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Inactivation of Giardia Cysts by Iodine with Special Reference to Globaline

Corporate Author : ARMY NATICK RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER MA

Personal Author(s) : Powers, Edmund M.

Report Date : APR 1991

Handle / proxy Url : http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA234938

Abstract : This review of the literature indicates that iodine is not completely effective in destroying Giardia especially in cold (3 to 15C) water. Cysticidal efficacy of iodine at a given concentration and temperature depends on contact time. The iodine tablet, Globaline, used by U.S. Military Forces since 1952, required 60 minutes at 15C, 30 minutes at 25C and 25 minutes at 45C for 100% destruction of Giardia cysts at residual iodine concentration of 10, 8, and 6 mg per liter, respectively. The time required at temperatures below 15C for Globaline tablets to destroy Giardia is not presently known. Based on the information presented in this review, two changes for Globaline are recommended: (1) reformulate Globaline tablets with an alkaline buffer and (2) increase the treatment time for one liter of water from 35 minutes to 60 minutes.

Descriptors : *IODINE, WATER, TABLETS(CHEMICAL), ALKALINITY, BUFFERS, TIME

Subject Categories : WATER POLLUTION AND CONTROL

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

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STERILIZATION ACTION OF CHLORINE AND IODINE ON BACTERIA AND VIRUSES IN WATER SYSTEMS

Since neither infectious RNA nor DNA is affected, iodine as a disinfectant probably inactivates bacteria and viruses by the iodination of the appropriate protein component. The bactericidal action of iodine is complete within one minute of contact at 570C. The rate of inactivation is not materially reduced by high concentrations of iodide ion. The destruction of bacteria continues until all iodine is consumed or, in case of residual iodine, until all bacteria are destroyed. The minimum number of iodine molecules required to destroy one bacterium varies with the species. For H. influenzae it was calculated to be 1.5 x 10 molecules of iodine per c9ll. When bacteria are treated with iodine, the inorganic phosphate up-take and oxygen consumption by the cells immediately ceases. Bacterial cells reacted with radioiodine show very little in the cell fraction, indicating that most likely an oxidation of -SH groups rather than a substitution into tyrosyl moieties occurs. The inactivation of poliovirus and f 2 RNA bacteria virus by iodine is considerably inhibited by low levels of iodide ion concentration. At pH 6.0 or less iodine inactivation of f2 phage was incomplete. The rate of inactivation by iodine in the presence of iodide ion for the f 2 virus and its host E. coli is different. The difference most likely is due to the nature of The -iodine sensitive proteins involved. The virucidal properties of iodine in waters of low pH and high organic content could be inadequate regardless of the free iodine concentration when virus or viruses involved require iodination of tyrosine for inactivation. At the existing stage of the investigation on the mode of action of bromine on virus and cells, further work will be required to form definite conclusions. A general tentative summary is as follows: (I) Bacterial cells appear to be more resistant to bromine than the phage[U1]. (2) Bromine activity on cells and phage varies directly with the hydrogen ion concentration and temperature. (3) The presence of the bromide ion enhances phage and inhibits cell inactivation by bromine. (4) The activity of RNA harvested from bromine treated phage is less affected than the intact phage.

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Diabetic Remedy—Here is a list of things we have seen work to remove people off the insulin and get back to being healthy

The things we have given are bitter melon-cinnamon bark-neem-peppermint-ginseng-clove-juniper berries in a tea format 1:1 ratio in all of the tea—boiled and consumed several times a day ( 4-5 times 1-3 oz increments)—as well we gave alpha lipoic acid 200mgs and 500mgs of L carnitine which were very effective with the teas at lowering sugar—dietary changes have to be implemented since the GMO’s are some of the biggest contributors we have to minimize exposure to nil- especially the soy and canola and rice—all are out of the diet—following the protocol and making juices with dandelion-parsley and watercress –are as well an effective way to assist people in the restoration of the system and reduction of sugar as well—-remember to utilize enzymes to relieve the pancreas since it is damaged and this will lighten the load for the pancreas utilize them at every meal and 2 in between meals to get you ready for the next day

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Artificial Bee Silk a Big Step Closer to Reality

ScienceDaily (Mar. 3, 2010) — CSIRO scientist Dr Tara Sutherland and her team have achieved another important milestone in the international quest to artificially produce insect silk.–They have hand-drawn fine threads of honeybee silk from a ‘soup’ of silk proteins that they had produced transgenically.–These threads were as strong as threads drawn from the honeybee silk gland, a significant step towards development of coiled coil silk biomaterials.—“It means that we can now seriously consider the uses to which these biomimetic materials can be put,” Dr Sutherland said.”We used recombinant cells of bacterium E. coli to produce the silk proteins which, under the right conditions, self-assembled into similar structures to those in honeybee silk.–“We already knew that honeybee silk fibres could be hand-drawn from the contents of the silk gland so used this knowledge to hand-draw fibres from a sufficiently concentrated and viscous mixture of the recombinant silk proteins.–“In fact, we had to draw them twice to produce a translucent stable fibre.”–Dr Sutherland said numerous efforts have been made to express other invertebrate silks in transgenic systems but the complicated structure of the silk genes in other organisms means that producing silk outside silk glands is very difficult.—“We had previously identified the honeybee silk genes and knew that that the silk was encoded by four small non-repetitive genes — a much simpler arrangement which made them excellent candidates for transgenic silk production.”–Possible practical uses for these silks would be tough, lightweight textiles, high-strength applications such as advanced composites for use in aviation and marine environments, and medical applications such as sutures, artificial tendons and ligaments.[U2]–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by CSIRO Australia. –Journal Reference-Weisman et al. Honeybee silk: Recombinant protein production, assembly and fiber spinning. Biomaterials, 2010; 31 (9): 2695 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.12.021

