KITCHEN HERBS–PROPERITES—USES—REMEDIES

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    ALLSPICE

    ARJUNA

    BAYLEAF, LAUREL

    BLACK CUMIN

    BLACK PEPPER

    CARAWAY

    CARDAMON

    CELERY

    CINNAMON

     

    CLOVE

    GALANGA

    GARLIC

    GINGER

    GREATER GALANGAL

    NUTMEG

    ONION

    OREGANO

    PAPAYA

     

    PARSLEY

    PEPPERMINT

    ROSEMARY

    SAFFRON

    SAGE

    SAVOURY

    TARRAGON

    THYME

    TUMERIC

     

    Phytonutrients PROPERTIES

    Abbreviations and Meanings

    Herbal Components exert Activities in the body

    Defininiton of Terms and Conditions — for the health and issues of the body

     

    Kitchen Herbs and there Uses

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    (PNC). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Allspice) — Class 1 (AHP). Not covered (KOM). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Extracts (Allspice) — Rinzler recounts a study of 408 patients with eczema in which 19 reacted positively to allspice patch tests (RIN). “The berries, their oil, and the eugenol extract promote the activity of the digestive enzyme trypsin, which may help explain why allspice has traditionally been used as a digestive aid” (APA). Perhaps second only to some varieties of clove (up to 20% eugenol) and cinnamon (to 3.8%), allspice (to 3.6% eugenol) is a major source of eugenol.

     

    Dosages (Arjuna) — 1–3 g bark (KAP); 3.88 g powdered bark (PH2); 1 g dry bark/day or 2–6 ml extract (1:2) (KEB); 14–28 ml decoction (KAP). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Arjuna) — Not covered (AHP; KOM). “Health hazards not known with proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). One case of acute myocardial infarction tentatively associated with use of arjuna (KEB).

     

    Dosages (Bayleaf) — 1–2 tsp leaf/cup water to 3 ×/day (APA); 1–2 drops EO added to brandy, honey, or tea (APA). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Bayleaf) — Class 1 (AHP). None known at proper dosage (PHR). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2) (No dosage given, however) (PH2). Leaf and berry oil may cause severe lesions of the skin. Contact dermatosis from handling leaves or EO reported. Diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting from excessive doses of the EO may occur. Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), are aromatic compounds widely distributed in cerain plant families, with highest concentrations generally found in leaves and flowers. Sheep and cattle poisonings due to SL-containing species have been reported. Cases of allergic contact dermatosis in humans have also been reported (AEH). There have been a few unfortunate fatalities to people perforating their intestines with fragmented laurel leaves. Always remove them from your spaghetti and stew (JAD; TAD). Artemorin, costunolide, costuslactone, deacetlylaurenobiolide, laurenobiolide, reynosin, santamarin, and verlorin are 8 alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactones documented to be the chief cause of allergy (contact dermatosis) in Laurus (TAD). With compounds like parthenolide and santamarin, this shares many of the antimigraine compounds of feverfew

     

    Dosages (Black Cumin) — 0.6–1.2 g seed (HHB; MAD); 1 tsp seed in hot tea (MAD). –Extracts (Black Cumin) — Nigellone protects guinea pigs from histamine-induced bronchospasms (WOI). LD50 alcoholic extract 540–580 mg/kg ipr mouse (MPI).

    Dosages (Black Pepper) — Single doses 300–600 mg; daily dosage 1500 mg (HHB; PHR); 5–15 whole peppercorns for hemorrhoids (HHB); 1–15 grains (MAD); spice chicken soup with black pepper for congestion, cough, or head cold (RIN). —–Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Black Pepper) — Class 1 (AHP) “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Extracts (Black Pepper) — In human volunteers, 20 mg piperine increases bioavailability of curcumin 20-fold (MAB). Piperine inhibits calcium transport into the mitochondria, facilitates mitochondrial release of calcium, and stimulates ATPase activity (SPI). Piperine is more potent than D-galactosamine in inhibiting glucuronidation. (ED50 with 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene = 50 µM) (SPI). Piperine both depletes uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid and reduced the rate of glucuronidation. This could lead to drug potentiation. Piperine is more toxic to houseflies than pyrethrin. A mix of 0.05% piperine and 0.01 pyrethrins is more toxic than 0.1% pyrethrin (WOI). According to Rinzler, chavicine, piperidine, and piperine are all diaphoretic (RIN). Ayurvedics often prescribe black pepper in a synergistic triad called trikatu, with ginger and long pepper (DEP). In addition to 0.54% mixed tocopherols in the oleoresin (including 0.1% alpha-tocopherol), pepper contains five phenolic amides that are superior as antioxidants to alpha tocopherol in vitro (SPI). Although pepper contains the carcinogen safrole, it is at very low levels compared to sassafras. E/O reportedly inhibits Alternaria oryzae, A. tenuis, Aspergillus oryzae, Beauveria sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Fusarium solani, Histoplasma capsulatum, Microsporum gypseum, Nocardia brasiliensis, Penicillium javanicum, P. striatum, Staphylococcus “albus,” Trichoderma viride, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Vibrio cholera. Alcoholic, aqueous, and ether extracts have taenicidal activity at 1:100 concentrations. Aqueous leaf extract raised blood pressure in dogs modestly (not stated whether oral or injected).

     

    Dosages (Cardamom) — 0.5–2 g powdered fruit (PNC); 0.625–1.750 g powdered seed (KAP); 15 crushed seed/half cup water up to 5 ×/day (APA); individual dose 0.5 g; daily dose 1.5 g (HHB); 1–2 g (KOM; PH2); 2–4 ml tincture (PNC); 2–4 ml liquid cardamom extract (PNC); 0.03–0.2 ml cardamom oil (PNC). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Cardamom) — Class 1 (AHP). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). No side effects or interactions reported (KOM). Patients with gallstone should consult a physician before taking (KOM). Can trigger gallstone colic (PH2). Fleming et al. give a much longer Commission E approval list than Blumenthal et al. (who list only dyspepsia in 1998, and dropped it in BGB). There’s something very repetitive about the caveats that a compiler like me is liable to notice. — borneol, eucalyptol (= cineole), and limonene are irritants; limonene is a photosensitizer.

