats that were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the active ingredient of the extract. The in vivo studies presented in this report show that not only an increase in insulin level of blood sera was observed in rats after 30 min from the initial point of injection but a simultaneous decrease of blood sugar was detected when similar sera was tested for glucose. The increase in insulin level was six times during the 120 min of our determination. The decrease in blood sugar was found to be similar both in the level and time of initiation. On the basis of our findings, we assume that F(1) is the active ingredient of plant leaves extract. The results show that the blood lowering effect of the extract was due to the enhancement of insulin secretion by Langerhance Isletes.


Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin.
Kumaki Y, Wandersee MK, Smith AJ, Zhou Y, Simmons G, Nelson NM, Bailey KW, Vest ZG, Li JK, Chan PK, Smee DF, Barnard DL.

Source—Institute for Antiviral Research, Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Science, 5600 Old Main Hill, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA.
Abstract——- Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 μg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 h before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (p < 0.001), but did not significantly reduce virus lung titers. All virus-infected mice receiving UDA treatments were also significantly protected against weight loss (p < 0.001). UDA also effectively reduced lung pathology scores. At day 6 after virus exposure, all groups of mice receiving UDA had much lower lung weights than did the placebo-treated mice. Thus, our data suggest that UDA treatment of SARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for the inhibition of virus replication was partially characterized. When UDA was exposed to N-acetylglucosamine and then UDA was added to cells just prior to adsorption, UDA did not inhibit the virus infection. These data support the conclusion that UDA might bind to N-acetylglucosamine-like residues present on the glycosylated envelope glycoproteins, thereby preventing virus attachment to cells.
Recipe for Nettle–Make a tea with this by adding ¼ cup of nettle to a pot of water ( distilled ) bring to a boil  and when boiled turn off and pour—you can as well fuse this with other herbs such as black tea –sage or do all 2 to increase the immune and sugar regulating functions as well and will synergize t o increase the potency of the properties of each herb


Ancient Remedial Use of Nettle—-Horse Nettle, Bull Nettle. S. E. United States.—The fresh juice of the fruit is concentrated by exposure to currents of air at a low temperature and preserved by the addition of some alcohol. This is the process. adopted by McHoy, Howe Co., of Indianapolis. They prepare it double strength. It is recommended largely in the treatment of epilepsy. Powder of the root has during recent years gained some repute as a remedy in infantile and hysterieal convulsions, but chiefly in epilepsy and paroxysms connected with menstrual derangements. Dose of Pdr. Root 10 grs. to 1 dr.—–The roots, leaves and tops are a positive, stimulating, tonic astringent; a powerful arrester of hemorrhages whether of the nose, lungs, stomach, bowels, uterus or urinary organs. It will also stop hemorrhages when applied locally and relieve painful hemorrhoids. The Fluid Extract when diluted forms a good wash for some eczemas


Health benefits of Savory
§         Savory leaves and tender shoots contain incredibly high quality chemical compounds that are known to have anti-oxidant, disease preventing and health promoting properties.  In addition, dietary fiber in this herb helps reduce LDL or bad cholesterol while increasing HDL or good cholesterol levels.

§         Savory leaves contain many essential volatile oils phenols such as thymol and carvacrol, as well as linalool, camphene, caryophyllene, terpineol, myrcene, and other terpenoids.

§         Thymol, one of the important essential oils, has scientificaly been found to have antiseptic, anti-fungal characteristics.

§         In addition, another phenolic compound, carvacrol in savory inhibits the growth of several bacteria strains like E. coli and Bacillus cereus. Carvacol, therefore, has been used as food additive for its anti-bacterial properties and in addition, it gives pleasant tangy taste and marjoram like smell to the food.

§         Savory herb is an excellent source of minerals and vitamins that are essential for optimum health. Its leaves and tender shoots are one of the richest source of potasium, iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc and selenium. Potassium in an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. Iron is required for red blood cell formation.

§         The herb is also a rich source of many important vitamins such as B-complex group vitamins, vitamin-A, vitamin-C, niacin, thiamin and pyridoxine.

§         Dry savory provides 1.810 mg of vitamin B-6 or pyridoxine; furnishing about 130% of RDA. Pyridoxine keeps up GABA (soothening neurotransmitter) levels in the brain which has stress buster function.

§         Vitamin C helps body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals.

§         Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin and antioxidant that is required maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin and is also essential for vision. Consumption of natural fruits rich in flavonoids like vitamin A, carotenes helps protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.

