SOY the food of illness

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    SOY the food of illness

     

    SOY JUNK and how People are unaware of the Dangers of Soy

     

    A growing body of credible medical and dietary research suggests that soy products may cause adverse medical and developmental conditions in susceptible persons, especially children ?who in some instances may be affected by soy products consumed either by themselves (for instance, in baby formula) or by their mothers prior to giving birth.”…

    For more see:

    RE: Possible Legal Action On Medical Problems Caused By Soyl

    Hi Sally,

    A site about Food Technologies 2004 Food Expo made reference to a company Loders Croklaan, “The company is a producer of specialty oils and fats, emulsifiers, ingredient delivery systems, encapsulation, and proteins for the food processing industry.” This includes feed for calves, cattle & poultry. They make a powdered calf milk replacement. In their descriptions of feeds it mentions they no longer use paraffin based oils to keep dust down in feeds because of the dioxin scandal. So now they are using soya lecithin to replace it. Below there is an article by the USDA telling food processing plants how to reprocess poultry with high dioxin levels caused by soy feed!

    A commentary that is listed below about dioxin being a potent mimic of estrogen, which is a danger of soy, right? I can’t get over the relationship between soy and dioxin. So I though somebody from WAPF might be interested in the National Academy of Sciences’ meeting on 11/22 & 23 in Washington DC on the subject.
    Sounds like there is dioxin in the Roundup you referred to recently. (with potatoes)

    Take care,

    Cyndy

    How might I be exposed to dioxins?
    Most of the population has low-level exposure to dioxins. Although dioxin is an environmental contaminant, most dioxin exposure occurs through the diet, with over 95% coming through dietary intake of animal fats (see also F3 and F4). Small amounts of exposure occur from breathing air containing trace amounts of dioxins on particles and in vapor form, from inadvertent ingestion of soil containing dioxins, and from absorption through the skin contacting air, soil, or water containing minute levels.

    Dioxin Reassessment, NAS Review Draft
    On October 15, 2004, the EPA transmitted to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) the NAS Review Draft of EPA’s Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds, in preparation for the first meeting of the NAS panel scheduled for November 22 and 23, 2004, in Washington, DC.

    Fats and oils for cattle

    Vegetable premix oil and by-pass fats as welcome alternatives to mineral oils.

    Mineral oil derivatives (such as paraffin oils) are commonly used to prevent dust formation and inhalation. Mineral oils, however, have a bad image in the animal feed industry. They are indigestible and ultimately end up in the environment. Moreover, they are under fire because of a number of dioxin scandals.

    Guidance for Reprocessing of Broilers Exposed to Dioxin-Contaminated Feed

    The highest reported soy bean meal sample contaminated with dioxins contained 14.68 ppt of 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin), and had a total toxic equivalency factor (Teq) of 21.75 ppt
    It appears as if approximately 50% of the TCDD presented to poultry in feed is actually retained by the birds. The fact that samples of litter from growing houses have been analyzed and found to contain between 2 and 5.9 ppt TCDD strongly suggests that less than 100% of ingested TCDD is retained, but there is insufficient data to determine what percentage is excreted.

    One should avoid toxic chemicals like dioxin (a toxic byproduct of chlorine) as it is a potent mimic of estrogen that can cause very serious hormonal disruption.

     

     

     

    The Third International Soy Symposium

    Far from being the perfect food, modern soy products contain anti-nutrients and toxins and they interfere with the absorption of vitamins and minerals.

    Each year, research on the health effects of soy and soybean components seems to increase exponentially. Furthermore, research is not just expanding in the primary areas under investigation, such as cancer, heart disease and osteoporosis; new

    findings suggest that soy has potential benefits that may be more extensive than previously thought.

     

    So writes Mark Messina, PhD, General Chairperson of the Third International Soy Symposium, held in Washington, DC, in November 1999.1 For four days, well-funded scientists gathered in Washington made presentations to an admiring press and

    to their sponsors – United Soybean Board, American Soybean Association, Monsanto, Protein Technologies International, Central Soya, Cargill Foods, Personal Products Company, SoyLife, Whitehall-Robins Healthcare and the soybean councils of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Ohio and South Dakota.

     

    The symposium marked the apogee of a decade-long marketing campaign to gain consumer acceptance of tofu, soy milk, soy ice cream, soy cheese, soy sausage and soy derivatives, particularly soy isoflavones like genistein and diadzen, the

    oestrogen-like compounds found in soybeans. It coincided with a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decision, announced on October 25, 1999, to allow a health claim for products “low in saturated fat and cholesterol” that contain 6.25 grams of soy protein per serving. Breakfast cereals, baked goods, convenience food, smoothie mixes and meat substitutes could now be sold with labels touting benefits to cardiovascular health, as long as these products contained one heaping teaspoon of soy protein per 100-gram serving.

     

     

     

    MARKETING THE PERFECT FOOD

     

    “Just imagine you could grow the perfect food. This food not only would provide affordable nutrition, but also would be delicious and easy to prepare in a variety of ways. It would be a healthful food, with no saturated fat. In fact, you would be

    growing a virtual fountain of youth on your back forty.” The author is Dean Houghton, writing for The Furrow,2 a magazine published in 12 languages by John Deere. “This ideal food would help prevent, and perhaps reverse, some of the world’s most

    dreaded diseases. You could grow this miracle crop in a variety of soils and climates. Its cultivation would build up, not deplete, the land…this miracle food already exists… It’s called soy.” Just imagine. Farmers have been imagining – and planting more soy. What was once a minor crop, listed in the 1913 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) handbook not as a food but as an industrial product, now covers 72 million acres of American farmland. Much of this harvest will be used to feed chickens, turkeys, pigs, cows and salmon. Another large fraction will be squeezed to produce oil for margarine, shortenings and salad dressings. Advances in technology make it possible to produce isolated soy protein from what was once considered a waste product – the defatted, high-protein soy chips – and then transform something that looks and smells terrible into products that can be consumed by human beings. Flavourings, preservatives, sweeteners, emulsifiers and synthetic nutrients have turned soy protein isolate, the food processors’ ugly duckling, into a New Age Cinderella. The new fairy-tale food has been marketed not so much for her beauty but for her virtues. Early on, products based on soy protein isolate were sold as extenders and meat substitutes – a strategy that failed to produce the requisite consumer demand. The industry changed its approach. “The quickest way to gain product acceptability in the less affluent society,” said an industry spokesman, “is to have the product consumed on its own merit in a more affluent society.”3 So soy is now sold to the upscale consumer, not as a cheap, poverty food but as a miracle substance that will prevent heart disease and cancer, whisk away hot flashes, build strong bones and keep us forever young. The competition – meat, milk, cheese, butter and eggs – has been duly

    demonised by the appropriate government bodies. Soy serves as meat and milk for a new generation of virtuous vegetarians. Marketing costs money, especially when it needs to be bolstered with “research”, but there’s plenty of funds available. All soybean producers pay a mandatory assessment of one-half to one per cent of the net market price of soybeans. The total – something like US$80 million annually4 – supports United Soybean’s program to “strengthen the position of soybeans in the

    marketplace and maintain and expand domestic and foreign markets for uses for soybeans and soybean products”. State soybean councils from Maryland, Nebraska, Delaware, Arkansas, Virginia, North Dakota and Michigan provide another $2.5 million for “research”.5 Private companies like Archer Daniels Midland also contribute their share. ADM spent $4.7 million for advertising on Meet the Press and $4.3 million on Face the Nation during the course of a year.6 Public relations firms help convert research projects into newspaper articles and advertising copy, and law firms lobby for favourable government regulations. IMF money funds soy processing plants in foreign countries, and free trade policies keep soybean abundance flowing to overseas destinations.