    Dosages (Celery) — 200 g root boiled in 500 g water taking 1 cup every 3 hours as antigalactic (JFM); 1–2 leaves for colic (DEP); 1–4 g powdered seed (KAP; PNC); 1–2 tsp seed/cup water (APA); 1–2 g dry seed (PED); 2 g dry seed:10 ml alcohol/10 ml water (PED); 1 g mashed seed/cup hot water (PH2); 1.75 tsp crushed seed/cup water (APA); 0.05–0.1 ml (PNC); 0.5–1 tsp tincture to 3 ×/day (APA; WIC); 0.3–1.5 ml liquid extract (PNC); 0.3–1.2 ml liquid extract (1:1 in 60% alcohol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 0.5–2 g or by decoction 1:5, 3 ×/day (CAN); 2 (500 mg) capsules (450 mg celery extract StX to contain at least 9.9 mg volatile oil in 50 mg synergistic base of whole celery seed powder) 2 ×/day, before meals (NH). Often standardized to 2.2% volatile oil. Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Celery) — Class 2b[5], 2d. Individuals with renal disorders should use with caution. Commission E reports potential allergenicity, including anaphylactic shock. Photosensitizing. Contains phototoxic furanocoumarins (AHP). CAN cautions that the furanocoumarins may cause phototoxicity and dermatosis. Still, they summarize that no side effects or toxicity are documented for celery seed. Photosensitivity reactions have been reported as a result of external contact with celery stems. Even anaphylactic reactions are reported following oral ingestion of the stems. Archives of Dermatology (1990) reported severe phototoxicity in a woman consuming celeriac and then going to a tanning parlor. The new Herbal PDR (Gruenwald et al., 1998) notes that levels of phototoxic furanocoumarins can rise 200-fold under storage conditions, especially if the root is fungally or yeast infected (PHR). No side effects, toxicity documented for celery fruit (CAN). Persons with kidney problems should be cautious. The drug is contraindicated in inflammation of the kidneys, since apiaceous EOs may increase the inflammation as a result of epithelial irritation. Contraindicated during pregnancy (uterotonic activity demonstrated for the EO (CAN)). Celery seed oil abortifacient (JFM). Oil, though stated to be nonirritant, nonphototoxic, and nonsensitizing in humans, is also reported to have uterotonic activity; the seeds are said to affect the menstrual cycle and even to be abortifacient (CAN). There’s a rare allergy, Birch-Celery Syndrome; people sensitive to birch or mugwort (watch out moxibustionists) pollen may have an immediate reaction just eating celery or taking celery seed products. “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2) (But, regrettably, it doesn’t give those therapeutic dosage levels.) So far, in my 5.5 years on celery seed extract, I have not knowingly suffered any side effects from the 2–4 capsules or tablets I take a day, every day, without fail, for the prevention of the gout crisis. Celery herb, seed, and root unapproved for therapeutic application, as far as Germany’s Commission E is concerned. Extracts (Celery) — Extracts antiedemic, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypotensive. LD50 >5000 mg/kg orl rat (CAN). Juice choleretic. Chamomile is a better source of the COX-2 inhibitor apigenin (to 0.8% ZMB), but celery stalks may contain to 0.2%, making it the best food farmacy source (COX). Celery seed oil bacteriostatic against Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Pseudomonas solanacearum, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Vibrio cholerae. The seed oil shows a chemotactic effect and cercaricidal activity of the cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni (SPI).

     

    Dosages (Cinnamon) — 1 tsp bark/cup water 2–3 ×/day w meals (APA; WIC); 0.5–1 g bark as tea 3 ×/day (CAN); 2–4 g bark/day (KOM; WHO); 20 grains bark for dysentery (DEP); 0.3–1 g powdered bark (PNC); 0.5–1.0 ml liquid extract (1:1 in 70% ethanol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 2–4 ml cinnamon tincture (CAN; PNC); 0.05–0.2 g EO/day (KOM; WHO); 0.05–0.2 ml cinnamon oil (PNC); 0.3–1.2 ml spirit of cinnamon (PNC). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Cinnamon) — Class 2b, 2d. “Not for long-term use; do not exceed recommended dose (2–4 g bark/day; 50–200 mg EO/day). May overstimulate the vasomotor center” (AHP). Commission E reports bark contraindications: hypersensitivity to cinnamon or Peruvian balsam; and adverse effects: often allergic reactions of skin and mucosae. TRAMIL warns against continued use because of mutagenicity (TRA). Extracts and cinnamaldehyde reported mutagenic in some studies, nonmutagenic in others. Other sources report contraindications: GI-ulcer and pregnancy (AEH). CAN cautions that the cinnamaldehyde in the volatile oil is allergenic and irritant. The allergenic oil should not be taken internally (CAN). “No known problems with the use of cinnamon during pregnancy and

     

    Dosages (Cloves) — 120–320 mg clove (CAN); 100–300 mg powdered clove (PNC); 0.05–0.2 ml clove oil (CAN; PNC); Mouthwashes with 1–5% EO (KOM; PH2); 2–4 ml concentrated clove infusion (PNC). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Cloves) — Class 1 (AHP). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). CAN reports the eugenol in the volatile oil to be an irritant. The oil is a dermal and mucous irritant, sometimes causing cheilitis, dermatosis, and stomatosis. NO undiluted oil on infants’ gums or throat (Dilution: 2–4 drops oil to 1 tsp almond, safflower,) (WAM). May interfere with anticoagulant therapy. “There are no known problems with the use of clove during pregnancy and lactation, provided that doses do not greatly exceed the amounts used in foods” (CAN). Clove bud oil is reported to have an oral LD50 of 2650 mg/kg body weight in rats (equaling that of the major ingredient, eugenol, which sensitizes some people, causing contact dermatosis) (DAD). EO LD50 = 2650 mg/kg orl rat (CRC). Major source of the COX-2 inhibitor, oleanolic acid, with clove up to 2% (COX). As the best source of eugenol, clove (up to 20% eugenol) may share many of its reported biological activities.