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Sunlight Plus Lime Juice Makes Drinking Water Safer

ScienceDaily (Apr. 17, 2012) — Looking for an inexpensive and effective way to quickly improve the quality of your drinking water? According to a team of researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, sunlight and a twist of lime might do the trick. Researchers found that adding lime juice to water that is treated with a solar disinfection method removed detectable levels of harmful bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) significantly faster than solar disinfection alone.—The results are featured in the April 2012 issue of American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.–“For many countries, access to clean drinking water is still a major concern. Previous studies estimate that globally, half of all hospital beds are occupied by people suffering from a water-related illness,” said Kellogg Schwab, PhD, MS, senior author of the study, director of the Johns Hopkins University Global Water Program and a professor with the Bloomberg School’s Department of Environmental Health Sciences. “The preliminary results of this study show solar disinfection of water combined with citrus could be effective at greatly reducing E. coli levels in just 30 minutes, a treatment time on par with boiling and other household water treatment methods. In addition, the 30 milliliters of juice per 2 liters of water amounts to about one-half Persian lime per bottle, a quantity that will likely not be prohibitively expensive or create an unpleasant flavor.”[U3]—In low-income regions, solar disinfection of water is one of several household water treatment methods to effectively reduce the incidence of diarrheal illness. One method of using sunlight to disinfect water that is recommended by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) is known as SODIS (Solar water Disinfection). The SODIS method requires filling 1 or 2 L polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic) bottles with water and then exposing them to sunlight for at least 6 hours[U4]. In cloudy weather, longer exposure times of up to 48 hours may be necessary to achieve adequate disinfection. To determine if one of the active constituents in limes known as psoralenes could enhance solar disinfection of water, Schwab and Alexander Harding, lead author of the study and a medical student at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, looked at microbial reductions after exposure to both sunlight and simulated sunlight. The researchers filled PET plastic bottles with dechlorinated tap water and then added lime juice, lime slurry, or synthetic psoralen and either E. coli, MS2 bacteriophage or murine norovirus. Researchers found that lower levels of both E. coli and MS2 bacteriophage were statistically significant following solar disinfection when either lime juice or lime slurry was added to the water compared to solar disinfection alone. They did find however, that noroviruses were not dramatically reduced using this technique, indicating it is not a perfect solution.–“Many cultures already practice treatment with citrus juice, perhaps indicating that this treatment method will be more appealing to potential SODIS users than other additives such as TiO2 [titanium dioxide] or H2O2[hydrogen peroxide],” suggest the authors of the study. However, they caution, “additional research should be done to evaluate the use of lemon or other acidic fruits, as Persian limes may be difficult to obtain in certain regions.”–The research was supported in part by the Osprey Foundation of Maryland, The Johns Hopkins University Global Water Program, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Dean’s Funding for Summer Research and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Scholarly Concentrations.Story Source–The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. –Journal Reference–A. S. Harding, K. J. Schwab. Using Limes and Synthetic Psoralens to Enhance Solar Disinfection of Water (SODIS): A Laboratory Evaluation with Norovirus, Escherichia coli, and MS2. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2012; 86 (4): 566 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0370

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[U1]A bacteriophage (from ‘bacteria’ and Greek φαγεῖν phagein “to devour”) is any one of a number of viruses that infect bacteria
[U2]Always a reason for the violation of genetics —a good cause to treat and do something when they already have a more normal means of achievigng this
[U3]30 mils- 1 oz+ — 2 litres = 33 oz
[U4]Do it in Glass not this —this will leach eventually xeno estrogens into the body causing endocrine disrupting effects-that may lead to cancer
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Show Of The Week April 23 2012

 

How to apply the iodine to get the desired results

Table. Summary of Disinfection Capabilities of Iodine Solutions and Resins.

Joint Failures Potentially Linked to Oral Bacteria

Lead Dust Is Linked to Violence

Recipe for Removing Lead

 

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How to apply the iodine to get the desired results

Iodine is an effective disinfectant for viruses, bacteria, and many cysts at IWPD manufacturer recommended iodine dosages and contact times. In general, iodine is most effective against bacteria, followed by viruses. Iodine is least effective against cysts. Iodine is not an effective disinfectant against Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (references 2, 3, 15 and16). Most manufacturers of iodine solution IWPDs recommend dosages between 4 and 16 mg/L with contact times ranging from 20 – 35 minutes, resulting in CTs of 80 – 560 mg-min/L. CT is the

product of disinfectant concentration (C in mg/L) and contact time (T in min). The CT product-is a useful way for comparing alternative disinfectants and the resistance of various pathogens (reference 26). Because cysts are most resistant, dosages and contact times will be based on

inactivation of cysts and CTs will be in the high-end of the 80 – 560 mg-min/L CT range. Compared to other disinfectants such as chlorine and chloramines, iodine reacts less with organic compounds, is less soluble, is least hydrolyzed in water, and is effective over the pH range likely

encountered in natural water sources likely to be treated with an IWPD (references 2, 3 and 17). Together, these characteristics mean that low iodine residuals will persist longer, be more stable, and exert less of a demand in the presence of organic matter compared to chlorine and

chloramines (reference 12). It has been established that only iodine and hypoiodous acid are capable of biocidal activity. The other iodine species are not effective biocides (references 3, 11, 12 and 16). For these reasons only iodine and hypoiodous acid are the iodine species considered in this paper.