Dry savory herb has amazingly high levels of vitamins and minerals. Just 100 g of ground dry herb provides (% of Recommended daily allowance)

120% of dietary fiber,
25% of Niacin,
130% of vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine),
83% of vitamin C,
177% of vitamin A,
474% of iron,
210% of calcium,
94% magnesium,of and
265% of manganese
but no cholesterol.
table below for in depth analysis of nutrients:

Savory (Satureja hortensis), Dry, ground,
Nutrient value per 100 g
(Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)
Nutrient Value
Percentage of RDA
272 Kcal
68.73 g
6.73 g
Total Fat
5.91 g
0 mg
Dietary Fiber
45.7 g

4.080 mg
1.810 mg
0.471 mg
0.366 mg
Vitamin A
5310 IU
Vitamin C
50 mg

24 mg
1051 mg

2132 mg
210 %
0.847 mg
37.88 mg
377 mg
94 %
6.100 mg
140 mg
4.6 mcg
4.30 mg
Medicinal uses
§         Savory herb contains many important essential oils which are found to have anti-bacterial and anti-fungal applications.

§         As in thyme, distilled tepid savory water is used for throat gargling to help relieve sore throat and bronchitis symptoms.

§         The constituents in this herb parts, especially the flowering shoots, has anti-septic, carminative (anti-flatulence), digestive (helps digestion), expectorant (help clear throat), stomachic and anti-rheumatic (relieves joint pain) functions.

§         Attributed Medicinal Properties
While both varieties are used in cooking, Summer Savory has a much longer tradition of medicinal use.It has long been reputed to be a general tonic to the digestive tract and as a powerful antiseptic. Branches of savory were tossed onto fire to create an aromatic disinfectant. Even today, because of its pungent oils, it is commonly used in toothpaste and soaps. Active compounds of the savory leaf include volatile oils (carvacrol, p-cymene, alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, terpinene, and thymol), and tannic acid. The carvacol and p-cymene content of this herb give it a mild antiseptic effect. The tannin content is responsible for savory’s astringent qualities, making it a popular choice in the relief of diarrhea. The herb has also been used as a gargle for sore throat. As a digestive aid, savory is used in cases of indigestion and flatulence. It is often added as a spice to dishes containing beans for this reason. The most common medicinal use of savory today is in the treatment of gastrointestinal enteritis, the inflammation of the intestinal tract. In some folk cultures, savory has been used to increase libido.







Show of the Week March 26 2012

Milk Thistle—

Immunostimulatory effect of Silybum Marianum (milk thistle) extract

Review of clinical trials evaluating safety and efficacy of milk thistle

The potential of milk thistle

Milk thistle in liver diseases- past, present, future

Recipe for Milk Thistle Usage


Immunostimulatory effect of Silybum Marianum (milk thistle) extract.

Wilasrusmee C, Kittur S, Shah G, Siddiqui J, Bruch D, Wilasrusmee S, Kittur DS.

Source–Department of Surgery SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

BACKGROUND–Herbal products are increasingly used for their effects on the immune system. Milk Thistle, a commonly used herbal product is known to inhibit growth of certain tumors, although the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Previously we have shown that Milk Thistle extracts stimulate neurons in culture. Since other drugs that affect the neuronal; system also affect the immune system, we investigated the effects of Milk Thistle on the immune system.–MATERIAL/METHODS-Standardized Milk Thistle extract was studied in murine lymphocyte proliferation tests using Concanavalin A (ConA) as mitogen for non-specific stimulation and mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) as allospecific stimulation. Th1 and Th2 cytokine levels in MLC were assayed by two antibody capture ELISA technique. All tests were performed in triplicate and repeated twice.—RESULTS-We found that Milk Thistle is immunostimulatory in vitro. It increased lymphocyte proliferation in both mitogen and MLC assays. These effects of Milk Thistle were associated with an increase in interferon gamma, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 cytokines in the MLC (table). This immunostimulatory effect increased in response to increasing doses of Milk Thistle.—CONCLUSIONS-Our study has uncovered a novel effect of milk thistle on the immune system. This immunostimulatory effect may be of benefit in increasing the immunity to infectious diseases.–PMID-12444368-[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


Review of clinical trials evaluating safety and efficacy of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L.] Gaertn.).

Tamayo C, Diamond S.

Source–Research and Development at Flora Inc, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA.