    Dosages (Garlic) — 9–15 g fresh bulb (FAY); 0.25–0.5 cup fresh bulb (PED); 6–12 g dry bulb (PED); 9 g dry bulb:45 ml alcohol/45 ml water (PED); 1–5 cloves/day (APA); 2–4 g 3 ×/day (CAN); 4 g garlic or one average clove; 5000 µg allicin/day (SKY); 4 g fresh garlic/day (KOM); 1.5–6 g fresh tuber (KAP); 2–4 ml tincture (1:5 in 45% ethanol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 0.03–0.12 ml garlic oil/day (CAN); 1–2 minims garlic oil (KAP); 2–8 ml garlic syrup (CAN; PNC); 2–4 ml garlic juice (CAN; PNC); 1 (400 mg) StX/day; 3–4 (550 mg) capsules 3 ×/day (NH); 1 enteric coated 400 mg tablet (StX to contain at least 3 mg allicin potential) 1 ×/day at mealtime (NH); 600–900 mg/day coated garlic (SHT). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Garlic) — Class 2c (AHP). Some thiol-bearing compounds in garlic, onion, and their relatives can cause acantholysis in vitro (Brenner et al., 1995) and possibly pemphigus in vivo. “More than 5 cloves a day may induce gas and heartburn (Castleman, 1996) and ‘thin blood’” (people taking blood thinners may thereby over-thin their blood). “May potentiate the effect of antihypertensive and anticoagulant medications”

    Dosages (Ginger) — 3–10 g fresh ginger, or 2–4 g dry ginger, 1–3 ×/day (JAD; SKY); 0.3–1.5 g rhizome several ×/day (MAD); 500–1000 mg fresh root 3 ×/day (MAB); 2–4 tbsp fresh root (PED); 3–6 g dry root (PED); 4.5 g dry root:22 ml alcohol/23 ml water (PED); 500 mg dry root 2–4 ×/day –(MAB); 0.3–1 g powdered root (PNC); 2 tsp powdered root/cup water (APA); 0.25–1.0 g herb, or in tea, 3 ×/day (CAN); 0.7–2 ml liquid extract (1:2)/day (MAB); 0.25–3 ml herbal tincture (CAN; SKY); 0.25–3 ml tincture (PNC); 1.7–5 ml tincture (1:5)/day (MAB); 1.5–9 g/day (FAY); 2–4 g/day (HH3); 500 mg tablet 2–4 ×/day (MAB); 3 (530 mg) capsules 3 ×/day (NH); 1 (480 mg) StX 2 ×/day; 15–60 mg ginger oleoresin (PNC); 2.5–5 ml ginger syrup (PNC). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Ginger) — Class 2b, 2d (AHP).“Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Perhaps erring on the side of caution, Reichert cautions that ginger may raise the blood pressure, may amplify blood-thinning drug activities, and might be contraindicated in pregnancy. Contraindicated in childhood fevers and gallstones (WAM). Patients with gallstones should consult a practitioner before taking ginger (AHP). The Lawrence Review says overdoses may cause cardiac arrhythmias and CNS depression (LRNP, November 1991). Large doses (6 g or more) possibly gastroirritant, causing a significant increase in exfoliation of gastric surface epithelial cells in human volunteers (MAB). Due to ginger’s strong antiaggregant activity, experts recommend it not be used by people with blood clotting disorders. Many chemotherapy patients experience periods when their blood platelet counts drop dramatically. Doctors will warn patients to avoid aspirin when their platelet counts are low. They feel that patients should also avoid ginger when their platelet count drops, while continuing use of ginger for patients with normal platelet counts. Less conservatively, Commission E reports rhizome should not be used for vomiting in pregnancy (AEH). Lininger et al. (1998) adds heartburn as a rare side effect. “A doctor should be informed if ginger is used before surgery to counteract possible postanesthesia nausea” (SKY). Extracts (Ginger) — Fresh ginger juice reduces serum glucose levels in experimental animals (PED). Both fresh and dry rhizome suppress gastric contractions and reduce vomiting (PNC). Gingerols and shogaols are analgesic, antipyretic, antiprostaglandin, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, and hypotensive (PNC). As carminatives, the EOs, oleoresins, and proteolytic enzymes stimulate digestion, helping combat the effects of overeating, improper chewing, or excessive motion. They increase gastric motility and neutralize acids and toxins in the digestive tract (PED). Gingerol and 6-gingerol inhibit gastric ulceration in rats. I suspect there’s synergy at work in the antiulcer phytochemicals in ginger. 6-Gingesulfonic acid is less pungent but more potent against ulcers than 6-gingerol or 6-shogaol (MAB). Oral spray dried ginger (500 mg/kg) or combinations ginger and licorice extracts (1000 mg/kg), significantly prevented gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol in rats. Pretreatment with these inhibited the reduction in the deep corpus mucin content caused by ethanol (MAB). As a powerful thromboxane-synthetase inhibitor and prostacyclin agonist, ginger has potential as an antidepressant, in alcohol withdrawal and the complications of liver damage, and in treating a side effect of alcoholism, impotence, in preventing aging penile vascular changes. LD50 ginger oil = >5000 mg/kg orl rat (MAB), LDlo ginger extract = >2300 mg/kg orl mouse, equivalent to 75,000 mg/kg ginger (MAB). Ginger extract equal to aspirin in antiedemic activity; 940 mg powdered ginger is more effective than 100 mg dimenhydrinate for kinetosis (motion sickness); ginger is equal to metoclopramide for postoperative nausea and vomiting (WHO). 8 Gingerol more potently inhibited the response to serotonin than the control drug, cocaine (MAB). Gingerols are more potent at inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis than indomethacin (MAB). Ginger extract inhibited swelling as actively as aspirin (MAB). Shogaol as antitussive as dihydrocodeine (TRA).

    Dosages (Nutmeg) — 0.3–1 g powdered nutmeg (APA; PNC); 0.05–0.2 ml EO (APA; PNC); 5–20 grains nutmeg (FEL); 300–600 mg 5–10 ×/day (HHB); 1–3 drops EO, 2–3 ×/day (PH2); 2–10 ml tincture/day (PH2); 0.3–1 g powdered nutmeg (PH2). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Nutmeg) — Class 2b. Contains safrole. May interact with MAO. CNS-active (AHP). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Not to be used during pregnancy. Can trigger allergic dermatitis (PH2). More than 5 g powdered nutmeg or mace can cause acute panic, anxiety, coma, dizziness, double vision, drowsiness, excessive thirst, hallucinations, headache, liver pain, nausea, stomach pain, even death (AHP). “… as little as 2 whole nutmegs have been known to cause death in a little boy” (APA; FEL). Commission E reports contraindications for seed and aril: psychic disturbances by 5 g of seed, atropine-like action by 9 teaspoons of seed powder, abortion by higher doses. The EO contains the mutagenic and animal carcinogenic compound safrole. However, the use to correct smell or taste is permitted (AEH). On overdose, there may be hallucination and emesis; there may be frightening visions, a sensation of loss of limbs and a terrifying fear of impending death. Indeed, death has been reported from overdose (LRNP, September 1987).