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In general, the pH of most natural water sources is neutral to mildly acidic, which is within the effective range for chemical disinfectants used for drinking water, including iodine solutions (reference 3). Iodine and hypoiodous acid have varying degrees of biocidal effectiveness against various pathogens. Iodine is up to three times more cysticidal and 6 times more sporocidal than hypoiodous acid (reference 3). Hypoiodous acid, on the other hand, is 40 times more virucidal and up to 4 times more bactericidal than iodine (reference 3). Because the concentration of these iodine species is dependent upon pH and initial iodine dose (see Figure), the following generalizations can be made. Iodine solutions are more effective cysticides and poorer virucides and bactericides at mildly acidic pH levels (< pH 7). Iodine solutions are more effective virucides and bactericides and poorer cysticides at alkaline pH levels (> pH 7). And, because it generally takes much longer to inactivate cysts than bacteria and viruses, iodine solutions used as IWPDs would be most effective at near neutral to mildly alkaline pH levels. However, at pH levels above 8, biocidal capability may drop sharply because HOI becomes unstable and decomposes to iodate and iodide, which are not effective biocides (see iodine chemistry above). To use iodine most effectively as a disinfectant, the pH should be near neutral to mildly alkaline to allow adequate levels of both iodine and hypoiodous acid (reference 4).

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In general, colder water temperatures reduce the disinfection capability of iodine solutions and other chemical disinfectants (references 9, 17 and 21). Cold water temperatures slow disinfection and must be compensated for by longer contact time or higher concentration to achieve comparable disinfection at warmer water temperatures (reference 3). A 2 to 3-fold increase in inactivation rates per 10° C water temperature increase seems a generally accepted rule (reference 3). Studies have shown a significant impact on iodine disinfection capability by temperature. One study showed CT’s to provide 2-log inactivation of the E. Coli bacteria were 2-9 times higher in colder waters (2-5° C) than in warmer waters of 20-25° C (references 9 and 22). Another study showed a CT 3 times higher was necessary at a 3° C water temperature (CT = 200 mg-min/L) compared to 23° C water temperature (CT = 65 mg-min/L) for a 2-log inactivation of E. histolytica cysts (references 9 and 10). Another study using Giardia cysts showed CT’s up to 3 times higher in 3° C water resulted in only a 1.5-log inactivation compared to CT’s at 20° C which resulted in > 2.7-log inactivation (references 7 and 21). These studies show temperature has a significant effect on iodine disinfection capability. Longer contact times and/or higher iodine doses (i.e., increased CT’s) are necessary in colder waters. Using a 2-fold CT increase for every 10° C decrease in water temperature is a good estimate to use when determining CT requirements for iodine disinfection capability.

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Bactericidal

Numerous studies indicate iodine is an effective bactericide over the range of temperature and pH expected in natural water sources (references 9, 10, 22 and 27). Very low CT levels, ranging from 0.4 – 2.4 mg-min/L are required to inactivate 2-logs of E. Coli over a wide pH range (6 – 9) and temperature range (2 – 37° C) (reference 9). CT’s of less than 10 mg-min/L resulted in a 4- log inactivation of E. Coli at a near neutral pH (6 – 7) and extreme temperatures (~ 0 – 37° C) (references 9 and 27). These low CT’s translate into low iodine residuals and/or short contact times. For example, assuming a contact time of 20 minutes, a 0.5 mg/L iodine residual would be necessary to provide 4-log inactivation of E. Coli at near neutral pH at any temperature encountered in natural waters (20 min x 0.5 mg/L = 10 mg-min/L). When iodine solutions are used at typical doses for emergency drinking water disinfection (4 – 16 mg/L) and typical recommended contact times (20 – 35 minutes), the resulting CT’s of 80 – 560 mg-min/L would likely ensure a 6-log inactivation of bacteria.

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Viricidal

Several studies also show that iodine solutions are effective virucides (references 9, 10 and 27). Viruses are more resistant to iodine disinfection than bacteria, typically requiring higher CT’s than bacteria and in some cases much higher CT’s at low pH levels (e.g., 4 – 5), where hypoiodous acid (HOI) is not present, and at cold water temperatures (e.g., 5° C) (reference 9). Most studies evaluated the virucidal efficacy of iodine solutions against f2 virus and Poliovirus. Data indicate 2-log inactivation at near neutral to alkaline pH levels (6 – 10) and various water temperatures (5 – 30° C) occurred at CT’s of 15 – 75 mg-min/L with the higher CTs occurring at lower pH levels and colder water temperatures. One study showed a CT of less than 10 mg min/ L resulted in a 4-log inactivation of f2 virus at a pH of 7 and a very warm water temperature of 37° C (reference 9). Iodine solutions will likely provide a 4-log inactivation of viruses under most natural water conditions expected. Because IWPD dosages and contact times will be based on cyst inactivation, and resulting CTs will be large (80 – 560 mg-min/L), it is likely an IWPD will achieve 4-log virus inactivation under most water quality conditions.

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Table. Summary of Disinfection Capabilities of Iodine Solutions and Resins.

Parameter Iodine

General

 

 

 

 

Bacteria

 

Viruses

 

 

Giardia Cysts

 

 

 

 

 

Cryptosporidium Oocysts

 

 

 

Effect of Temperature

 

 

 

 

 

Effect of pH

 

 

 

 

Effect of Turbidity

 

 

Solutions Iodine

Cysts most resistant. Achieving Giardia cyst inactivation will ensure adequate bacteria and virusinactivation.

 

 

Effective

 

Effective

 

Provide additional contact time beyond IWPD manufacturer recommended CTs.

 

 

 

 

 

Not effective.

 

 

Major effect. Increase contact time and/or dose at colder temperatures. CT’s up to 720 mg-min/L recommended for Giardia cyst inactivation in colder waters.

 

 

Minor effect. Generally effective over typical pH levels for natural waters

 

 

Affects disinfection capability. Provide additional contact time and/or increase iodine dose in more turbid waters.

Iodine Resins

Cysts most resistant. Achieving Giardia cyst inactivation will ensure adequate bacteria and virus inactivation

 

 

Effective

 

Effective

 

Pentaiodide resin effective.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Triiodide resin not effective. Provide additional contact time after passing through resin. Not effective.