     

    The push for more soy has been relentless and global in its reach. Soy protein is now found in most supermarket breads. It is being used to transform “the humble tortilla, Mexico’s corn-based staple food, into a protein-fortified ‘super-tortilla’ that would

    give a nutritional boost to the nearly 20 million Mexicans who live in extreme poverty”.7 Advertising for a new soy-enriched loaf from Allied Bakeries in Britain targets menopausal women seeking relief from hot flushes. Sales are running at a quarter of

    a million loaves per week.8 The soy industry hired Norman Robert Associates, a public relations firm, to “get more soy products onto school menus”.9 The USDA responded with a proposal to scrap the 30 per cent limit for soy in school lunches. The NuMenu program would allow unlimited use of soy in student meals. With soy added to hamburgers, tacos and lasagna, dieticians can get the total fat content below 30 per cent of calories, thereby conforming to government dictates. “With the soy-enhanced food items, students are receiving better servings of nutrients and less cholesterol and fat.” Soy milk has posted the biggest gains, soaring from $2 million in 1980 to $300 million in the US last year.10 Recent advances in processing have transformed the grey, thin, bitter, beany-tasting Asian beverage into a product that Western consumers will

    accept – one that tastes like a milkshake, but without the guilt. Processing miracles, good packaging, massive advertising and a marketing strategy that stresses the products’ possible health benefits account for increasing sales to all age groups. For example, reports that soy helps prevent prostate cancer have made soy milk acceptable to middle-aged men. “You don’t have to twist the arm of a 55- to 60-year-old guy to get him to try soy milk,” says Mark Messina. Michael Milken, former junk bond financier, has helped the industry shed its hippie image with well-publicised efforts to consume 40 grams of soy protein daily. America today, tomorrow the world. Soy milk sales are rising in Canada, even though soy milk there costs twice as much as cow’s milk. soybean milk processing plants are sprouting up in places like Kenya.11 Even China, where soy really is a poverty food and whose people want more meat, not tofu, has opted to build Western-style soy factories rather than develop western grasslands for grazing animals.12

     

    CINDERELLA’S DARK SIDE

    The propaganda that has created the soy sales miracle is all the more remarkable because, only a few decades ago, the soybean was considered unfit to eat – even in Asia. During the Chou Dynasty (1134&endash;246 BC) the soybean was

    designated one of the five sacred grains, along with barley, wheat, millet and rice. However, the pictograph for the soybean, which dates from earlier times, indicates that it was not first used as a food; for whereas the pictographs for the other four

    grains show the seed and stem structure of the plant, the pictograph for the soybean emphasises the root structure. Agricultural literature of the period speaks frequently of the soybean and its use in crop rotation. Apparently the soy plant was initially used

    as a method of fixing nitrogen. The soybean did not serve as a food until the discovery of fermentation techniques, some time during the Chou Dynasty. The first soy foods were fermented products like tempeh, natto, miso and soy sauce. At a later date, possibly in the 2nd century BC, Chinese scientists discovered that a purée of cooked soybeans could be precipitated with calcium sulphate or magnesium sulphate (plaster of Paris or Epsom salts) to make a smooth, pale curd – tofu or bean curd. The use of fermented and precipitated soy products soon spread to other parts of the Orient, notably Japan and Indonesia. The Chinese did not eat unfermented soybeans as they did other legumes such as lentils because the soybean contains large quantities of natural toxins or “anti-nutrients”. First among them are potent enzyme inhibitors that block the action of trypsin and other enzymes needed for protein digestion. These inhibitors are large, tightly folded proteins that are not completely deactivated during ordinary cooking. They can produce serious gastric distress, reduced protein digestion and chronic deficiencies in amino acid uptake. In test animals, diets high in trypsin inhibitors cause enlargement and pathological conditions of the pancreas, including cancer.14

     

    Soybeans also contain haemagglutinin, a clot-promoting substance that causes red blood cells to clump together. Trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinin are growth inhibitors. Weanling rats fed soy containing these antinutrients fail to grow normally. Growth-depressant compounds are deactivated during the process of fermentation, so once the Chinese discovered

    how to ferment the soybean, they began to incorporate soy foods into their diets. In precipitated products, enzyme inhibitors concentrate in the soaking liquid rather than in the curd. Thus, in tofu and bean curd, growth depressants are reduced in

    quantity but not completely eliminated. Soy also contains goitrogens

    – substances that depress thyroid function. Soybeans are high in phytic acid, present in the bran or hulls of all seeds. It’s a substance that can block the uptake of essential minerals – calcium, magnesium, copper, iron and especially zinc – in the intestinal tract. Although not a household word, phytic acid has been extensively studied; there are literally hundreds of articles on the effects of phytic acid in the current scientific literature. Scientists are in general agreement that grain- and legume-based diets high in phytates contribute to widespread mineral deficiencies in third world countries.15 Analysis shows that calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc are present in the plant foods eaten in these areas, but the high phytate content of soy- and grain-based diets prevents their absorption.

     

    The soybean has one of the highest phytate levels of any grain or legume that has been studied,16 and the phytates in soy are highly resistant to normal phytate-reducing techniques such as long, slow cooking.17 Only a long period of fermentation will significantly reduce the phytate content of soybeans. When precipitated soy products like tofu are consumed with meat, the mineral-blocking effects of the phytates are reduced.18 The Japanese traditionally eat a small amount of tofu or miso as part of a mineral-rich fish broth, followed by a serving of meat or fish. Vegetarians who consume tofu and bean curd as a substitute for meat and dairy products risk severe mineral deficiencies. The results of calcium, magnesium and iron deficiency are well known; those of zinc are less so.

     

    Zinc is called the intelligence mineral because it is needed for optimal development and functioning of the brain and nervous system. It plays a role in protein synthesis and collagen formation; it is involved in the blood-sugar control mechanism and thus

    protects against diabetes; it is needed for a healthy reproductive system. Zinc is a key component in numerous vital enzymes and plays a role in the immune system. Phytates found in soy products interfere with zinc absorption more completely than with other minerals.19 Zinc deficiency can cause a “spacey” feeling that some vegetarians may mistake for the “high” of spiritual enlightenment.

     

    Milk drinking is given as the reason why second-generation Japanese in America grow taller than their native ancestors. Some investigators postulate that the reduced phytate content of the American diet – whatever may be its other deficiencies – is the true explanation, pointing out that both Asian and Western children who do not get enough meat and fish products to counteract the effects of a high phytate diet, frequently suffer rickets, stunting and other growth problems.20

     

     

     

    SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE: NOT SO FRIENDLY !!!!!!!!!!!!! ( LOOK HERE )

     

    Soy processors have worked hard to get these anti-nutrients out of the finished product, particularly soy protein isolate (SPI) which is the key ingredient in most soy foods that imitate meat and dairy products, including baby formulas and some brands of

    soy milk. SPI is not something you can make in your own kitchen. Production takes place in industrial factories where a slurry of soy beans is first mixed with an alkaline solution to remove fibre, then precipitated and separated using an acid wash and, finally, neutralised in an alkaline solution. Acid washing in aluminium tanks leaches high levels of aluminium into the final product. The resultant curds are spray- dried at high temperatures to produce a high-protein powder. A final indignity to the original soybean is high-temperature, high-pressure extrusion processing of soy protein isolate to produce textured vegetable protein (TVP). Much of the trypsin inhibitor content can be removed through high-temperature processing, but not all. Trypsin inhibitor content of soy protein isolate can vary as much as fivefold.21 (In rats, even low-level trypsin inhibitor SPI feeding results in reduced weight gain compared to controls.22) But high-temperature processing has the unfortunate side-effect of so denaturing the other proteins in soy that they are rendered largely ineffective.23 That’s why animals on soy feed need lysine supplements for normal growth.