     

    Dosages (Onion) — 0.25–1 onion (2–5 oz) (APA); 1 onion/day (JAD); 50 g fresh onion or 20 g dry onion (KOM; SHT; WHO); 10–20 ml bulb or leaf infusion (KAP); 1 tsp onion juice 3–4 ×/day (APA); 4–5 tsp tincture/day (PHR); 4–5 tbsp onion syrup (PHR); 1–3 g powdered seed (KAP). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Onion) — Class 1. Some idiopathic allergies (JAD). Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and contact dermatosis reported (WHO). Feeding rats 1 g powdered onion/day/month boosted bone mineral content 17%, bone thickness more than 15%, performing better than calcitonin(+) (JNU).

     

    Dosages (Oregano) — 1–2 tsp dry leaf/cup water to 3 ×/day (APA); 2–3 tsp (4–6 g) leaf in tea/day (MAD); 1 tsp herb/250 ml water (PHR); foot bath for amenorrhea (MAD). -Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Oregano) — Class 1 (AHP). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Good source of COX-2 inhibiting oleanolic acid at ~0.5% (COX). Rich source of antioxidant activity and rosmarinic acid.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    #126
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    Dosages (Papaya) — 1–2 tsp dry leaf/cup water (APA); 1–3 tsp fruit juice (APA); 1–2 tbsp fresh fruit (PED); 1.5–3 g dry fruit (PED); 2.5–5 ml elixir of papaya (PNC); 2.5–5 ml glycerin of papain (PNC); 10–50 mg papain (APA); “Papain may be effective in high doses (daily dose = 1500 mg”) (KOM). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Papaya) — Class 1 (AHP). None known –(WAM). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapetic dosages” (PH2). Admitting no risks for the leaf, Commission E disallows for lack of proof of efficacy (KOM). May interact with warfarin (PH2). There are reports of perforated esophagus following over ingestion of fruits (APA). Papain can cause severe stomach inflammation if taken internally, dermatosis externally. Allergic reactions including asthma possible (PH2). Not to be used during pregnancy (PH2). See accounts for papain in FNF and KOM. Papaya seeds can reverse sterility without affecting libido

     

    Dosages (Parsley) — 100–150 g fresh juice (MAD); 6 g leaf (HH2; KOM; SHT); 1–2 tsp dry leaf/cup water (APA); 1–2 tsp dry root/cup water (APA); 2–4 g root, or in tea (CAN); 2 g root in tea 2–3 ×/day (HH2); 2.5–5 ml liquid root extract (PNC); 1–2 g seed (CAN); 500–1500 mg seed (MAD); 1 tsp (~1.4 g) bruised seed/cup water (APA); 2.5–5 ml liquid seed extract (PNC); 2–4 g herb, or in tea (CAN); 6 g herb (KOM); 2–4 tbsp fresh herb (PED); 3–6 g dry herb (PED); 4.5 g dry herb:22 ml alcohol/23 ml water (PED); 6 g herb or root/day (PH2); 2–4 ml herb or root liquid extract (1:1 in 25% ethanol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 3–4 drops parley oil as diuretic, or 2–4 fl oz infusion 3–4 ×/day (FEL). “The leaves, bruised, are a good application to contusions, swelled breasts, and enlarged glands — reputed to ‘dry up the milk’ (FEL).” Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Parsley) — Class 2b. Contraindicated in nephrosis (AHP). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Commission E approves the herb and root, not the seed (fruit) (KOM). CAN cautions that the apiole in the volatile oil and excessive ingestion can be abortifacient, irritant, photo-toxic, and cause hepatosis. In pregnancy and lactation, parsley should not be ingested excessively (CAN). Myristicin can cause deafness, decrease in pulse rate, giddiness, hypotension, and paralysis, followed by fatty degeneration of the kidney and liver. Myristicin may cross the placenta, leading to fetal tachycardia. Ingestion of 10 g apiole (200 g parsley) may cause acute hemolytic anemia, hepatic dysfunction, nephrosis, and thrombocytopenia pupura (CAN). Parsley may potentiate MAOI activity (CAN). Because of its toxicity, EO should not be used in isolation (KOM). Commission E is rather tough on parsley seed oil, but the indictment, overblown or not, might conceivably be extended to other herbs containing apiole and myristicin. Of apiole, “Large doses of parsley-seed EO and of … apiol bring about vascular congestion and increased contractility of the smooth muscle of the bladder, intestines, and especially the uterus. Parsley seed and oil are therefore often used to bring about abortion.” (BIS) The renal epithelium can be damaged or irritated and cardiac arrhythmias can occur after using parsley seed preparations (BIS). “Large doses of apiol can lead to fatty liver, emaciation, extensive mucosal bleeding, and inflammatory haemorrhagic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract, haemoglobinuria, methaeglobinuria, and anuria. Therapeutic use cannot be endorsed” (Commission E, as interpreted by Bisset, 1994). Commission E reports contraindications: pregnancy and nephrosis; adverse effects: allergic reactions of skin/mucosae (rarely) and phototoxicity. The pure oil is toxic and should not be used. Fruit not permitted for therapeutic use. The EO and its constituent apiole are toxic (AEH). When parsley is decocted it is emmenagogue and abortive. A young woman, in 1992, reportedly died while trying to abort. “Even the common parsley mentioned earlier can cause serious injuries; oedema of the legs, vomiting, haematuria, liver and renal damage have all been observed. However, poisoning by this plant is never accidental, but always voluntary, so the plant can be used safely in preparing food” (FIT67(6):513. 1996). Extracts (Parsley) — Water extracts are antihistaminic (CAN). EO = antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatoregenerative; hypotensive, increases plasma calcium (CAN; PED; PNC). Phthalides are sedative in mice (PNC). Apiole LD50 = 50 mg/kg ivn mouse (CAN); Mmyristicin LD50 = 200 mg/kg ivn mouse (CAN). Seed EO LD50 = 3300 mg/kg orl mouse/rat (HH2). Speaking of apiole or parsley seed EO, MAD says with male guinea pigs, “erzeugt es Kongestion am Penis, anhaltened Erektion and lebhafte geschlechtliche Erregung.” Does that mean it causes or cures priapism? I’ve not heard of this before that I remember. No wonder they call it Petersilie. If this leaks out, 95% of American parsley will not be thrown away as it has been in the past.