Major effect. Increase contact time after passing through pentaiodide resin at colder temperatures. Allow up to 40 minutes additional contact time for Giardia cysts inactivation in colder waters (< 5° C)

 

 

Minor effect. Generally effective over pH range typical for natural waters

 

 

Affects disinfection capability. Heavy organic matter loading can significantly reduce disinfection capability.

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Joint Failures Potentially Linked to Oral Bacteria

ScienceDaily (Apr. 18, 2012) — The culprit behind a failed hip or knee replacements might be found in the mouth. DNA testing of bacteria from the fluid that lubricates hip and knee joints had bacteria with the same DNA as the plaque from patients with gum disease and in need of a joint replacement. This study is one of many coming from the Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine that have linked oral bacteria to health problems when they escape from the mouth and enter the blood. Working with University Hospitals Case Medical Center researchers, the dental, orthopedic and arthritis researchers suggest it might be the reason why aseptic loosening or prosthetic wear of the artificial joints fail within 10 years when no infection appears to be present. The pilot study’s findings were reported in the April issue of the Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. Dr. Nabil Bissada, chair of the Department of Periodontics at the dental school, said the objective of the study, “Identification of Oral Bacterial DNA in Synovial Fluid of Patients with Arthritis with Native and Failed Prosthetic Joints,” was to see if bacteria like Fusobacterium nucleatum and Serratia proteamaculans found in patients with gum disease were present in the fluid.–“For a long time, we’ve suspected that these bacteria were causing problems in arthritis patients, but never had the scientific evidence to support it,” Bissada says.–The researchers recruited and studied 36 patients seeking care at the University Hospitals Case Medical Center for osteoarthritis (the wearing of the joints) and rheumatoid arthritis (an autoimmune disease). -These study participants had both natural and artificial joints. Researcher extracted samples of their synovial fluid, which is much like oil that keeps a door from squeaking. These patients also had signs of periodontitis or gum disease and undergone exams where dental plaque was obtained for the study. Plaque build-up from the bacteria, associated with gum disease, breaks down the walls of the pockets around the teeth. The inflammation process from the bacteria acts like a gate that gives bacteria access to the blood stream. Once in the blood, the oral bacteria have induced inflammation in remote sites where the bacteria has been linked to heart, kidney and cancer diseases and premature births and fetal deaths.—Because these bacteria cannot be found with routine lab tests, detection of bacteria in the plaque and fluid was done through a process called polymerase chain reactions and DNA sequence analysis of specific genes (16S-23S rRNA). This is a sophisticated DNA tracking procedure.—-Five of the 36 patients (14%) showed direct DNA links between the bacteria in the fluid and plaque from the mouth. The breakdown in patients was: one from a rheumatoid arthritis (RA)[U1] patient with a failed natural joint and one RA patient with a failed replacement joint; two osteoarthritis (OA) patients with failed artificial joints and one OA patient with a failed natural joint.—Bissada said researchers will continue exploring the oral health link in a larger study. “We have a link now and want to see just how much of a trend this is. We also will be able to see if treating the periodontal disease, can reduce the number of future costly joint replacements.”—Collaborating with Bissada on the National Institutes of Health and Department of Periodontics-funded research were: Stephanie Temoin, Alia Chakaki, Ahmed El-Halaby, Yiping Han from the Case Western Reserve dental school, and Ali Askari, Steven Fitzgerald and Randall E. Marcus from University Hospitals Case –Story Source–The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Case Western Reserve University. –Journal Reference-Témoin, Stéphanie; Chakaki, Alia; Askari, Ali; El-Halaby, Ahmed; Fitzgerald, Steven; Marcus, Randall E.; Han, Yiping W.; Bissada, Nabil F. Identification of Oral Bacterial DNA in Synovial Fluid of Patients With Arthritis With Native and Failed Prosthetic Joints. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 18(3):117-121, April 2012 DOI: 10.1097/RHU.0b013e3182500c95

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Lead Dust Is Linked to Violence

Vehicles using leaded gasoline that contaminated cities’ air decades ago have increased aggravated assault in urban areas, researchers say. –ScienceDaily (Apr. 17, 2012) — Childhood exposure to lead dust has been linked to lasting physical and behavioral effects, and now lead dust from vehicles using leaded gasoline has been linked to instances of aggravated assault two decades after exposure, says Tulane toxicologist Howard W. Mielke.–Vehicles using leaded gasoline that contaminated cities’ air decades ago have increased aggravated assault in urban areas, researchers say.–The new findings are published in the journal Environment International by Mielke, a research professor in the Department of Pharmacology at the Tulane University School of Medicine, and demographer Sammy Zahran at the Center for Disaster and Risk Analysis at Colorado State University.—The researchers compared the amount of lead released in six cities: Atlanta, Chicago, Indianapolis, Minneapolis, New Orleans and San Diego, during the years 1950-1985. This period saw an increase in airborne lead dust exposure due to the use of leaded gasoline. There were correlating spikes in the rates of aggravated assault approximately two decades later, after the exposed children grew up.–After controlling for other possible causes such as community and household income, education, policing effort and incarceration rates, Mielke and Zahran found that for every one percent increase in tonnages of environmental lead released 22 years earlier, the present rate of aggravated assault was raised by 0.46 percent.—“Children are extremely sensitive to lead dust, and lead exposure has latent neuroanatomical effects that severely impact future societal behavior and welfare,” says Mielke. “Up to 90 per cent of the variation in aggravated assault across the cities is explained by the amount of lead dust released 22 years earlier.” Tons of lead dust were released between 1950 and 1985 in urban areas by vehicles using leaded gasoline, and improper handling of lead-based paint also has contributed to contamination.Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Tulane University, via Newswise. –Journal Reference-Howard W. Mielke, Sammy Zahran. The urban rise and fall of air lead (Pb) and the latent surge and retreat of societal violence. Environment International, 2012; 43: 48 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2012.03.005