Abstract–Milk thistle extracts have been used as traditional herbal remedies for almost 2000 years. The extracts are still widely used to protect the liver against toxins and to control chronic liver diseases. Recent experimental and clinical studies suggest that milk thistle extracts also have anticancer, antidiabetic, and cardioprotective effects. This article reviews clinical trials of milk thistle conducted in the past 5 years including pharmacokinetic and toxicity studies, herb-drug interactions, and other safety issues. Several trials have studied the effects of milk thistle for patients with liver diseases, cancer, hepatitis C, HIV, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Promising results have been reported in the protective effect of milk thistle in certain types of cancer, and ongoing trials will provide more evidence about this effect. In addition, new established doses and improvement on the quality and standardization of this herb will provide the much-awaited evidence about the efficacy of milk thistle in the treatment of liver diseases. Milk thistle extracts are known to be safe and well tolerated, and toxic or adverse effects observed in the reviewed clinical trials seem to be minimal. The future of milk thistle research is promising, and high-quality randomized clinical trials on milk thistle versus placebo may be needed to further demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this herb.-PMID-17548793-[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


The potential of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), an Israeli native, as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants.

Vaknin Y, Hadas R, Schafferman D, Murkhovsky L, Bashan N.

Source–Department of Agronomy and Natural Resources, Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel.

Abstract–The potential of wild plants in Israel as sources of edible sprouts has not been investigated until now. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world; its young fleshy stems are traditionally eaten by the local Arab sector in Israel, and its sprouts are rich in antioxidants and have been used as a traditional medicine for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The active extract of milk thistle, silymarin, is a mixture of flavonolignans and is a strong antioxidant that has been proved to promote liver cell regeneration, to reduce blood cholesterol and to help prevent cancer. The present objective was to investigate the potential of milk thistle as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants. We found that seed germination within 3-4 days was high (96%, except for striated seeds). Exposure to light significantly reduced sprout growth and significantly increased the polyphenol content and antioxidative capacity. The polyphenol content was 30% higher in seeds originating from purple inflorescences than in those from white ones. We thus found milk thistle to be a good candidate source of healthy edible sprouts.


Milk thistle in liver diseases- past, present, future.

Abenavoli L, Capasso R, Milic N, Capasso F.


Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Italy.


Silybum marianum or milk thistle (MT) is the most well-researched plant in the treatment of liver disease. The active complex of MT is a lipophilic extract from the seeds of the plant and is composed of three isomer flavonolignans (silybin, silydianin, and silychristin) collectively known as silymarin. Silybin is a component with the greatest degree of biological activity and makes up 50% to 70% of silymarin. Silymarin is found in the entire plant but it is concentrated in the fruit and seeds. Silymarin acts as an antioxidant by reducing free radical production and lipid peroxidation, has antifibrotic activity and may act as a toxin blockade agent by inhibiting binding of toxins to the hepatocyte cell membrane receptors. In animals, silymarin reduces liver injury caused by acetaminophen, carbon tetrachloride, radiation, iron overload, phenylhydrazine, alcohol, cold ischaemia and Amanita phalloides. Silymarin has been used to treat alcoholic liver disease, acute and chronic viral hepatitis and toxin-induced liver diseases.–PMID-20564545-[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


Recipe for Milk Thistle Usage—Take Milk thistle in seed form make a tea with it and take in conjunction with it 1000 mgs if Vitamin C and 1000mgs of MSM—this will increase the impact of the liver by increasing interferon production as welldetox the liver of harmful chemicals——If you are around solvents then you may want to add Arginine 500 mgs -1000mgs to the mix or even just add it to the milk thistle——If you have liver poisoning then add Alpha Lipoic Acid 100-200 mgs with vitamin C 1000mgs and milk thistle——For Excess Fat in the Liver you may want to increase B5  500-1000mgs and L Carnitine 500-2grams with it and the use of Taurine 500-1000mgs  and Bile Salts (as suggested on the bottle)—–For issues in the restoring and regenerating of the liver —utilizing milk thistle with sage in equal parts in water and drinking—adding things like nettle and dandelion will assist as well in the blood purifying effect as well—-Sprouting the seeds –as well and consuming them will assist as well with the antioxidant effect of the herb and may even slow down the effects of aging








Show of the Week March 30 2012


Metalloestrogens- A New Class Of Cancer-Causing Estrogens


What is Calorie Restriction (CR)?