     

    Dosages (Peppermint) — 1 tbsp (1.5 g) leaf/cup water 3–4 ×/day (APA); 1–2 g leaf/cup 3 ×/day; 0.25–0.5 cup fresh leaf (PED); 6–12 g dry leaf (PED); 6–9 g dry leaf/day (MAB); 1–2 tsp dry leaf/cup water up to 3 ×/day (APA; SKY); 9 g dry leaf/45 ml alcohol/45 ml water (PED); 2 tsp (4.4 g) herb in hot tea (MAD); 2–4 g powdered herb (PNC); 1.5–4 ml fluid herb extract (1:2)/day (MAB); 1 dropper concentrated herb extract or tincture (APA); 1 wineglass gin/herb tincture 3–4 ×/day as diuretic (CEB); 5–15 g herb tincture/day (APA); 3.5–11 ml herb tincture (1:5)/day (MAB); 0.05–0.15 g herb oil (MAD); 0.15–0.6 ml (~ 3–12 drops) herb EO (MAB); 0.05–0.2 ml EO (PNC); 1–2 enteric -coated peppermint oil pills 3 ×/day; 6–12 drops peppermint oil (SHT); 10% peppermint oil in ethanol (transdermal) (SHT); 0.3–2 ml peppermint spirit (PNC); 0.25–1 ml concentrated peppermint water (PNC); 0.2 ml 3 ×/day for irritable colon (SHT); 1–2 capsules for IBS StX (0.2 ml EO) 2–3 ×/day (SKY). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Peppermint) — Class 1 (AHP).“Health hazards not known with proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Not to be used in patients with achlorhydria, biliary or gallbladder obstruction, or gallstones. Concentrated oil may induce dermatosis, flushing and headache, if rubbed on profusely or inhaled. Leaf contains much astringent tannin that can damage the liver and intestine with prolonged use (PED). Commission E reports contraindications for EO: biliary obstruction or inflammation, and severe liver damage. Since the more widely used tea (Camellia sinensis) often contains twice as much tannin as peppermint, this recommendation should be doubly pertinent under tea, or maybe we should name these tannins the more glamorous “OPCs, polyphenols, and pycnogenols” and declare them antioxidant good guys instead of hepatotoxic bad guys (JAD). Rats receiving 100 mg/day peppermint oil develop dose-related brain lesions. Because of its ability to relax GI smooth muscles, peppermint oil may sometimes worsen symptoms of hiatal hernia. Coated pills opening too soon (in stomach) may cause gastralgia and heartburn. Excessive ingestion of the oil is associated with acute renal failure and interstitial nephrosis. Menthol reactions include reported cases of urticaria, allergic cheilitis, stomatosis, and rarely, shaking chills from use of topical menthol products. GI complaints due to use of peppermint preparations include stomatosis, severe esophagitis, gastrosis, unexplained diarrhea, and pancreatitis. Menthol in nasal preparations may cause spasm of the glottis in young children (AEH). Should not be inhaled bysmall children (AEH). Menthol-containing ointments applied to an infant’s nostrils have produced immediate collapse. “Peppermint tea should not be given to infants or very young children because the pungent fragrance can cause gagging” (Castleman, 1996). Estimated LD for menthol in humans may be as low as 2 g. Survival after doses of 8 to 9 g have been reported. I fear APA erred in saying that it took 1 g/kg body weight menthol to be lethal in humans (APA). Estimated LD50 for peppermint oil in humans = 2000–9000 mg (2–9 g). Peppermint oil has an antispasmodic action on isolated segments of ileum (cats and rabbits) at 50 ppm (dilutions no greater than 1:20,000). Extracts (Peppermint) — Peppermint oil antagonizes the spasmogenic action of barium chloride, pilocarpine, and physostigmine. Antispasmodic action of peppermint oil is based on properties that are characteristic of calcium antagonists. Peppermint oil acts competitively with nifedepine and blocks Ca2+-exciting stimuli. It relaxes ileal longitudinal muscles, but less so than papaverine (SHT). Antiviral and carminative effects demonstrated in vivo and in vitro (PNC).

     

     

    Dosages (Rosemary) — 1 tsp (2 g) chopped leaf/cup water (APA; PH2); 4–6 g herb (APA; KOM); 2 tsp (4.2 g) herb in cold or hot tea (MAD); 2–4 ml herb (1:1 in 45% alcohol) 3 ×/day (CAN); let 20 g rosemary steep 5 days in 1 liter wine (PH2); 0.3–1.2 ml rosemary spirit (APA; PNC); 2–4 g shoot in tea 3 ×/day (CAN); 2–4 ml liquid shoot extract (1:1 in 45% ethanol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 3–6 drops internally (FEL); 10–20 drops EO (KOM suggests 1 ml (2 drops) would be more reasonable) (KOM). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Rosemary) — Class 2b. Abortifacient, emmenagogue, and uterotonic (AHP). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). For the leaves, Commission E reports none known. Commission E reports for the root, contraindications: pregnancy, lactation; adverse effects: harmless red discoloration of the urine (AEH). Like any EO, that of rosemary can be toxic in large quantities, causing irritations to the intestines, kidneys, skin, and stomach. Epileptics should be careful with rosemary and other herbs heavy with camphor (CAN). CAN cautions that camphor in the volatile oil may cause convulsions. Michael Castleman is apparently talking about the herb, not the more dangerous EO, when he says, “Like most other herbs, rosemary should be used in large amounts only in consultation with your health care provider. If you are pregnant, you should avoid such amounts because they can cause uterine contractions” (Castleman, 1996). The Herbal PDR scares the pants off us by saying large doses of rosemary leaves (more likely the oil), inadvisedly have been used to attempt abortion, may lead to coma, gastroenterosis, nephrosis, pulmonary edema, spasm, uterine bleeding, vomiting, and even to death. But this seems to be speculation! The PDR concludes “No documented cases have come to light.” Just another dead-end on another bibliographic echo (PHR; PH2). Extracts (Rosemary) — LD50 = 5 ml/kg orl rat, >10 ml/kg der rbt, EO antispasmodic at 25 mg/kg (CAN). Major source of the COX-2 inhibitor, oleanolic acid, at 1% (COX). EO antiseptic against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, molds, Corynebacteria, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, and Vibrio. Carnosol and ursolic acid inhibit many food spoilage microbes Escherichia, Kluyveromyces, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhodotorula = BHA, BHT; carnosol > ursolic acid as antioxidant. Rosemary oil is effective against opportunistic infections like Cryptococcus neoformans (JBU). Rosemary oil as well as its bornyl acetate and cineole are antispasmodic, on smooth muscle (guinea pig ileum) and cardiac muscle (guinea pig atria). In smooth muscle, borneol is considered the most active, by antagonizing acetyl choline. The antispasmodic action of rosemary as preceded by contractile action, due to pinenes, which are spasmogenic on smooth muscle, inactive on cardiac muscle. Rosemary oil relaxes the Oddi’s sphincter contracted by morphine. Activity increases with incremental oil doses reaching an optimum at 25 mg/kg, at which the unblocking effect was immediate. Beyond that dosage, the response was again delayed. Smooth muscle stimulant and analgesic actions have been documented for a rosmaricine derivative (CAN).