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Recipe for Removing Lead—Apply Vitamin C 1000mgs + NAC ( or any sulfur based Supplement such as MSM 1000mgs-Methionine 1000mgs-alpha lipoic acid 200mgs—Kyolic formula 108 / 100/106 1000mgs ) and B1 ( thiamine 100 mgs 3 times a day-benfotiamine 100 mgs 3-4 times a day ( better choice ) or sulbatiamine 100 mgs 1-3 a day ) Use all of them together 3-4 times a day and avoid any re exposure

Combining pectin from citrus or apple with onion as a mush will pull it out of the colon—

Combining Iodine ( high dose 900mgs ) and selenium will remove this as well

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[U1]Is this interesting that Iodine and Turpentine kill off bacteria and Heal RA
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Show Of The Week April 27 2012

Monsanto-Free Seed Companies
Fundamental Discovery Casts Enzymes in New Light

New Process Improves Catalytic Rate of Enzymes by 3,000 Percent

The efficacy of a single pocket irrigation on subgingival microbial vitality

Pediatric Iodine –Safe Antibacterial, Antiviral & Antifungal for Children

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Monsanto-Free Seed Companies
Here are some seed companies. Please let us know of any we missed and we will add them to this list.

All Good Things Organic
Amishland Seeds
Annapolis Valley Heritage Seed Company canada
Baker Creek Seed Co.
Botanical Interests
Bountiful Gardens
Diane’s Flower Seeds (she has veggies now, too)
Fedco Seed Co. – phasing out seminis seeds.
Fisher’s Seeds – 406-388-6052 They don’t have a website, but they will send you a catalog if you give them your address
PO Box 236, Belgrade, MT 59714
Garden City Seeds
Gourmet Seed
Heirlooms Evermore Seeds
Heirloom Seeds
High Mowing Seeds
Horizon Herbs
Hudson Valley Seed Library
Humbleseeds
Irish-Eyes
J.L Hudson
Kitchen Garden Seeds
Kusa Seed Society
Lake Valley Seeds
Landreth Seeds
Livingston Seeds
Local Harvest
Mountain Rose Herbs
Native Seeds for the Arid Southwest
Natural Gardening Company
New Hope Seed Company
Nichol’s Garden Nursery
Organica Seed
Peace Seeds
Peaceful Valley Farm Supply
Pinetree
Renee’s Garden
Richters Herbs
Sand Hill Preservation Center
Seed Saver’s Exchange
Seeds of Change
Southern Exposure
Sow True
Tiny Seeds
Tomato Fest
Trees of Antiquity
Turtle Tree Seed
Underwood Garden Seeds
Uprising Seeds
Victory Seeds
Wild Garden Seeds
Wildseed Farms
Wood Prairie Farm

Canadian Seed Companies:

Salt Spring Seeds
Seeds of Victoria
Solana Seeds
Terra Edibles
The Cottage Gardener
West Coast Seeds
Sources: http://www.manytracks.com/Garden/IndieSeedCompanies.htm

http://www.treehugger.com/lawn-garden/10-best-seed-companies-selected-by-readers.html

Source: http://www.occupymonsanto360.org (http://s.tt/18OFq)

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Fundamental Discovery Casts Enzymes in New Light

ScienceDaily (Nov. 9, 2011) — A tree outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory researcher Pratul Agarwal’s office window provided the inspiration for a discovery that may ultimately lead to drugs with fewer side effects, less expensive biofuels and more.—-Just as a breeze causes leaves, branches and ultimately the tree to move, enzymes moving at the molecular level perform hundreds of chemical processes that have a ripple effect necessary for life. Previously, protein complexes were viewed as static entities with biological function understood in terms of direct interactions, but that isn’t the case. This finding, recently published in PLoS Biology, may have enormous implications.–“Our discovery is allowing us to perhaps find the knobs that we can use to improve the catalytic rate of enzymes and perform a host of functions more efficiently,” said Agarwal, a member of the Department of Energy laboratory’s Computer Science and Mathematics Division.–Making this discovery possible was ORNL’s supercomputer, Jaguar, which allowed Agarwal and co-author Arvind Ramanathan to investigate a large number of enzymes at the atomistic scale.—The researchers found that enzymes have similar features that are entirely preserved from the smallest living organism — bacteria — to complex life forms, including humans.-“If something is important for function, then it will be present in the protein performing the same function across different species[U1],” Agarwal said. “For example, regardless of which company makes a car, they all have wheels and brakes.”–Similarly, scientists have known for decades that certain structural features of the enzyme are also preserved because of their important function. Agarwal and Ramanathan believe the same is true for enzyme flexibility.–“The importance of the structure of enzymes has been known for more than 100 years, but only recently have we started to understand that the internal motions may be the missing piece of the puzzle to understand how enzymes work,” Agarwal said. “If we think of the tree as the model, the protein move at the molecular level with the side-chain and residues being the leaves and the protein backbone being the entire stem.”—This research builds on previous work in which Agarwal identified a network of protein vibrations in the enzyme Cyclphilin A, which is involved in many biological reactions, including AIDS-causing HIV-1.—While Agarwal sees this research perhaps leading to medicines able to target hard to cure diseases such as AIDS, he is also excited about its energy applications, specifically in the area of cellulosic ethanol. Highly efficient enzymes could bring down the cost of biofuels, making them a more attractive option.—Funding for this research was provided by ORNL’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. Ramanathan was a graduate student at Carnegie Mellon University when this work began and now also works at ORNL. The paper is titled “Evolutionarily conserved linkage between enzyme fold, flexibility and catalysis.”–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory. –Journal Reference-Arvind Ramanathan, Pratul K. Agarwal. Evolutionarily Conserved Linkage between Enzyme Fold, Flexibility, and Catalysis. PLoS Biology, 2011; 9 (11): e1001193 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001193