Protocols for Reducing and Regenerating Colon health—Reduction in Body Mass


H. Pylori Bacteria Linked to Blood Sugar Control in Adult Type II Diabetes


The Truth About Cholesterol and Saturated Fat



Metalloestrogens- A New Class Of Cancer-Causing Estrogens

Post date:

Sunday, March 18th 2012 at 10:00 am by Sayer Ji

this can be a male testis as well as a female breast having these metals in our endocrine system so the genders should be aware

Metals like aluminum have been linked to breast cancer for some time, but new research is confirming the existence of an entirely new class of cancer-causing estrogens known as “metalloestrogens,”[U1] and which are in thousands of consumer products — some which are even used in supplements and foods as “nutrients”…—-A new study published in journal Cancer Research reveals that dietary cadmium exposure increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, confirming earlier research that a broad range of metals we are now being increasingly exposed to represent an emerging class of “metalloestrogens” with the potential to add to the estrogenic burden of the human breast. [U2]—In a 2006 report published in the Journal of Applied Toxicology, researchers found that the following metals were capable of binding to cellular estrogen receptors and then mimicking the actions of physiological estrogens: “aluminium, antimony, arsenite, barium, cadmium, chromium (Cr(II)), cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenite, tin and vanadate.”  [U3]—-As we revealed in an earlier exposé on the use of toxic forms of selenium in USDA certified organic infant formula, exposure to sodium selenite (and sodium selenate) is difficult to avoid, as it is the primary source of supplemental selenium in mass market vitamins, foods, beverages, etc. The same is true for inorganic forms of chromium, copper, nickel, tin and and vanadium, which you will find on the labels of many mass market multivitamins. –Another daily source of metalloestrogen exposure for millions of consumers is aluminum-based antiperspirants. Investigations into the link between these personal care products and breast cancer risk came to a head earlier this year in a story we broke, and excerpt from below: –Aluminium salts used as antiperspirants have been incriminated as contributing to breast cancer incidence in Western societies. To date, very little or no epidemiological or experimental data confirm or infirm this hypothesis. We report here that in MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells, a well-established normal human mammary epithelial cell model, long-term exposure to aluminium chloride (AlCl(3) ) concentrations of 10-300 µm, i.e. up to 100 000-fold lower than those found in antiperspirants, and in the range of those recently measured in the human breast, results in loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth.” [emphasis added]–If a metal can exhibit carcinogenic properties at a concentration 100,000-fold lower than presently used in personal care products, it is critical that there be a paradigm shift in the way toxicological risk assessments are performed. –Presently, the risk assessments depend on animal studies, where the goal is to find out how much of a chemical it takes to acutely kill 50% of an exposed population (LD50). Only then, is an “acceptable level of harm” extrapolated for humans (as if determining an “acceptable level of harm” were an ethically neutral objective). ——————–The problem is that humans are not mice, there are profound synergistic toxicities that are never accounted for when we are exposed to more than one chemical simultaneously,[U4] the LD50 does not indicate what constitutes a chronic/sublethal toxic dose or an acknowledgment that chronic toxic effects do occur at far lower doses, and mostly importantly for the purpose of this article, the concept of increasing toxicity as the concentration decreases is not even considered. —This, in fact, is what happens in certain types of radiation and petrochemical exposure. Low-dose radiation may be far more carcinogenic than high-dose radiation, which is why “early detection” through x-ray mammography is such a brutally dishonest practice, as it likely causes much more cancer than it is said to prevent. –This is also what happens with certain petrochemicals, e.g. bisphenol A, benzene, pthlatates, which is to say, they may be more toxic at lower concentration than higher ones, due to their hormone-mimicking, blocking and/or intensifying effects, as well as their ability to interact on a molecular level with cell surfaces and structures, which would not be possible were they aggregated in greater volumes or quantities. The entire field of nanotechnology, in fact, suffers from this counterintuitive problem: the smaller the size, the higher the potential toxicity or the greater the unintended, adverse health effects.——The problem of aluminum and similar metallogestrogen exposure, however, is greater than simply reforming manufacturers and consumer products. The military releases at least 500 tons of aluminum chaff annually during training within selected military operating areas in the United States, and only clandestine organizations know how much metal has been released into the environment in the name of “saving the earth” through “geoengineering.” Indeed, in what is known as Atmospheric Aerosol Spraying, our environment has increasingly become saturated through with metal pollution. The problem has become so bad that biotech corporations have begun engineering aluminum-resistant plants[U5], since many soils have become too acidified due to metal contamination to adequately sustain plants that produce food.