     

     

    Dosages (Saffron) — 10–15 stigmata/cup water (APA); 0.5–1.5 g day (APA; HHB); 0.5–2.5 g saffron (PNC); 0.1–1 g powdered saffron (MAD); 15–16 drops tincture (MAD). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Saffron) — Class 2b. Abortifacient, emmenagogue, and uterotonic. Severe side effects may result from ingesting 5 g saffron (LD = 20 g) (AHP).“Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Controversial. The 200 mg/kg dose of saffron alleged to extend the life of cancerous mice translates to 22,000 mg or 22 grams saffron with this 100-kg rat named Jim Duke. Commission E reports no risks for doses up to 1.5 g; however, 5 g is toxic, 10 g is abortive, and 20 g is lethal (AEH; PHR). Conversely, Tucker and DeBaggio report that “ingesting 0.05 oz (1.5 g) of saffron has resulted in death” (TAD). Paradoxically, the life-saving dose is lethal! Preferring to err on the safe side,

    Authors: Akhondzadeh S, Shafiee Sabet M, Harirchian MH, Togha M, Cheraghmakani H, Razeghi S, Hejazi SS, Yousefi MH, Alimardani R, Jamshidi A, Rezazadeh SA, Yousefi A, Zare F, Moradi A, Vossoughi A—-RATIONALE: There is increasing evidence to suggest the possible efficacy of Crocus sativus (saffron) in the management of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate AD. METHODS: Fifty-four Persian-speaking adults 55 years of age or older who were living in the community were eligible to participate in a 22-week, double-blind study of parallel groups of patients with AD. The main efficacy measures were the change in the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sums of Boxes scores compared with baseline. Adverse events (AEs) were systematically recorded. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a capsule saffron 30 mg/day (15 mg twice per day) or donepezil 10 mg/day (5 mg twice per day). RESULTS: Saffron at this dose was found to be effective similar to donepezil in the treatment of mild-to-moderate AD after 22 weeks. The frequency of AEs was similar between saffron extract and donepezil groups with the exception of vomiting, which occurred significantly more frequently in the donepezil group. CONCLUSION: This phase II study provides preliminary evidence of a possible therapeutic effect of saffron extract in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry

     

     

    Dosages (Sage) — 4–6 g/day (AHP); 4–6 g herb (KOM; PH2); 2 tsp (3 g) cut herb/cup water (APA); 1–4 ml liquid herb extract (PNC); 1–4 g leaf, or in tea, 3 ×/day (CAN); 2–3 tsp (3.4–5.1 g) leaf in hot tea (MAD); boil 100 g leaf/liter wine 2 minutes (f; PH2); 2–4 tbsp fresh leaf (PED); 3–6 g dry leaf (PED); 4.5 g dry leaf/2 ml alcohol/23 ml water (PED); 1–4 ml liquid leaf extract (1:1 in 45% ethanol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 0.1–0.3 g EO (KOM; PH2). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Sage) — Class 2b, 2d. Not for long-term use. Do not exceed recommended dose. Alcoholic extracts contraindicated in pregnancy (AHP). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Commission E reports for oral use of leaf, contraindications: pregnancy (EO/alcoholic extracts); adverse effects: prolonged use of EO/alcoholic extracts may produce epileptiform cramps. Other sources report leaf, as herbal tea, should not be used for prolonged period (AEH). “Contraindicated in pregnancy. May interfere with anticonvulsant and hypoglycemic therapies; may potentiate or synergize other sedatives. Human poisoning has followed ingestion of the convulsant EO for acne. In rats, sage oil is subclinically, clinically, and lethally convulsant at 300, 500, and 3200 mg/kg, respectively (CAN). CAN cautions that thujone and camphor in the volatile oil can be convulsant and toxic (CAN). LD50 (EO) = 2600 orl rat, LD50 (EO) = 5000 ind rbt (CAN). Taking more than 15 g or prolonged overuse can lead to thujone-induced convulsions, dizziness, hot flashes, and tachycardia (BIS). No more than 1 cup tea/day during pregnancy, max, for no more than 1 week (WAM). Extracts (Sage) — Fair source of COX-2 inhibiting oleanolic acid at ~0. 1% (COX). The whole sage extract has more activity than the flavonoid extract at inhibiting acetylcholine, histamine, and serotonin-induced muscle contractions. EO active against Bacillus (Gram-positive), Escherichia, Klebsiella (Gram-negative), Salmonella, and Shigella; and among fungi, Candida, Cryptococcus, and Torulopsis (CAN).

     

    Dosages (Savory) — 1.5 g in tea (HH3); 3 tsp dry herb/day (PHR); (1–2 pediatric)-4 tsp herb/cup water 1–3 ×/day (APA); 0.5–1 tsp tincture 1–3 ×/day (APA). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Savory) — Class 1 (AHP). Applied undiluted to backs of hairless mice, summer savory oil was lethal to half the animals in 48 hours (LAF). LD50 = 1370 orl rat (HH3). An important source of the COX-2 inhibitor, ursolic acid (COX).