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New Process Improves Catalytic Rate of Enzymes by 3,000 Percent

ScienceDaily (Apr. 17, 2012) — Light of specific wavelengths can be used to boost an enzyme’s function by as much as 30 fold, potentially establishing a path to less expensive biofuels, detergents and a host of other products.–In a paper published in The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, a team led by Pratul Agarwal of the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory described a process that aims to improve upon nature — and it happens in the blink of an eye.—“When light enters the eye and hits the pigment known as rhodopsin, it causes a complex chemical reaction to occur, including a conformational change,” Agarwal said. “This change is detected by the associated protein and through a rather involved chain of reactions is converted into an electrical signal for the brain.”—With this as a model, Agarwal’s team theorized that it should be possible to improve the catalytic efficiency of enzyme reactions by attaching chemical elements on the surface of an enzyme and manipulating them with the use of tuned light.—The researchers introduced a light-activated molecular switch across two regions of the enzyme Candida antarctica lipase B, or CALB — which breaks down fat molecules — identified through modeling performed on DOE’s Jaguar supercomputer.–“Using this approach, our preliminary work with CALB suggested that such a technique of introducing a compound that undergoes a light-inducible conformational change onto the surface of the protein could be used to manipulate enzyme reaction,” Agarwal said.—While the researchers obtained final laboratory results at industry partner AthenaES, computational modeling allowed Agarwal to test thousands of combinations of enzyme sites, modification chemistry, different wavelengths of light, different temperatures and photo-activated switches. Simulations performed on Jaguar also allowed researchers to better understand how the enzyme’s internal motions control the catalytic activity.—“This modeling was very important as it helped us identify regions of the enzyme that were modified by interactions with chemicals,” said Agarwal, a member of ORNL’s Computer Science and Mathematics Division. “Ultimately, the modeling helped us understand how the mechanical energy from the surface can eventually be transferred to the active site where it is used to conduct the chemical reaction.”—Agarwal noted that enzymes are present in every organism and are widely used in industry as catalysts in the production of biofuels and countless other every day products. Researchers believe this finding could have immense potential for improving enzyme efficiency, especially as it relates to biofuels.–Funding for this work was provided by Technology Maturation Funds from Battelle Memorial Institute. Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory. –Journal Reference–Pratul K. Agarwal, Christopher Schultz, Aristotle Kalivretenos, Brahma Ghosh, Sheldon E. Broedel. Engineering a Hyper-catalytic Enzyme by Photoactivated Conformation Modulation. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2012; : 1142 DOI: 10.1021/jz201675m

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The efficacy of a single pocket irrigation on subgingival microbial vitality.

von Ohler C, Weiger R, Decker E, Schlagenhauf U, Brecx M.

Source-Department of Periodontology and Conservative Dentistry, University of the Saarland, Gebäude 73, D-66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany.

Abstract

The object of this study was to monitor the proportion of vital bacteria (microbial vitality: VF in %) present in subgingival dental plaque following one single subgingival irrigation with saline (S), chlorhexidine (CHX) or povidone iodine (I2), but without any subgingival instrumentation. Its effect on the main composition of the microflora was also assessed. Seventeen patients with adult periodontitis took part in this investigation. In each patient four initially untreated pockets (pocket depth 5-11 mm) associated with bleeding were selected for the standardised pocket irrigation and plaque sampling at baseline (0 h) and after the following 1 h, 24 h, 7 days and 31 days. The subgingival irrigation was only performed once (0 h). One pocket per quadrant was irrigated using 0.9% prereduced S, 0.2% CHX or 0.05% I2 (Iso-Betadine Buccale). The remaining untreated pocket without any irrigation served as an additional control (C). Using an acrylic splint as a guide, paperpoints were inserted into the pocket precisely at the same site to collect subgingival plaque. The bleeding on sampling (BOS) was thereafter noted. The proportions of bacterial morphotypes were examined by darkfield microscopy. VF was evaluated using a vital fluorescence staining. The undisturbed subgingival dental plaque was composed of 86% (median value) vital bacteria. The sampling procedure alone and the saline irrigation led to a decrease in the number of spirochetes but had no influence on the vitality of the flora. Large variations in VF could be observed in the short-term (1 h, 24 h) irrigation effect of CHX and I2. The reduction of VF was still significant after 7 days (VF(CHX) 30-80%, VF(I2) 35-80%) but persisted up to 31 days only after I2 irrigation (VF(I2) 12-90%). The findings indicated that all single subgingival irrigations resulted in a temporary change of the subgingival microflora while povidone iodine produced the longest lasting antimicrobial effect. Any clinical advantage of this situation should be further investigated.

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[U1]Genetic manipulation with enzymes or even dna manipulation which our bodies do naturally but if something else is added –then you will have a effect
[U2]And Selenium and Zinc the selenium to assist the iodine and to regulate the heart like magnesium
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Show of the Week April 30-2012

Therapeutic Uses of (Topically Applied) Salicylic Acid

Recipe for Salicylic Acid

Inhibitory effect of aqueous Dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity

Aspirin May Lower the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer

Aspirin Reduces Cancer Risk: Is It Time to Include It in Cancer Prevention Guidelines?

Regular Aspirin Intake Halves Cancer Risk, Study Finds

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Therapeutic Uses of (Topically Applied) Salicylic Acid

All of the topical uses of Salicylic Acid are based on its actions as a keratolytic agent (i.e. its ability to loosen the Stratum Corneum of the Epidermis of the Skin).