     

    Nitrites, which are potent carcinogens, are formed during spray-drying, and a toxin called lysinoalanine is formed during alkaline processing.24 Numerous artificial flavourings, particularly MSG, are added to soy protein isolate and textured vegetable protein products to mask their strong “beany” taste and to impart the flavour of meat.25 In feeding experiments, the use of SPI increased requirements for vitamins E, K, D and B12 and created deficiency symptoms of calcium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, copper, iron and zinc.26 Phytic acid remaining in these soy products greatly inhibits zinc and iron absorption; test animals fed SPI develop enlarged organs, particularly the pancreas and thyroid gland, and

    increased deposition of fatty acids in the liver.27

     

    Yet soy protein isolate and textured vegetable protein are used extensively in school lunch programs, commercial baked goods, diet beverages and fast food products. They are heavily promoted in third world countries and form the basis of many food

    giveaway programs. In spite of poor results in animal feeding trials, the soy industry has sponsored a number of studies designed to show that soy protein products can be used in human diets as a replacement for traditional foods. An example is “Nutritional Quality of Soy Bean Protein Isolates: Studies in Children of Preschool Age”, sponsored by the Ralston Purina Company.28 A group of Central American children suffering from malnutrition was first stabilised and brought into better health by feeding them native

    foods, including meat and dairy products. Then, for a two-week period, these traditional foods were replaced by a drink made of soy protein isolate and sugar. All nitrogen taken in and all nitrogen excreted was measured in truly Orwellian fashion: the children were weighed naked every morning, and all excrement and vomit gathered up for analysis. The researchers found that the children retained nitrogen and that their growth was “adequate”, so the experiment was declared a success.

     

    Whether the children were actually healthy on such a diet, or could remain so over a long period, is another matter. The researchers noted that the children vomited “occasionally”, usually after finishing a meal; that over half suffered from periods of moderate diarrhoea; that some had upper respiratory infections; and that others suffered from rash and fever. It should be noted that the researchers did not dare to use soy products to help the children recover from malnutrition, and were obliged to supplement the soy-sugar mixture with nutrients largely absent in soy products – notably, vitamins A, D and B12, iron, iodine and zinc.

     

     

     

    FDA HEALTH CLAIM CHALLENGED

     

    The best marketing strategy for a product that is inherently unhealthy is, of course, a health claim. “The road to FDA approval,” writes a soy apologist, “was long and demanding, consisting of a detailed review of human clinical data collected from more than 40 scientific studies conducted over the last 20 years. Soy protein was found to be one of the rare foods that had sufficient scientific evidence not only to qualify for an FDA health claim proposal but to ultimately pass the rigorous approval process.”29

    The “long and demanding” road to FDA approval actually took a few unexpected turns. The original petition, submitted by Protein Technology International, requested a health claim for isoflavones, the oestrogen-like compounds found plentifully in soybeans, based on assertions that “only soy protein that has been processed in a manner in which isoflavones are retained will result in cholesterol lowering”. In 1998, the FDA made the unprecedented move of rewriting PTI’s petition, removing any reference to the phyto-oestrogens and substituting a claim for soy protein – a move that was in direct contradiction to the agency’s regulations. The FDA is authorised to make rulings only on substances presented by petition. The abrupt change in direction was no doubt due to the fact that a number of researchers, including scientists employed by the US Government, submitted documents indicating that isoflavones are toxic. The FDA had also received, early in 1998, the final British Government report on phytoestrogens, which failed to find much evidence of benefit and warned against potential adverse effects.30

    Even with the change to soy protein isolate, FDA bureaucrats engaged in the “rigorous approval process” were forced to deal nimbly with concerns about mineral blocking effects, enzyme inhibitors, goitrogenicity, endocrine disruption, reproductive problems and increased allergic reactions from consumption of soy products.31 One of the strongest letters of protest came from Dr Dan Sheehan and Dr Daniel Doerge, government researchers at the

    National Center for Toxicological Research.32 Their pleas for warning labels were dismissed as unwarranted. “Sufficient scientific evidence” of soy’s cholesterol-lowering properties is drawn largely from a 1995 meta-analysis by Dr James Anderson, sponsored by Protein Technologies International and published in the New England Journal of Medicine.33 A meta-analysis is a review and summary of the results of many clinical studies on the same subject. Use of meta-analyses to draw general conclusions has come under sharp criticism by members of the scientific community. “Researchers substituting meta-analysis for more rigorous trials risk making faulty assumptions and indulging in creative accounting,” says Sir John Scott, President of the Royal Society of New Zealand. “Like is not being lumped with like. Little lumps and big lumps of data are being gathered together by various groups.”34 There is the added temptation for researchers, particularly researchers funded by a company like Protein Technologies International, to leave out studies that would prevent the desired conclusions. Dr Anderson discarded eight studies for various reasons, leaving a remainder of twenty-nine. The published report suggested that individuals with cholesterol levels over 250 mg/dl would experience a “significant” reduction of 7 to 20 per cent in levels of serum cholesterol if they substituted soy protein for animal protein. Cholesterol reduction was insignificant for individuals whose cholesterol was lower than 250 mg/dl. In other words, for most of us, giving up steak and eating veggie burgers instead will not bring down blood cholesterol levels. The health claim that the FDA approved “after detailed review of human clinical data” fails to inform the consumer about these important details. Research that ties soy to positive effects on cholesterol levels is “incredibly immature”, said Ronald M. Krauss, MD, head of the Molecular Medical Research Program and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.35 He might have added that studies in which cholesterol levels were lowered through either diet or drugs have consistently resulted in a greater number of deaths in the treatment groups than in controls – deaths from stroke, cancer, intestinal disorders, accident and suicide.36 Cholesterol-lowering measures in the US have fuelled a $60 billion per year cholesterol-lowering industry, but have not saved us from the ravages of heart disease.

     

     

     

    SOY AND CANCER !!!!!!!!!!!!!

     

    The new FDA ruling does not allow any claims about cancer prevention on food packages, but that has not restrained the industry and its marketeers from making them in their promotional literature. “In addition to protecting the heart,” says a vitamin company brochure, “soy has demonstrated powerful anticancer benefits…the

    Japanese, who eat 30 times as much soy as North Americans, have a lower incidence of cancers of the breast, uterus and prostate.”37 Indeed they do. But the Japanese, and Asians in general, have much higher rates of other types of cancer, particularly cancer of the oesophagus, stomach, pancreas and liver.38 Asians throughout the world also have high rates of thyroid cancer.39 The logic that links low rates of reproductive cancers to soy consumption requires attribution of high rates of thyroid and digestive cancers to the same foods, particularly as soy causes these types of cancers in laboratory rats.

     

    Just how much soy do Asians eat? A 1998 survey found that the average daily amount of soy protein consumed in Japan was about eight grams for men and seven for women – less than two teaspoons.40 The famous Cornell China Study, conducted by Colin T. Campbell, found that legume consumption in China varied from 0 to 58 grams per day, with a mean of about twelve.41 Assuming that two-thirds of legume consumption is soy, then the maximum consumption is about 40 grams, or less than three tablespoons per day, with an average consumption of about nine grams, or less than two teaspoons. A survey conducted in the 1930s found that soy foods accounted for only 1.5 per cent of calories in the Chinese diet, compared with 65 per cent of calories from pork.42 (Asians traditionally cooked with lard, not vegetable oil!) Traditionally fermented soy products make a delicious, natural seasoning that may supply important nutritional factors in the Asian diet. But except in times of famine, Asians consume soy products only in small amounts, as condiments, and not as a replacement for animal foods – with one exception. Celibate monks living in monasteries and leading a vegetarian lifestyle find

    soy foods quite helpful because they dampen libido.