     

    Dosages (Tarragon) — 1–2 tsp leaf/cup to 3 ×/day (APA). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Tarragon) — Class 1. 81% of EO may be estragole (AHP). Contains one compound that is carcinogenic in mice (APA). Pregnant women might avoid (APA).“Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2) (but PH2 designates no specific quantified dosage! JAD). LD50 (ill-defined extract) = 215 mg/kg ipr mus (HH2).

     

    Dosages (Thyme) — 2–4 tbsp fresh leaf (PED); 3–6 g dry leaf (PED); 4.5 g dry leaf:22 ml alcohol/23 ml water (PED); 1 tsp herb/cup water 1–3 ×/day (APA); 1–2 g herb/cup several ×/day (KOM; PIP); 3 tsp (~7.2 g) herb in hot tea (MAD); 1–4 g dry herb, or in tea, 3 ×/day (CAN); 1–2 g herb in tea 1-several ×/day (children 1 year old to adults) (WHO); 0.5–1 g herb in tea (children up to 1 year old) (WHO); 1 tsp herb syrup several ×/day (APA); 0.6–4.0 ml liquid herb extract (CAN; PNC); 2–6 ml fluid herb extract (1:2)/day (MAB); 1–2 g fluid herb extract (PIP); 4–8 ml thyme elixir (CAN; PNC); 2–6 ml thyme tincture (1:5 in 45% ethanol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 5–15 ml herb tincture (1:5)/day (MAB); 0.05–0.3 ml herb EO (PNC). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Thyme) — Class 1 (AHP). None known (KOM; WAM). CAN cautions that thymol in the volatile oil can irritate the GI tract and mucous membranes (CAN). Others caution that thyme is an emmenagogue and suggest that the EO be avoided in pregnancy. Toxic symptoms reported for thymol include cardiac arrest, cheilitis coma, convulsions, dizziness, gastralgia, glossosis, headache, hyperemia, inflammation, nausea, respiratory arrest, and vomiting. Thyme oil should not be taken straight, and not applied straight topically. There are no known problems with the use of thyme during pregnancy and lactation, provided the doses do not greatly exceed the amounts used in foods (AHP; CAN). Like any EO, that of thyme, like that of rosemary, can be toxic in large quantities, causing irritations to the intestines, kidneys, skin, and stomach. Michael Castleman raises a cautionary flag I don’t remember seeing elsewhere, “Children under age two should not be given medicinal preparations of thyme, and people with thyroid problems should seek their health-care provider’s advice before taking medicinal doses” (Castleman, 1996). Of course, some people say children under 2 should not be given any medicine. PHR gives us an EO warning template, “Where large skin injuries or acute skin illnesses, severe feverish or infectious diseases, cardiac insufficiency or hypertonia are present, entire-body baths should be carried out only following consultation with a doctor, no matter what the active agent is” (PHR). Thyme toothpastes can cause cracks in the corners of the mouth and a swollen tongue (APA).

     

    Dosages (Turmeric) — 4 g turmeric powder in water 1–2 ×/day (MAB); 3–9 g crude turmeric/day (WHO); 4.5–9 g rhizome/day as tea (AHP); 0.1 g rhizome up to 20 g/day (HHB); 1.5–3 g rhizome (KOM); 0.5–1 g rhizome several ×/day between meals, or 1.5–3 g day, often with warm milk (APA); 1 tsp rhizome/cup warm milk (APA); 0.5–1 g oral rhizome infusion 3 ×/day (WHO); 5–14 ml fluid rhizome extract (1:1) divided in 4–5 doses (MAB); 3–5 g fresh herb (PED); 0.3–0.5 g dry herb (PED); 0.4 g dry herb:2 ml alcohol/2 ml water (PED); 1.5–3 g crude drug/day (SHT); 40mg curcumin 3 ×/day (SKY); 1200 mg curcumin (APA); 1 (445 mg) StX capsule 2–3 ×/day (JAD); 300 mg capsules to 3 ×/day (APA). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Turmeric) — Class 2b. Emmenagogue and uterotonic. Contraindicated in patients with bile duct obstruction, gallstones, hyperacidity, and stomach ulcers (AHP; AEH). While in moderate doses, turmeric is said to inhibit cancers, lymphomas and ulcers, overdoses of curcuminoids may possibly be cytotoxic and ulcerogenic, and may lead to diminution of red and white corpuscles. Still, Commission E approves 1.5–3 g/day, not nearly enough to provide 1200 mg curcumin. Commission E also reports contraindications: biliary obstruction; adverse effects: GI irritation from continued use; consult physicians before using if a patient has gallstones (BIS; KOM). At 10% of diet, turmeric caused some loss of hair in rats (MAB). Care should be taken in women who wish to conceive or patients complaining of alopecia (MAB). Rather frightening what one reads in UPW (2000): Laboratory animals treated with it are reported to have been rendered entirely infertile. Women who are pregnant, or children (not yet widely in children) with gallbladder or liver disease or ulcers, should avoid turmeric (WAM). Limit internal use to 10 days (WAM). Extracts (Turmeric) — Fond as I am of synergy and food farmacy, I like the following comments: Curcumin can inhibit estrogen-positive human breast cells induced by estradiol or pesticides individually or mixed. Curcumin and genistein were synergistic, totally inhibiting induction in vitro. Curcuminoids inhibit cancer at initiation, promotion and progression in vitro and in vivo (MAB). Viva curried bean soup, like I am having for lunch. Reportedly as effective as hydrocortisone acetate or indomethacin in experimental inflammation (WHO). Both natural antiinflammatory curcumin (1200 mg/day) and unnatural phenylbutazone (30 mg/day) improved joint swelling, morning stiffness, and walking time in people with rheumatoid arthritis, both better than placebo (WHO). Bruneton notes that the antiinflammatoryED50 of curcumin orally in rats is 48 mg/kg ( = 4.8 g in me) and is apparently devoid of side effects (BRU), while the ipr ED50 is only 2.1 mg/kg, suggesting that the ipr route is 20 times more effective. But I am not into injecting herbs. Enjoy your curried beans, counting on thse synergies. Duke suggests curcumin needs to be compared with Celebrex and Vioxx as a COX-2 inhibitor. EO showed significant antihistaminic and antiinflammatory activity, the latter at 0.1 ml/kg, which translates to 10 ml for me, a rather dangerous dose. At a dose of 1.5 g/day/30 days, turmeric reduced urinary excretion of mutagens in an uncontrolled trial of 16 chronic smokers. In six nonsmoking controls there was no change in urinary secretion. Turmeric had no effect on serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase, blood glucose, creatinine, and lipid profile (MAB). Turmeric extract (~20 mg cur-cumin/day) for 45 days dramatically decreased blood lipid peroxide levels in 18 male subjects (MAB). Curcumin is poorly absorbed (some 15–35% max in rats) orally but if administered with piperine (from black and long pepper), absorption is improved more than 150% in rats. But i human volunteers, 20 mg piperine increases bioavailability of curcumin 20-fold (MAB). One study indicated curcumin and sodium curcuminate were more potent than phenylbutazone in acute and chronic arthritic models, while another found it only 1/10th as effective as ibuprofen. While ulcerogenic in large doses, curcumin is only about one-third as ulcerogenic as the phenylbutazone. In low doses, curcumin had antiulcer activity, protecting against the ulcerogenic activity of phenylbutazone (MAB). 1-Phenylhydroxy-N-pentane stimulates the secretion of secretin, gastrin and bicarbonate, helping maintain the gastric pH in dogs and humans (TRA). LD50 ether extracts 12,200 mg/kg orl rat (MAB), LDlo curcumin >2000 mg/kg orl mus (MAB), LDlo curcumin >5000 mg/kg orl rat (MAB).