What is Calorie Restriction (CR)?

The goal of Calorie Restriction is to achieve a longer and healthier life by

eating fewer calories
consuming adequate vitamins, minerals, and other essential nutrients
Extensive scientific research has shown that a CR diet improves the health and extends the lifespan of every species so far tested, including worms, spiders, rodents, dogs, cows and monkeys. We believe that people who adopt a CR diet will see the same results longer life and better health.

Getting  Started

Simply eating less may not improve health or extend lifespan – it can lead to malnutrition.

Replace calorie-dense foods with calorie-sparse, nutrient-dense foods

Before worrying about how many calories you’re eating, make sure that the foods in your diet provide sufficient nutrition to avoid malnutrition once you begin to restrict them.

Avoid simple sugars and flours.
Sugars and flours generally contain very little nutrition for their calorie content. They also have high glycemic indices, which means that your body absorbs them quickly, leaving you wanting more a short time later.
Eat both green leafy (salad) and other vegetables.
Vegetables — both green leafy vegetables and non-leaf vegetables — contain the highest content of a wide variety of nutrients for their calorie content. By volume (and often by calories), vegetables are the major component of many calorie restricted but not nutrient deficient diets.
Carefully select your protein and fat sources.
Both protein and fat are required macronutrients, but their form can have a significant influence on a person’s risk factors for a wide variety of diseases.
Make sure your protein intake is sufficient, but not overly abundant.
Common recommendations for total protein intake range from 0.6 to 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight, and some recommendations are much higher. This is probably a minimum.—another easier way to figure this out is to take either 60% of body weight or 80 % and multiply it by your weight this will give a close approximation of the amount of protein you should have—an example would be say a 110 lb person minimal amount would be 66grams a day and up to 88gams a day—take the .6 X 110=66— take .8 X110=88—or multiply the 60% X110 and remove the zero’s—again gives you 66 same with the 80% X 110 = 88—remove the zeros—will give a good approximation
Make sure your proteins are complete and balanced.
A complete protein contains all the essential amino acids, while a balanced protein contains all those amino acids in ratios that are most useful to human biophysiology.Most animal proteins are complete and well-balanced
There are very few perfectly balanced proteins in our food supply, but animal proteins tend to be among the most balanced. Unfortunately, animal proteins also tend to include undesirable components. For example, red meat is carcinogenic [PMID: 12376502], and meat (especially red meat) and dairy often contain large quantities of saturated fats. The nutrient density (as always, on a per-calorie basis) of meats is often lower than other choices.—Again this is outdated badly—red meats should be broiled or cooked thoroughly after cleaned—but not to subsist on red meat totally which can be unhealthy—there are other animal proteins that are easier to consume and digest—this would be easier and more efficient for most
Non-animal proteins can be balanced by combining different food families
One can get extremely detailed in finding “complementary” foods, but in general, combining legumes (beans) or seeds or nuts in balance– will yield a balanced protein, and rice protein can complement the proteins in vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, or spinach. Be aware, however, that both rice and grains (even whole grains) have relatively high glycemic indices and relatively low nutrient densities. If you’re going to consume these, choose Cassava or Some other form or Starch where potassium or other nutrients can be uptaken properly
Comment here this information is outdated badly due to the GMO and GE contamination You may want to reconsider  these foods especially the rice an legumes which are high in starch ( sugars) and will turn to fat—-if consuming to act as a cleanse fashion then it would be best to utilize the fibres from other foods such as fruits and veges—most rice today is GMO’d and should be avoided
Select Healthy fats, and consume some Omega-3 fats
Foods containing monounsaturated fats include olive oil, almonds, hazelnuts, and avocados. Most of your fat intake should be from these foods. A very small amount of fat should be in the form of Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found in fatty fish (e.g. salmon) –                ( minimize fish oils due to the mercury loads in these fish ) and flax oil, walnut oil, and perilla. Caution- fatty foods, even healthy choices, are high in calories so be sure that you carefully track your intake so as to stay within your Calorie goal.—
Get baseline blood tests done

In order to chart your progress, and to make sure that you are avoiding nutrient deficiencies and other hazards, get at least the minimal recommended blood tests done. You’ll want to know these results from before your calorie-restricted diet begins, so that you’ll have a baseline for comparison as you move into a calorie-restricted diet.