Skin/Hair—-Salicylic Acid (diluted and applied topically) is sometimes used for the treatment of Acne (it “unplugs” blocked Sebaceous Glands via its exfoliant properties.).

Salicylic Acid (in a 2 – 3% solution applied topically) may alleviate Dandruff (by causing the dead cells that comprise Dandruff to peel (shed)).

Salicylic Acid (in a 2 – 6% solution applied topically) may alleviate Psoriasis (by causing the dead cells involved in Psoriasis to peel (shed)).

Salicylic Acid (applied topically) may act as an exfoliant for the Skin – this action may improve the visual appearance of the Skin (the thinning of the superficial layer of the Skin results in smoother, more radiant Skin)

-Salicylic Acid (applied topically) may remove almost all abnormal Skin Pigmentation, fine Wrinkles, precancerous lesions and Lipofuscin (Age Spots) – especially from the Skin of the hands and forearms.

Salicylic Acid (applied topically by a dermatologist) is sometimes used as the peeling agent in Chemical Peels of the Skin.

Salicylic Acid (10% solution applied topically) is sometimes prescribed for the treatment of Solar Keratoses.

Salicylic Acid (applied topically in a solution of 10% – 70%) is often employed by dermatologists to remove Warts

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Recipe for Salicylic —take TSP 3 parts to 1 part Salicylic Acid and 50 parts water—so take 3 grams of TSP-1 gram of Salicylic acid and 50 grams of water ( 2 oz )—this will increase it’s ability to be dissolved and utilized—this will be another way of making a pain remedy—make sure you if you use an aspirin that it is clean and without contamination—best place I have seen to buy this is at a horse supplier—

Salicylic Acid For Skin Conditions -add 10 grams of Salicylic Acid to 100mls of alcohol and proceed to shake til dissolved – this will make a 10% solution to be dabbed on an area—to make a 2 percent then just add 2 grams to the 100mls

100mls is 3 oz

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Inhibitory effect of aqueous Dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:112—Authors: Han H, He W, Wang W, Gao B

Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is an immunosuppressive disease that results in life-threatening opportunistic infections. The general problems in current therapy include the constant emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains, adverse side effects and the unavailability of treatments in developing countries. Natural products from herbs with the abilities to inhibit HIV-1 life cycle at different stages, have served as excellent sources of new anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-HIV-1 activity of aqueous dandelion extract.—ÃÃDandelion Tea or SoupÃÃ
METHODS: The pseudotyped HIV-1 virus has been utilized to explore the anti-HIV-1 activity of dandelion, the level of HIV-1 replication was assessed by the percentage of GFP-positive cells. The inhibitory effect of the dandelion extract on reverse transcriptase activity was assessed by the reverse transcriptase assay kit. RESULTS: Compared to control values obtained from cells infected without treatment, the level of HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that dandelion extract has a potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity. The identification of HIV-1 antiviral compounds from Taraxacum officinale should be pursued.
CONCLUSIONS: The dandelion extract showed strong activity against HIV-1 RT and inhibited both the HIV-1 vector and the hybrid-MoMuLV/MoMuSV retrovirus replication. These findings provide additional support for the potential therapeutic efficacy of Taraxacum officinale. Extracts from this plant may be regarded as another starting point for the development of an antiretroviral therapy with fewer side effects.—PMID: 22078030 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Aspirin May Lower the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer

ScienceDaily (Apr. 4, 2011) — The use of aspirin at least once per month is associated with a significant decrease in pancreatic cancer risk, [U1]according to results of a large case-control study presented at the AACR 102nd Annual Meeting 2011, held in Orlando, Florida, April 2-6.—-Xiang-Lin Tan, –For the current study, Tan and colleagues enrolled 904 patients who had documented pancreatic cancer and compared them with 1,224 healthy patients. All patients were at least 55 years old and reported their use of aspirin, NSAIDs and acetaminophen by questionnaire.—Results showed that people who took aspirin at least one day during a month had a 26 percent decreased risk of pancreatic cancer compared to those who did not take aspirin regularly. The effect was also found for those who took low-dose aspirin for heart disease prevention at 35 percent lower risk, according to Tan.–The researchers did not see a benefit from non-aspirin NSAIDs or acetaminophen. “This provides additional evidence that aspirin may have chemoprevention activity against pancreatic cancer,” said Tan. He added that more data must be gathered before we can prove a real benefit.–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by American Association for Cancer Research.

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Aspirin Reduces Cancer Risk: Is It Time to Include It in Cancer Prevention Guidelines?