    It was a 1994 meta-analysis by Mark Messina, published in Nutrition and Cancer,that fuelled speculation on soy’s anticarcinogenic properties.43 Messina noted that in 26 animal studies, 65 per cent reported protective effects from soy. He conveniently neglected to include at least one study in which soy feeding caused pancreatic cancer – the 1985 study by Rackis.44 In the human studies he listed, the results were mixed. A few showed some protective effect, but most showed no correlation at all between soy consumption and cancer rates. He concluded that “the data in this review cannot be used as a

    basis for claiming that soy intake decreases cancer risk”. Yet in his subsequent book, The Simple Soybean and Your Health, Messina makes just such a claim, recommending one cup or 230 grams of soy products per day in his “optimal” diet as a way to prevent cancer. Thousands of women are now consuming soy in the belief that it protects them against breast cancer. Yet, in 1996, researchers found that women consuming soy protein isolate had an increased incidence of epithelial hyperplasia, a condition that presages malignancies.45 A year later, dietary genistein was found to stimulate breast cells to enter the cell cycle – a discovery that led the study authors to conclude that women should not consume soy products to prevent breast cancer.46

     

     

     

    PHYTOESTROGENS: PANACEA OR POISON?

     

    The male species of tropical birds carries the drab plumage of the female at birth and ‘colours up’ at maturity, somewhere between nine and 24 months. In 1991, Richard and Valerie James, bird breeders in Whangerai, New Zealand, purchased a new kind of feed for their birds – one based largely on soy protein.47 When soy-based feed was used, their birds ‘coloured up’ after just a few months. In fact, one bird-food manufacturer claimed that this early development was an advantage imparted by the feed. A 1992 ad for Roudybush feed formula showed a picture of the male crimson rosella, an Australian parrot that acquires beautiful red plumage at 18 to 24 months, already brightly coloured at 11 weeks old. Unfortunately, in the ensuing years, there was decreased fertility in the birds, with precocious maturation, deformed, stunted and stillborn babies, and premature deaths, especially among females, with the result that the total population in the aviaries went into steady decline. The birds suffered beak and bone deformities, goitre, immune system disorders and pathological, aggressive behaviour. Autopsy revealed digestive organs in a state of disintegration. The list of problems corresponded with many of the problems the Jameses had encountered in their two children, who had been fed soy-based infant formula. Startled, aghast, angry, the Jameses hired toxicologist Mike Fitzpatrick. PhD, to investigate further. Dr Fitzpatrick’s literature review uncovered evidence that soy consumption has been linked to numerous disorders, including infertility, increased cancer and infantile leukaemia; and, in studies dating back to the 1950s,48 that genistein in soy causes endocrine disruption in animals.

    Dr Fitzpatrick also analysed the bird feed and found that it contained high levels of phytoestrogens, especially genistein. When the Jameses discontinued using soy-based feed, the flock gradually returned to normal breeding habits and behaviour. The Jameses embarked on a private crusade to warn the public and government officials about toxins in soy foods, particularly the endocrine-disrupting isoflavones, genistein and diadzen. Protein Technology International received their material in 1994. In 1991, Japanese researchers reported that consumption of as little as 30 grams or two tablespoons of soybeans per day for only one month resulted in a significant increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone.49 Diffuse goitre and hypothyroidism appeared in some of the subjects and many complained of constipation, fatigue and lethargy, even though their intake of iodine was

    adequate. In 1997, researchers from the FDA’s National Center for Toxicological Research made the embarrassing discovery that the goitrogenic components of soy were the very same isoflavones.50

    Twenty-five grams of soy protein isolate, the minimum amount PTI claimed to have cholesterol-lowering effects, contains from 50 to 70 mg of isoflavones. It took only 45 mg of isoflavones in premenopausal women to exert significant biological effects, including a reduction in hormones needed for adequate thyroid function. These effects lingered for three months after soy consumption was discontinued.51 One hundred grams of soy protein – the maximum suggested cholesterol-lowering dose, and the amount recommended by Protein Technologies International – can contain almost 600 mg of isoflavones,52 an amount that is undeniably toxic. In 1992, the Swiss health service estimated that 100 grams of soy protein provided the oestrogenic equivalent of the Pill.53 In vitro studies suggest that isoflavones inhibit synthesis of oestradiol and other steroid hormones.54 Reproductive problems, infertility, thyroid disease and liver disease due to dietary intake of isoflavones have been observed for several species of animals including mice, cheetah, quail, pigs, rats, sturgeon and sheep.55 It is the isoflavones in soy that are said to have a favourable effect on postmenopausal symptoms, including hot flushes, and protection from osteoporosis. Quantification of discomfort from hot flushes is extremely subjective, and most studies show that control subjects report reduction in discomfort in amounts equal to subjects given soy.56 The claim that soy prevents osteoporosis is extraordinary, given that soy foods block calcium and cause vitamin D deficiencies. If Asians indeed have lower rates of osteoporosis than Westerners, it is because their diet provides plenty of vitamin D from shrimp, lard and seafood, and plenty of calcium from bone broths. The reason that Westerners have such high rates of osteoporosis is because they have

    substituted soy oil for butter, which is a traditional source of vitamin D and other fat-soluble activators needed for calcium absorption.

     

     

     

    BIRTH CONTROL PILLS FOR BABIES

    But it was the isoflavones in infant formula that gave the Jameses the most cause for concern. In 1998, investigators reported that the daily exposure of infants to isoflavones in soy infant formula is 6 to11 times higher on a body-weight basis than the dose

    that has hormonal effects in adults consuming soy foods. Circulating concentrations of isoflavones in infants fed soy-based formula were 13,000 to 22,000 times higher than plasma oestradiol concentrations in infants on cow’s milk formula.57 Approximately 25 per cent of bottle-fed children in the US receive soy-based formula – a much higher percentage than in other parts of the Western world. Fitzpatrick estimated that an infant exclusively fed soy formula receives the oestrogenic equivalent (based on body weight) of at least five birth control pills per day.58 By contrast, almost no phytoestrogens have been detected in dairy-based infant formula or in human milk, even when the mother consumes soy products. Scientists have known for years that soy-based formula can cause thyroid problems in babies. But what are the effects of soy products on the hormonal development of the infant, both male and female? Male infants undergo a “testosterone surge” during the first few months of life, when testosterone levels may be as high as those of an adult male. During this period, the infant is programmed to express male characteristics after puberty, not only in the development of his sexual organs and other masculine physical traits, but also in setting patterns in the brain characteristic of male behaviour. In monkeys, deficiency of male hormones impairs the development of spatial perception (which, in humans, is normally more acute in men than in women), of learning ability and of visual discrimination tasks (such as would be required for

    reading).59 It goes without saying that future patterns of sexual orientation may also be influenced by the early hormonal environment. Male children exposed during gestation to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic oestrogen that has effects on animals similar to those of phytoestrogens from soy, had testes smaller than normal on manturation.60

    Learning disabilities, especially in male children, have reached epidemic proportions. Soy infant feeding – which began in earnest in the early 1970s – cannot be ignored as a probable cause for these tragic developments. As for girls, an alarming number are entering puberty much earlier than normal, according to a recent study reported in the journal Pediatrics.61 Investigators found that one per cent of all girls now show signs of puberty, such as breast development or pubic hair, before the age of three; by age eight, 14.7 per cent of white girls and almost 50 per cent of African-American girls have one or both of these characteristics. New data indicate that environmental oestrogens such as PCBs and DDE (a breakdown product of DDT) may cause early sexual development in girls.62 In the 1986 Puerto Rico Premature The larche study, the most significant dietary association with premature sexual development was not chicken – as reported in the press – but soy infant formula.63 The consequences of this truncated childhood are tragic. Young girls with mature bodies must cope with feelings and urges that most children are not well-equipped to handle. And early maturation in girls is frequently a harbinger for problems with the reproductive system later in life, including failure to menstruate, infertility and breast cancer. Parents who have contacted the Jameses recount other problems associated with children of both sexes who were fed soy-based formula, including extreme emotional behaviour, asthma, immune system problems, pituitary insufficiency, thyroid disorders and irritable bowel syndrome – the same endocrine and digestive havoc that afflicted the Jameses’ parrots.