Reduce calories after improving diet quality (i.e. nutrition)

Once your diet consists primarily of nutrient-dense, calorie-sparse foods, you can safely begin to reduce your total calorie intake. There are some things to consider at this point, if you have not already considered them.

Lose weight slowly—-Many people lose weight simply by changing their diet to include more calorie-sparse foods. Even this weight loss should not be allowed to happen too quickly, but by the time you’re able to restrict calories, your weight loss should proceed very slowly. There are two reasons for this:

Pesticides and other toxins are fat soluble.
There are many pesticides and other toxins in our food supply that are fat soluble. Human bodies store these toxins relatively harmlessly in body fat. If you lose that fat too quickly, however, all these toxins are flushed into your bloodstream, and your detoxification mechanisms (i.e., your kidney and liver) are unable to remove them [B120YD, 78-80]. You may thus wind up with much higher blood toxin levels than what people are normally subjected to, which may have any number of life-shortening effects.
Sudden adult onset Calorie Restriction shortens the lifespans of mice.—Though the lifespan enhancing effects of calorie restriction have been known since the 1930s, it was also known that if adult mice were suddenly put on a calorie restricted diet, their lifespans were actually shortened. Dr. Walford found in the 1980s, however, that if mice were slowly transitioned from an ad lib to a calorie restricted diet, then their lifespans increased. The time for this transition recommended by Dr. Walford is a minimum of 6 to 9 months, but preferably 1 to 2 years. [p. 78, BY120YD]
Be aware of the potential risks in CR dieting!

Any significant dietary change should be done in consultation with a knowledgeable physician. There are several other risks that you should be aware of.



Protocols for Reducing and Regenerating Colon health—Reduction in Body Mass


There are things needed to be applied In the area of reduction—and with reduction of body mass, there will be a reduction to the amount of poisons, toxins, build up and inflammation—So when applying these protocols do them at least once a month at any time of the month and watch unwanted health conditions disappear—and a new vigor come back.


Here is the NO list: NO : Bread(s) or any Facsimile of bread( crackers donuts, tacos, pita, breads ) – Pasta –Rice –Corn – Cereal ( not even oatmeal during this time ) Grains in general—No Stores bought Juices,-No Pop ( Soda for the easterners ) No Milk or Dairy Products that are Sugar or Fat Free—No Sugar (Brown or White or Pasteurized Honey- Agave Syrup ) Molasses-NO MICROWAVE ( not to be used any time—totally Damages the Body from cellular level to tissues and DNA damaging ) Margarine-Canola Oil – Vegetable Oil – Soybean oil ( or any Soy whatsoever or any Derivatives – TVP –HVP – AVP –HPP – MSG –Disodium Guanylate – Disodium Inosinate-Bananas – Grapes – Raisons – Watermelon—Dates-Pork or Pork Byproducts ( sausauges, bacon, hot dogs, pork rinds etc)


Here is the YES List: Yes to -Meat – Poultry –Fish –Lamb – Eggs – Yogurt ( Plain and with Fat ) Kefir ( plain and with Fat ) Whey Protein – Gelatin Broths ( Plain or Vanilla Without Artificial Sweetners –Aspartame—Splenda – Aceslfame Potassium ) Cottage Cheese ( unless you have a yeast or fungal infection ) Cream – Olive oil – Butter –  Ghee – Almond Oil – Pumpkin Seed Oil – Macadamian Nut Oil – Apricot oil – Sesame Seed Oil – Coconut Oil-  Palm Oil – Animal Fat ( try to make sure the animals are GRASS FED not GRAIN FED—the fat then will be beneficial if the fat is from a grass Fed Animal ) Fruit with Fibre ( Apple, Peaches, Plums, Pears, Apricot, Nectarines etc PEEL BEFORE CONSUMING TO MINIMIZE PESTICIDE OR WAXES even if organic)Citrus Fruits – Oranges – Lemons – Pommelo’s – Grapefruit – Tangerines- Mannelos, etc Berries ( Wash and clean with either Peroxide. GSE, Vinegar, Lemon Juice- Use an Iodine Spray ) Veggies all kinds (Wash and clean with either Peroxide. GSE, Vinegar, Lemon Juice- Use an Iodine Spray ) Make Juice fresh and Home made Use Sprouts—Seeds  – Nuts – Make Nut or Seed butters—