ScienceDaily (Apr. 9, 2012) — A new report by American Cancer Society scientists says new data showing aspirin’s potential role in reducing the risk of cancer death bring us considerably closer to the time when cancer prevention can be included in clinical guidelines for the use of aspirin in preventative care. The report, published early online in Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, says even a 10% reduction in overall cancer incidence beginning during the first 10 years of treatment could tip the balance of benefits and risks favorably in average-risk populations.—Current guidelines for the use of aspirin in disease prevention consider only its cardiovascular benefits, weighed against the potential harm from aspirin-induced bleeding. While daily aspirin use has also been convincingly shown to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and recurrence of adenomatous polyps, these benefits alone do not outweigh harms from aspirin-induced bleeding in average-risk populations.[U2] But recently published secondary analyses of cardiovascular trials have provided the first randomized evidence that daily aspirin use may also reduce the incidence of all cancers combined, even at low doses (75-100 mg daily).—The current review, led by Michael J. Thun, M.D., vice president emeritus of epidemiology and surveillance research for the American Cancer Society was not designed as a comprehensive review of the literature, but instead is a focused discussion of the key outstanding issues in using aspirin as a cancer prevention tool.\The report says recently published meta-analyses of results from randomized trials of daily aspirin treatment to prevent vascular events have provided provocative evidence that daily aspirin at doses of 75 mg and above might lower both overall cancer incidence and overall cancer mortality.—In six primary prevention trials of daily low-dose aspirin, randomization to aspirin treatment was associated with an approximately 20% reduction in overall cancer incidence between 3 and 5 years after initiation of the intervention (metaodds ratio [OR] = 0.81; 95% CI 0.67-0.98) and a 30% reduction during follow up more than 5 years after randomization (meta-OR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.56-0.88). Cancer mortality was also reduced during study follow up that happened more than 5 years after the start of aspirin use (meta-OR = 0.63; 95% CI 0.49-0.82) in analyses that included 34 trials of daily aspirin at various doses. Surprisingly, the size of the observed benefit did not increase with daily doses of aspirin above 75-100 mg. Notably, these meta-analyses excluded results from the Women’s Health Study (WHS), a large 10-year-long trial of 100 mg of aspirin taken every other day, which reported no reduction in cancer incidence or mortality.—“The accumulating data from randomized clinical trials provide an exciting opportunity to reconsider the potential role of aspirin in cancer prevention,” write the authors. They say several important questions remain unanswered, such as the exact magnitude of the overall cancer benefit and which individual cancer sites contribute to this benefit. “However, these new data bring us considerably closer to the time when cancer prevention can be integrated into the clinical guidelines for prophylactic treatment following regulatory review by the FDA and the European Medicines Agency.”—Story Source—The above story is reprinted from materials provided by American Cancer Society. –Journal Reference-Michael J. Thun, Eric J. Jacobs, Carlo Patrono. The role of aspirin in cancer prevention. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, 2012; DOI: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2011.199

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Regular Aspirin Intake Halves Cancer Risk, Study Finds

ScienceDaily (Oct. 28, 2011) — Scientists including those from Queen’s University have discovered that taking regular aspirin halves the risk of developing hereditary cancers.—Hereditary cancers are those which develop as a result of a gene fault inherited from a parent. Bowel and womb cancers are the most common forms of hereditary cancers. Fifty thousand people in the UK are diagnosed with bowel and womb cancers every year; 10 per cent of these cancers are thought to be hereditary.—The decade-long study, which involved scientists and clinicians from 43 centres in 16 countries and was funded by Cancer Research UK, followed nearly 1,000 patients, in some cases for over 10 years. The study found that those who had been taking a regular dose of aspirin had 50 per cent fewer incidents of hereditary cancer compared with those who were not taking aspirin.—The research focused on people with Lynch syndrome which is an inherited genetic disorder that causes cancer by affecting genes responsible for detecting and repairing damage in the DNA. Around 50 per cent of those with Lynch syndrome develop cancer, mainly in the bowel and womb. The study looked at all cancers related to the syndrome, and found that almost 30 per cent of the patients not taking aspirin had developed a cancer compared to around 15 per cent of those taking the aspirin.—Those who had taken aspirin still developed the same number of polyps, which are thought to be precursors of cancer, as those who did not take aspirin but they did not go on to develop cancer. It suggests that aspirin could possibly be causing these cells to destruct before they turn cancerous.—Over 1,000 people were diagnosed with bowel cancer in Northern Ireland last year; 400 of these died from the disease. Ten per cent of bowel cancer cases are hereditary and by taking aspirin regularly the number of those dying from the hereditary form of the disease could be halved.—Professor Patrick Morrison from Queen’s University in Belfast, who led the Northern Ireland part of the study, said: “The results of this study, which has been ongoing for over a decade, proves that the regular intake of aspirin over a prolonged period halves the risk of developing hereditary cancers. The effects of aspirin in the first five years of the study were not clear but in those who took aspirin for between five and ten years the results were very clear.”—“This is a huge breakthrough in terms of cancer prevention. For those who have a history of hereditary cancers in their family, like bowel and womb cancers, this will be welcome news. Not only does it show we can reduce cancer rates and ultimately deaths, it opens up other avenues for further cancer prevention research. We aim now to go forward with another trial to assess the most effective dosage of aspirin for hereditary cancer prevention and to look at the use of aspirin in the general population as a way of reducing the risk of bowel cancer.–“For anyone considering taking aspirin I would recommend discussing this with your GP first as aspirin is known to bring with it a risk of stomach complaints, including ulcers.”—The research was published online Oct. 28 in The Lancet.–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Queen’s University Belfast. —Journal Reference-Sir John Burn, Anne-Marie Gerdes, Finlay Macrae, Jukka-Pekka Mecklin, Gabriela Moeslein, Sylviane Olschwang, Diane Eccles, Gareth Evans, Eamonn R. Maher, Lucio Bertario, Marie-Luise Bisgaard, Malcolm G. Dunlop, Judy W.C. Ho, Shirley V. Hodgson, Annika Lindblom, Jan Lubinski, Patrick J. Morrison, Victoria Murday, Raj Ramesar, Lucy Side, Rodney J. Scott, Huw J.W. Thomas, Hans F. Vasen, Gail Barker, Gillian Crawford, Faye Elliott, Mohammad Movahedi, Kirsi Pylvanainen, Juul T. Wijnen, Riccardo Fodde, Henry T. Lynch, John C. Mathers, D. Timothy Bishop, on behalf of the CAPP2 Investigators. Long-term effect of aspirin on cancer risk in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer: an analysis from the CAPP2 randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, Pubished online Oct. 28, 2011; DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61049-0

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[U1]Make sure the aspirin in use or the Salicylic Acid does not have any contamination or colouring agents or plastics such as polyethylene glycol–
[U2]The reason being is that they are not putting it together properly—should be mixed with a sodium phosphate or borax solution or with even magnesium to offset any negative side effects that the salcyclic acid may produce