     

     

     

    DISSENSION IN THE RANKS

     

    Organisers of the Third International Soy Symposium would be hard-pressed to call the conference an unqualified success. On the second day of the symposium, the London-based Food Commission and the Weston A. Price Foundation of Washington, DC, held a joint press conference, in the same hotel as the symposium, to present concerns about soy infant formula. Industry representatives sat stony-faced through the recitation of potential dangers and a plea from concerned scientists and parents to pull soy-based infant formula from the market. Under pressure from the Jameses, the New Zealand Government had issued a health warning about soy infant formula in 1998; it was time for the American government to do the same. On the last day of the symposium, presentations on new findings related to toxicity sent a well-oxygenated chill through the giddy helium hype. Dr Lon White reported on a study of Japanese Americans living in Hawaii, that showed a significant statistical relationship between two or more servings of tofu a week and “accelerated brain aging”.64 Those participants who consumed tofu in mid-life had lower cognitive function in late life and a greater incidence of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. “What’s more,” said Dr White, “those who ate a lot of tofu, by the time they were 75 or 80 looked five years older”.65 White and his colleagues blamed the negative effects on isoflavones – a finding that supports an earlier study in which postmenopausal women with higher levels of circulating oestrogen experienced greater cognitive decline.66 Scientists Daniel Sheehan and Daniel Doerge, from the National Center for Toxicological Research, ruined PTI’s day by presenting findings from rat feeding studies, indicating that genistein in soy foods causes irreversible damage to enzymes that synthesise thyroid hormones.67 “The association between soybean consumption and goiter in animals and humans has a long history,” wrote Dr Doerge. “Current evidence for the beneficial effects of soy requires a full understanding of potential adverse

    effects as well.” Dr Claude Hughes reported that rats born to mothers that were fed genistein had decreased birth weights compared to controls, and onset of puberty occurred earlier in male offspring.68 His research suggested that the effects observed in rats “…will be at least somewhat predictive of what occurs in humans. There is no reason to assume that there will be gross

    malformations of fetuses but there may be subtle changes, such as neurobehavioral attributes, immune function and sex hormone levels.” The results, he said, “could be nothing or could be something of great concern…if mom is eating something that can act like sex hormones, it is logical to wonder if that could change the baby’s development”.69 A study of babies born to vegetarian mothers, published in January 2000, indicated just what those changes in baby’s development might be. Mothers who ate a vegetarian diet during pregnancy had a fivefold greater risk of delivering a boy with hypospadias, a birth defect of the penis.70 The authors of the study suggested that the cause was greater exposure to phytoestrogens in soy foods popular with vegetarians. Problems with female offspring of vegetarian mothers are more likely to show up later in life. While soy’s oestrogenic effect is less than that of diethylstilbestrol (DES), the dose is likely to be higher because it’s consumed as a food, not taken as a drug. Daughters of women who took DES during pregnancy suffered from infertility and cancer when they reached their twenties.

     

     

    QUESTION MARKS OVER GRAS STATUS

    Lurking in the background of industry hype for soy is the nagging question of whether it’s even legal to add soy protein isolate to food. All food additives not in common use prior to 1958, including casein protein from milk, must have GRAS (Generally

    Recognized As Safe) status. In 1972, the Nixon administration directed a re-examination of substances believed to be GRAS, in the light of any scientific information then available. This re-examination included casein protein which became codified as

    GRAS in 1978. In 1974, the FDA obtained a literature review of soy protein because, as soy protein had not been used in food until 1959 and was not even in common use in the early 1970s, it was not eligible to have its GRAS status grandfathered under the provisions of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.71 The scientific literature up to 1974 recognised many antinutrients in factory-made soy protein, including trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid and genistein. But the FDA literature review dismissed discussion of adverse impacts, with the statement that it was important for “adequate processing” to remove them. Genistein could be removed with an alcohol wash, but it was an expensive procedure that processors avoided. Later studies determined that trypsin inhibitor content could be removed only with long periods of heat and pressure, but the FDA has imposed no requirements for manufacturers to do so. The FDA was more concerned with toxins formed during processing, specifically nitrites and lysinoalanine.72 Even at low levels of consumption – averaging one-third of a gram per day at the time – the presence of these carcinogens was considered too great a threat to public health to allow GRAS status. Soy protein did have approval for use as a binder in cardboard boxes, and this approval was allowed to continue, as researchers considered that migration of nitrites from the box into the food contents would be too small to constitute a cancer risk. FDA officials called for safety specifications and monitoring procedures before granting of GRAS status for food. These

    were never performed. To this day, use of soy protein is codified as GRAS only for this limited industrial use as a cardboard binder. This means that soy protein must be subject to premarket approval procedures each time manufacturers intend to use it as a food or add it to a food. Soy protein was introduced into infant formula in the early 1960s. It was a new product with no history of any use at all. As soy protein did not have GRAS status, premarket approval was required. This was not and still has not been granted. The key ingredient of soy infant formula is not recognised as safe.

     

    THE NEXT ASBESTOS?

    “Against the backdrop of widespread praise…there is growing suspicion that soy – despite its undisputed benefits – may pose some health hazards,” writes Marian Burros, a leading food writer for the New York Times. More than any other writer, Ms Burros’s endorsement of a low-fat, largely vegetarian diet has herded Americans into supermarket aisles featuring soy foods. Yet her January 26, 2000 article, “Doubts Cloud Rosy News on Soy”, contains the following alarming statement: “Not one of

    the 18 scientists interviewed for this column was willing to say that taking isoflavones was risk free.” Ms Burros did not enumerate the risks, nor did she mention that the recommended 25 daily grams of soy protein contain enough isoflavones to cause problems in sensitive individuals, but it was evident that the industry had recognised the need to cover itself. Because the industry is extremely exposed…contingency lawyers will soon discover that the number of potential plaintiffs can be counted in the millions and the pockets are very, very deep. Juries will hear something like the following: “The industry has known for years that soy contains many toxins. At first they told the public that the toxins were removed by processing. When it became apparent that processing could not get rid of them, they claimed that these substances were beneficial. Your government granted a health claim to a substance that is poisonous, and the industry lied to the public to sell more soy.”

    The “industry” includes merchants, manufacturers, scientists, publicists, bureaucrats, former bond financiers, food writers, vitamin companies and retail stores. Farmers will probably escape because they were duped like the rest of us. But they need to find something else to grow before the soy bubble bursts and the market collapses: grass-fed livestock, designer vegetables…or hemp to make paper for thousands and thousands of legal briefs.

     

    Endnotes:

    1. Program for the Third International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease, Sunday, October 31, through Wednesday, November 3, 1999, Omni Shoreham Hotel, Washington, DC.

     

    2. Houghton, Dean, “Healthful Harvest”, The Furrow, January 2000, pp. 10-13.

     

    3. Coleman, Richard J., “Vegetable Protein – A Delayed Birth?” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 52:238A, April 1975.

     

    4. See www/unitedsoybean.org.

     

    5. These are listed in http://www.soyonlineservice.co.nz.

     

    6. Wall Street Journal, October 27, 1995.

     

    7. Smith, James F., “Healthier tortillas could lead to healthier Mexico”, Denver Post, August 22, 1999, p. 26A.

     

    8. “Bakery says new loaf can help reduce hot flushes”, Reuters, September 15, 1997.

     

    9. “Beefing Up Burgers with Soy Products at School”, Nutrition Week, Community Nutrition Institute, Washington, DC, June 5, 1998, p. 2.