     

    Abbreviations and Meanings

     

    ALA alpha-linolenic acid DMBA 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

    AMP adenosine monophosphate (a carcinogen)

    APA American Pharmaceutical Association dml dermal

    APB as-purchased basis EBV Epstein-Barr virus

    ARC Aloe Research Council ED50 effective dose at which 50% of sub-

    ATP adenosine triphosphate jects are “cured,” “effected,”

    BAL Baluchistan, as based on KAB “affected,” or “altered”

    BO body odor e.g. for example

    BPC British Pharmacopoeia EO essential oil

    BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy EPA eicosapentaenoic acid

    cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate EPO Evening Primrose oil cf compare with ERT estrogen replacement therapy

    CFS chronic fatigue syndrome etc. et cetera

    CHD coronary heart disease ext extract

    chd child f folklore, not yet substantiated

    ckn chicken frg frog

    g gram

    GA glycyrrhetinic acid

    GABA gamma-amino-butyric acid

    GC Garcinia cambogia

    GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease

    GFG green farmacy garden

    GI gastrointestinal

    GLA gamma-linolenic acid

    GMO genetically modified organism

    gpg guinea pig

    GTF glucosyl-transferase

    h (as a score for an activity or indication) homeopathic

    HCA hydroxycitric acid

    HCN hydrocyanic acid

    HDR Herbal Desk Reference; online version under my

    (MBS) Medical Botany Syllabus

    HFR human fatality reported

    HLE human leukocyte elastase

    HMG hydroxymethylglutarate

    hmn human

    HRT hormone replacement therapy

    iar intraarterial

    IBD inflammatory bowel disease

    IBS irritable bowel syndrome

    IC inhibitory concentration

    ICMR Indian Council of Medical Research

    ID50 inhibitory dose at which 50% of activity

    is inhibited

    IgE immunoglobulin-E

    igs intragastric

    ihl inhalation

    IL interleukin

    ims intramuscular

    inc incorporated

    ind intradermal

    inf infusion

    ipr intraperitoneal

    ith intrathecal

    ivn intravenous

    LD50 lethal dose at which 50% of experimental

    population is killed

    LDlo lowest reported lethal dose

    lf leaf

    l liter

     

     

    MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitor

    MDR multidrug resistant

    mg milligram

    MIC used differently by various sources; minimum inhibiting concentration or mean inhibiting concentration

    mky monkey

    ml milliliter

    MLD used differently by various sources; Merck meaning minimum lethal dose; some other sources meaning mean lethal dose, and some do not define it (with apologies to the reader from the compiler)

    mM millimole

    MMP-9 matrix metalloproteinase-9

    mus mouse

    NH3 ammonia

    NIDDM noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NKC natural killer cell

    NO nitric oxide

    NWP Northwest Province or Pushtu (dialect

    at border of northwestern Afghanistan)

    OCD obsessive compulsive disorder

    ODC ornithine-decarboxylase

    OPC oligomeric procyanidin

    ORAC oxygen radical absorbance capacity

    orl oral

    OTC over the counter (or approved for sale in Europe)

    oz ounce

    PA pyrrolizidine alkaloids

    PAF platelet aggregating factor

    par parenteral

    pc personal communication

    PEITC phenethylisothiocyanate

    pers. comm. personal communication

    PG prostaglandin

    pgn pigeon

    PKC protein kinase C

    PMS premenstrual syndrome

    pp pages

    ppm parts per million

    PSA prostate-specific antigen

    PTK protein tyrosine kinase

    rbt rabbit

    RSV respiratory syncytial virus

    RT reverse transcriptase

    SAD seasonal affective disorder

    SAM S-adenosylmethionine

    scu subcutaneous

    SF Stephen Foster

    SGPT serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase

    SL sesquiterpene lactones

    SLE systemic lupus erythematosus

    SN serial number (when followed by a

    number)

    SOD superoxide dismutase

    SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

    sup suppository

    TAM traditional Ayurvedic medicine

    tbsp tablespoon

    TCM traditional Chinese medicine

    THC tetrahydrocannabinol

    TNF tumor necrosis factor

    tsp teaspoon

    unk unknown

    uns unspecified

    UTI urinary tract infection

    UV ultraviolet

    VD venereal disease

    VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor

    VOD veno-occlusive disease

    Vol volume

    wmn woman

    WPW Wolff-Parkinson-White (syndrome)

    X solitary X in the title line of the herb

     

     

    [U1]a wartlike growth on the skin, usually in the region of the anus or genitals
    [U2]A benign tumor composed of fibrous or muscle tissue, especially one that develops in the uterus.
    [U3]Swollen testicles

    [U4]a benign encysted tumor of the skin, esp. on the scalp, containing sebaceous matter; a sebaceous cyst
    [U5]A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of several types of tissues and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing and defense against pathogens.[1]
    [U6]Development of teeth

    [U7]Winter Savoury

    [U8]Summer Savoury
    [U9]The uncontrolled or involuntary discharge of urine.
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