Do this for 5-10 days and afterwards if you wish to consume rice or pasta or polenta then introduce them back slow and minimize the consumption—breads if you consume then utilize Rye, Barley, or Oat and again Minimally—the idea is to get off breads and cereals which are actually Fermenting inside and potentially causing DNA damage and Restructuring— Potato Can be used as long as it is not fried—Can be used if -broiled—boiled—mashed-or baked this will assist in the cleansing of the colon as well as provide energy



H. Pylori Bacteria Linked to Blood Sugar Control in Adult Type II Diabetes


A new study by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center reveals that the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria is associated with elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), an important biomarker for blood glucose levels and diabetes.)—ScienceDaily (Mar. 14, 2012) — A new study by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center reveals that the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria is associated with elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), an important biomarker for blood glucose levels and diabetes. The association was even stronger in obese individuals with a higher Body Mass Index (BMI).—The results, which suggest the bacteria may play a role in the development of diabetes in adults, are available online in The Journal of Infectious Diseases.—There have been several studies evaluating the effect of the presence of H. pylori on diabetes outcomes, but this is the first to examine the effect on HbA1c, an important, objective biomarker for long-term blood sugar levels, explained Yu Chen, PhD, MPH, associate professor of epidemiology at NYU School of Medicine, part of NYU Langone Medical Center. “The prevalence of obesity and diabetes is growing at a rapid rate, so the more we know about what factors impact these conditions, the better chance we have for doing something about it,” Dr. Chen said. Looking at the effects of H. pylori on HbA1c, and whether the association differs according to BMI status, provided what could be a key piece of information for future treatment of diabetes, she explained.—Type II diabetes causes an estimated 3.8 million adult deaths globally. There have been conflicting reports about the association between H. pylori infection and type II diabetes. To better understand the relationship between H. pylori and the disease, Dr. Chen and Martin J. Blaser, MD, the Frederick H. King Professor of Internal Medicine and professor of microbiology, analyzed data from participants in two National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2000) to assess the association between H. pylori and levels of HbA1c.—-“Obesity is an established risk factor for diabetes and it is known that high BMI is associated with elevated HbA1c. Separately, the presence of H. pylori is also associated with elevated HbA1c,” said Dr. Blaser, who has studied the bacteria for more than 20 years. “We hypothesized that having both high BMI and the presence of H. pylori would have a synergistic effect, increasing HbA1c even more than the sum of the individual effect of either risk factor alone. We now know that this is true.”—-H. pylori lives in the mucous layer lining the stomach where it persists for decades. It is acquired usually before the age of 10, and is transmitted mainly in families. Dr. Blaser’s previous studies have confirmed the bacterium’s link to stomach cancer and elucidated genes associated with its virulence, particularly a gene called cagA.

Regarding H. pylori’s association with elevated HbA1c, Drs. Chen and Blaser believe the bacterium may affect the levels of two stomach hormones that help regulate blood glucose, and they suggest that eradicating H. pylori using antibiotics in some older obese individuals could be beneficial.—More research will be needed to evaluate the health effects of H. pylori and its eradication among different age groups and in relation to obesity status, the authors noted.”If future studies confirm our finding, it may be beneficial for individuals at risk for diabetes to be tested for the presence of H. pylori and, depending on the individual’s risk factor profile” Dr. Chen.—–In an accompanying editorial in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Dani Cohen, PhD, of Tel Aviv University in Israel, pointed out that while previous studies have addressed the association between type II diabetes and H. pylori in small samples, this study analyzed two independent large national samples of the general population. Dr. Cohen agreed with the study authors, suggesting that adults infected with H. pylori with higher BMI levels, even if asymptomatic, may need anti-H. pylori therapy to control or prevent type II diabetes. If the study findings are confirmed, Dr. Cohen wrote, they “could have important clinical and public health implications.”–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by NYU Langone Medical Center, via Newswise.


The Truth About Cholesterol and Saturated Fat




[U1]Chemtrail fallout has Over 28 components and one of them is aluminum not to mention managese and barium and uranium and thorium

[U2]Not Just the breast—the whole endocrine system
[U3]Some of these are in the chemtrails
[U4]Again—take the 28 components of chemtrails—add that to the water you drink if you are still drinking from the tap—then figire out the levels in your plants ( organic or otherwise since they will uptake the toxic metals as well from the ground released by the pesticides and chemtrails) and you now have a chemical mix killing or debilitating a human being
[U5]Which will further increase the levels in our system since these plants will be able to absorb more of the metal —it makes them more resistant –not more healthy—big difference