     

    10. Urquhart, John, “A Health Food Hits Big Time”, Wall Street Journal, August 3, 1999, p. B1

     

    11. “Soyabean Milk Plant in Kenya”, Africa News Service, September 1998.

     

    12. Simoons, Frederick J., Food in China: A Cultural and Historical Inquiry, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1991, p. 64.

     

    13. Katz, Solomon H., “Food and Biocultural Evolution: A Model for the Investigation of Modern Nutritional Problems”, Nutritional Anthropology, Alan R. Liss Inc., 1987, p. 50.

     

    14. Rackis, Joseph J. et al., “The USDA trypsin inhibitor study. I. Background, objectives and procedural details”, Qualification of Plant Foods in Human Nutrition, vol. 35, 1985.

     

    15. Van Rensburg et al., “Nutritional status of African populations predisposed to esophageal cancer”, Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 4, 1983, pp. 206-216; Moser, P.B. et al., “Copper, iron, zinc and selenium dietary intake and status of Nepalese lactating

    women and their breastfed infants”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47:729-734, April 1988; Harland, B.F. et al., “Nutritional status and phytate: zinc and phytate X calcium: zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovovegetarian Trappist monks: 10

    years later”, Journal of the American Dietetic Association 88:1562-1566, December 1988.

     

    16. El Tiney, A.H., “Proximate Composition and Mineral and Phytate Contents of Legumes Grown in Sudan”, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis (1989) 2:6778.

     

    17. Ologhobo, A.D. et al., “Distribution of phosphorus and phytate in some Nigerian varieties of legumes and some effects of processing”, Journal of Food Science 49(1):199-201, January/February 1984.

     

    18. Sandstrom, B. et al., “Effect of protein level and protein source on zinc absorption in humans”, Journal of Nutrition 119(1):48-53, January 1989; Tait, Susan et al., “The availability of minerals in food, with particular reference to iron”, Journal of Research in Society and Health 103(2):74-77, April 1983.

     

    19. Phytate reduction of zinc absorption has been demonstrated in numerous studies. These results are summarised in Leviton, Richard, Tofu, Tempeh, Miso and Other Soyfoods: The ‘Food of the Future’ – How to Enjoy Its Spectacular Health Benefits, Keats Publishing, Inc., New Canaan, CT, USA, 1982, p. 1415.

     

    20. Mellanby, Edward, “Experimental rickets: The effect of cereals and their interaction with other factors of diet and environment in producing rickets”, Journal of the Medical Research Council 93:265, March 1925; Wills, M.R. et al., “Phytic Acid and Nutritional Rickets in Immigrants”, The Lancet, April 8,1972, pp. 771-773.

     

    21. Rackis et al., ibid.

     

    22. Rackis et al., ibid., p. 232.

     

    23. Wallace, G.M., “Studies on the Processing and Properties of Soymilk”, Journal of Science and Food Agriculture 22:526-535, October 1971.

     

    24. Rackis, et al., ibid., p. 22; “Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Soy Protein Isolates as Food Ingredients”, prepared for FDA by Life Sciences Research Office, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20014), USA, Contract No. FDA 223-75-2004, 1979.

     

    25. See www/truthinlabeling.org.

     

    26. Rackis, Joseph, J., “Biological and Physiological Factors in Soybeans”, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 51:161A-170A, January 1974.

     

    27. Rackis, Joseph J. et al., “The USDA trypsin inhibitor study”, ibid.

     

    28. Torum, Benjamin, “Nutritional Quality of Soybean Protein Isolates: Studies in Children of Preschool Age”, in Soy Protein and Human Nutrition, Harold L Wilcke et al. (eds), Academic Press, New York, 1979.

     

    29. Zreik, Marwin, CCN, “The Great Soy Protein Awakening”, Total Health 32(1), February 2000.

     

    30. IEH Assessment on Phytoestrogens in the Human Diet, Final Report to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, UK, November 1997, p. 11.

     

    31. Food Labeling: Health Claims: Soy Protein and Coronary Heart Disease, Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR, Part 101 (Docket No. 98P-0683).

     

    32. Sheegan, Daniel M. and Daniel R Doerge, Letter to Dockets Management Branch (HFA-305), February 18, 1999.

     

    33. Anderson, James W. et al., “Meta-analysis of the Effects of Soy Protein Intake on Serum Lipids”, New England Journal of Medicine (1995) 333:(5):276-282.

     

    34. Guy, Camille, “Doctors warned against magic, quackery”, New Zealand Herald, September 9, 1995, section 8, p. 5.

     

    35. Sander, Kate and Hilary Wilson, “FDA approves new health claim for soy, but litte fallout expected for dairy”, Cheese Market News, October 22, 1999, p. 24.

     

    36. Enig, Mary G. and Sally Fallon, “The Oiling of America”, NEXUS Magazine, December 1998-January 1999 and February-March 1999; also available at http://www.WestonAPrice.org.

     

    37. Natural Medicine News (L & H Vitamins, 32-33 47th Avenue, Long Island City, NY 11101), USA, January/February 2000, p. 8.

     

    38. Harras, Angela (ed.), Cancer Rates and Risks, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 1996, 4th edition.

     

    39. Searle, Charles E. (ed.), Chemical Carcinogens, ACS Monograph 173, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1976.

     

    40. Nagata, C. et al., Journal of Nutrition (1998) 128:209-213.

     

    41. Campbell, Colin T. et al., The Cornell Project in China.

     

    42. Chang, K.C. (ed.), Food in Chinese Culture: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives, New Haven, 1977.

     

    43. Messina, Mark J. et al., “Soy Intake and Cancer Risk: A Review of the In Vitro and In Vivo Data”, Nutrition and Cancer (1994) 21(2):113-131.

     

    44. Rackis et al, “The USDA trypsin inhibitor study”, ibid.

     

    45. Petrakis, N.L. et al., “Stimulatory influence of soy protein isolate on breast secretion in pre- and post-menopausal women”, Cancer Epid. Bio. Prev. (1996) 5:785-794.

     

    46. Dees, C. et al., “Dietary estrogens stimulate human breast cells to enter the cell cycle”, Environmental Health Perspectives (1997) 105(Suppl. 3):633-636.

     

    47. Woodhams, D.J., “Phytoestrogens and parrots: The anatomy of an investigation”, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand (1995) 20:22-30.

     

    48. Matrone, G. et al., “Effect of Genistin on Growth and Development of the Male Mouse”, Journal of Nutrition (1956) 235-240.

     

    49. Ishizuki, Y. et al., “The effects on the thyroid gland of soybeans administered experimentally in healthy subjects”, Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi (1991) 767:622-629.

     

    50. Divi, R.L. et al., “Anti-thyroid isoflavones from the soybean”, Biochemical Pharmacology (1997) 54:1087-1096.

     

    51. Cassidy, A. et al., “Biological Effects of a Diet of Soy Protein Rich in Isoflavones on the Menstrual Cycle of Premenopausal Women”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1994) 60:333-340.

     

    52. Murphy, P.A., “Phytoestrogen Content of Processed Soybean Foods”, Food Technology, January 1982, pp. 60-64.

     

    53. Bulletin de L’Office Fédéral de la Santé Publique, no. 28, July 20, 1992.

     

    54. Keung, W.M., “Dietary oestrogenic isoflavones are potent inhibitors of B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of P. testosteronii”, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Committee (1995) 215:1137-1144; Makela, S.I. et al.,

    “Estrogen-specific 12 B-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase type 1 (E.C. 1.1.1.62) as a possible target for the action of phytoestrogens”, PSEBM (1995) 208:51-59.

     

    55. Setchell, K.D.R. et al., “Dietary oestrogens – a probable cause of infertility and liver disease in captive cheetahs”, Gastroenterology (1987) 93:225-233; Leopald, A.S., “Phytoestrogens: Adverse effects on reproduction in California Quail,”

    Science (1976) 191:98-100; Drane, H.M. et al., “Oestrogenic activity of soya-bean products”, Food, Cosmetics and Technology (1980) 18:425-427; Kimura, S. et al., “Development of malignant goiter by defatted soybean with iodine-free diet

    in rats”, Gann. (1976) 67:763-765; Pelissero, C. et al., “Oestrogenic effect of dietary soybean meal on vitellogenesis in cultured Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baeri”, Gen. Comp. End. (1991) 83:447-457; Braden et al., “The oestrogenic activity and

    metabolism of certain isoflavones in sheep”, Australian J. Agricultural Research (1967) 18:335-348.

     

    56. Ginsburg, Jean and Giordana M. Prelevic, “Is there a proven place for phytoestrogens in the menopause?”, Climacteric

    (1999) 2:75-78.

     

    57. Setchell, K.D. et al., “Isoflavone content of infant formulas and the metabolic fate of these early phytoestrogens in early

    life”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, December 1998 Supplement, 1453S-1461S.

     

    58. Irvine, C. et al., “The Potential Adverse Effects of Soybean Phytoestrogens in Infant Feeding”, New Zealand Medical

    Journal May 24, 1995, p. 318.

     

    59. Hagger, C. and J. Bachevalier, “Visual habit formation in 3-month-old monkeys (Macaca mulatta): reversal of sex difference following neonatal manipulations of androgen”, Behavior and Brain Research (1991) 45:57-63.

     

    60. Ross, R.K. et al., “Effect of in-utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol on age at onset of puberty and on post-pubertal hormone levels in boys”, Canadian Medical Association Journal 128(10):1197-8, May 15, 1983.

     

    61. Herman-Giddens, Marcia E. et al., “Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in Young Girls Seen in Office Practice: A Study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network”, Pediatrics 99(4):505-512, April 1997.

     

    62. Rachel’s Environment & Health Weekly 263, “The Wingspread Statement”, Part 1, December 11, 1991; Colborn, Theo, Dianne Dumanoski and John Peterson Myers, Our Stolen Future, Little, Brown & Company, London, 1996.

     

    63. Freni-Titulaer, L.W., “Premature Thelarch in Puerto Rico: A search for environmental factors”, American Journal of Diseases of Children 140(12):1263-1267, December 1986.

     

    64. White, Lon, “Association of High Midlife Tofu Consumption with Accelerated Brain Aging”, Plenary Session #8: Cognitive Function, The Third International Soy Symposium, November 1999, Program, p. 26.

     

    65. Altonn, Helen, “Too much tofu induces ‘brain aging’, study shows”, Honolulu Star-Bulletin, November 19, 1999.

     

    66. Journal of the American Geriatric Society (1998) 46:816-21.

     

    67. Doerge, Daniel R., “Inactivation of Thyroid Peroxidase by Genistein and Daidzein in Vitro and in Vivo; Mechanism for Anti-Thyroid Activity of Soy”, presented at the November 1999 Soy Symposium in Washington, DC, National Center for

    Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72029, USA.

     

    68. Hughes, Claude, Center for Women’s Health and Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

     

    69. Soy Intake May Affect Fetus”, Reuters News Service, November 5, 1999.

     

    70. “Vegetarian diet in pregnancy linked to birth defect”, BJU International 85:107-113, January 2000.

     

    71. FDA ref 72/104, Report FDABF GRAS – 258.

     

    72. “Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Soy Protein Isolates as Food Ingredients”, prepared for FDA by Life Sciences Research Office, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) (9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20014, USA), Contract No, FDA 223-75-2004, 1979.

     

     

     

    About the Authors:

     

    Sally Fallon is the author of Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrats (1999, 2nd edition, New Trends Publishing, tel +1 877 707 1776 or +1 219 268 2601) and President of the

    Weston A. Price Foundation, Washington, DC (www.WestonAPrice.org).

     

    Mary G. Enig, PhD, is the author of Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils and Cholesterol (2000, Bethesda Press, http://www.BethesdaPress.com), is President of the Maryland Nutritionists Association and

    Vice President of the Weston A. Price Foundation, Washington, DC.

     

    The authors wish to thank Mike Fitzpatrick, PhD, and Valerie and Richard James for their help in preparing this article.

     

     

     

    #170
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    FDA Poisonous Plant Database
    March 2006 Revision

    This database contains references to the scientific literature
    describing studies of the toxic properties and effects of plants and plant parts.

    DISCLAIMER

    The information in this database is intended only for scientific exchange. It has not been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for publication nor does it have any official status. The information is continually increasing and being modified; it is neither error-free nor comprehensive. Information herein is in the public domain. Any copyrighted or privately owned material inadvertently included will be removed as soon as possible.

    For information or concerns about the toxicity of plants, contact the local Poison Control Center in your area. A directory of these is available from The American Association of Poison Control Centers. ( http://www.aapcc.org/ )

    For a poisoning emergency, call 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call 911.

    Results for Search Term = soy
    288 records have been found.

    AUTHOR(S): Adams, N. R.
    TITLE: “Phytoestrogens.”
    YEAR: 1989 CITATION: Cheeke PR (ed) Toxicants of plant origin. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 4 (Chap 2), 23-51 [English]
    FDA #: F10349 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Aherne, F. X.; Bowland, J. P.; Christian, R. G.; Vogtmann, H.; Hardin, R. T.
    TITLE: “Performance and histological changes in tissues of pigs fed diets containing high or low erucic acid rapeseed oils or soybean oil.”
    YEAR: 1975 CITATION: Can J Anim Sci, 55, 77-85 [English]
    FDA #: F20170 || GRIN: 311781
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Brassicaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Brassica napus L. var. napus
    AUTHOR(S): Akinsoyinu, A.; Jacquemet, N.; Carneiro, H.; Sahlu, T.; Lu, C. D,; Fernandez, J. M.
    TITLE: “Mimosine effects on in vitro fermentation patterns and in sacco release of mineral elements from Leucaena in the goat.”
    YEAR: 1990 CITATION: J Anim Sci, 68 (Suppl 1), 406 [English]
    FDA #: F23320 || GRIN: 6761 (Genus)
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Leucaena
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Leucaena genus
    AUTHOR(S): AlemanyVall, R.
    TITLE: “Rhinitis and dermatitis caused by exotic woods.”
    YEAR: 1958 CITATION: Occupational allergy. Charles C Thomas Publ. Springfield, Illinois, , 273-277 [English]
    FDA #: F20669 || GRIN: 312067
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Pterocarpus soyauxii
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub.
    AUTHOR(S): Alexander, J. C.; Mattson, F. H.
    TITLE: “A nutritional comparison of rapeseed oil and soybean oil.”
    YEAR: 1966 CITATION: Can J Biochem, 44, 35-43 [English]
    FDA #: F14540 || GRIN: 409456
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Brassicaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Brassica rapa L. subsp. campestris (L.) A. R. Clapham
    AUTHOR(S): Alexander, J. C.; Mattson, F. H.
    TITLE: “A nutritional comparison of rapeseed oil and soybean oil.”
    YEAR: 1966 CITATION: Can J Biochem, 44, 35-43 [English]
    FDA #: F14540 || GRIN: 311781
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Brassicaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Brassica napus L. var. napus
    AUTHOR(S): Allen, J. G.; Stovold, G. E.; Blaney, B. J.; Smith, H. J. P.; Shaw, T. J.; Tyler, A. L.
    TITLE: “The toxicogenicity of isolates of Phomopsis and Diaporthe spp. obtained from soybean plants and the apparent production of cytochalasins by Phomopsis longicola.”
    YEAR: 1992 CITATION: James LF et al (eds) Poisonous plants. Iowa State University Press. Ames, Iowa, , 251-258 [English]
    FDA #: F19229 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Almquist, H. J.; Merritt, J. B.
    TITLE: “Effect of soybean antitrypsin on growth of the chick.”
    YEAR: 1952 CITATION: Arch Biochem, 35, 352-354 [English]
    FDA #: F14541 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Almquist, H. J.; Merritt, J. B.
    TITLE: “Effect of raw soybean meal on growth of the chick.”
    YEAR: 1952 CITATION: Proceed Soc Exp Biol Med, 79, 277-279 [English]
    FDA #: F16029 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Anderson, D. W.; Howard, H. W.
    TITLE: “Feeding of soybean products and development of goiter.”
    YEAR: 1959 CITATION: Pediatrics, 24, 854-855 [English]
    FDA #: F07697 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): AndradeDosSantos, J.; Soares, A. F.; LauvegildoDosSantos, E.; Rosa, I. V.
    TITLE: “[Concerning the absence of goitrogenic factors in soybean oil for cooking.]”
    YEAR: 1971 CITATION: Pesq Agr Brasil Vet, 6, 87-89 [Portugese]
    FDA #: F10629 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Anonymous
    TITLE: “Raw soybeans and cystine metabolism.”
    YEAR: 1965 CITATION: Nutr Review, 23, 346-348 [English]
    FDA #: F17933 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Anonymous
    TITLE: “Product: soybeans in bulk, at Chesapeake, E. Dist, VA.”
    YEAR: 1987 CITATION: FDA Consumer, 21 (9), 37 [English]
    FDA #: F12832 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Anonymous
    TITLE: “Problem of phytoalexin products in food plants discussed.”
    YEAR: 1989 CITATION: Food Chem News, (Aug 7), 7-8 [English]
    FDA #: F22544 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Aregheore, E. M.
    TITLE: “A review of toxicity factors in some food and feedingstuffs in the nutrition of man and livestock in Nigeria.”
    YEAR: 1992 CITATION: Vet Human Toxicol, 34 (1), 71-73 [English]
    FDA #: F25318 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Arnold, S. J.
    TITLE: “Eastern black nightshade: An increasing concern for soybean and forage producers.”
    YEAR: 1985 CITATION: Crops Soils, 37 (9), 29-31 [English]
    FDA #: F15960 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): ArredondoPeter, R.; Hargrove, M. S.; Moran, J. F.; Sarath, G.; Klucas, R. V.
    TITLE: “Plant hemoglobins.”
    YEAR: 1998 CITATION: Plant Physiol, 118 (4), 1121-1125 [English]
    FDA #: F24078 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soy bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Avanzi, C. F.
    TITLE: “[Thyroid-inhibiting effects of soya beans.]”
    YEAR: 1972 CITATION: Agr Ital, 72, 293-296 [Italian]
    FDA #: F09847 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Axelson, M.; Kirk, D. N.; Farrant, R. D.; Cooley, G.; Lawson, A. M.; Setchell, K. D. R.
    TITLE: “The identification of the weak oestrogen equol [7-hydroxy-3-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)chroman.] in human urine.”
    YEAR: 1982 CITATION: Biochem J, 201, 353-357 [English]
    FDA #: F12925 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Axelson, M.; Sjovall, J.; Gustafsson, B. E.; Setchell, K. D. R.
    TITLE: “soya – a dietary source of the non-steroidal oestrogen equol in man and animals.”
    YEAR: 1984 CITATION: J Endocrinol, 102, 49-56 [English]
    FDA #: F18133 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Bain, D. C.; Patel, B. N.
    TITLE: “Reaction of soybeans to Fusarium moniliforme.”
    YEAR: 1973 CITATION: Phytopathology, 62, 801 [English]
    FDA #: F03810 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Baintner, K.
    TITLE: “Trypsin-inhibitor and chymotrypsin-inhibitor studies with soybean extracts.”
    YEAR: 1981 CITATION: J Agr Food Chem, 29, 201-203 [English]
    FDA #: F12032 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Balloun, S. L.; Johnson, E. L.
    TITLE: “Anticoagulant properties of unheated soybean meal in chick diets.”
    YEAR: 1953 CITATION: Arch Biochem, 42, 355-359 [English]
    FDA #: F04863 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Barnes, R. H.; Kwong, E.
    TITLE: “Effect of soybean trypsin inhibitor and penicillin on cystine biosynthesis in the pancreas and its transport as exocrine protein secretion in the intestinal tract of the rat.”
    YEAR: 1965 CITATION: J Nutr, 86 (3), 245-252 [English]
    FDA #: F14721 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Becker, D. E.; Adams, C. R.; Terrill, S. W.; Meade, R. J.
    TITLE: “The influence of heat treatment and solvent upon the nutritive value of soybean oil meal for swine.”
    YEAR: 1953 CITATION: J Anim Sci, 12, 107-116 [English]
    FDA #: F06838 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean oil meal || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Bell, E. A.
    TITLE: “Toxic compounds in seeds.”
    YEAR: 1984 CITATION: Murray DR (ed) Seed physiology. Academic Press. New York, 1, 245-264 [English]
    FDA #: 17711 || GRIN: soybean
    COMMON NAME: soy bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: Glycine max || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Birk, Y.; Bondi, A.; Gestetner, B.; Ishaaya, I.
    TITLE: “A thermostable haemolytic factor in soybeans.”
    YEAR: 1963 CITATION: Nature, 197 (4872), Mar 16, 1089-1090 [English]
    FDA #: F07851 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Booth, A. N.; Robbins, D. J.; Ribelin, W. E.; DeEds, F.
    TITLE: “Effect of raw soybean meal and amino acids on pancreatic hypertrophy in rats.”
    YEAR: 1960 CITATION: Proceed Soc Exp Biol Med, 104, 681-683 [English]
    FDA #: F08143 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Booth, A. N.; Robbins, D. J.; Ribelin, W. E.; DeEds, F.; Smith, A. K.; Rackis, J. J.
    TITLE: “Prolonged pancreatic hypertrophy and reversibility in rats fed raw soybean meal.”
    YEAR: 1964 CITATION: Proceed Soc Exp Biol Med, 116, 1067-1069 [English]
    FDA #: F08856 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Borchers, R.
    TITLE: “Growth inhibitor in raw soybeans.”
    YEAR: 1964 CITATION: Fed Proceed, 23 (2 Part 1), 500 [English]
    FDA #: F15029 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Borchers, R.
    TITLE: “Raw soybean feeding decreases transamidinase activity.”
    YEAR: 1964 CITATION: Proceed Soc Exp Biol Med, 115, 893-894 [English]
    FDA #: F08855 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Borchers, R.; Ackerson, C. W.; Sandstedt, R. M.
    TITLE: “Trypsin inhibitor. III. Determination and heat destruction of the trypsin inhibitor of soybeans.”
    YEAR: 1947 CITATION: Arch Biochem, 12, 367-374 [English]
    FDA #: F16235 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Borchers, R.; Ackerson, C. W.; Mussehl, F. E.; Moehl, A.
    TITLE: “Trypsin inhibitor. VIII. Growth inhibiting properties of a soybean trypsin inhibitor.”
    YEAR: 1948 CITATION: Arch Biochem, 19, 317-322 [English]
    FDA #: F15031 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Borchers, R.; Andersen, S. M.; Spelts, J.
    TITLE: “Rate of respiratory carbon-14 dioxide excretion after injection of C14-amino acids in rats fed raw soybean meal.”
    YEAR: 1965 CITATION: J Nutr, 86 (3), 253-255 [English]
    FDA #: F15005 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Borio, E. B. L.
    TITLE: “[Human poisoning by plants.]”
    YEAR: 1973 CITATION: Trib Farm Parana Brasil, 41 (1-2), 37-60 [Portugese]
    FDA #: F24775 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soja || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Bornstein, S.; Lipstein, B.
    TITLE: “The influence of age of chicks on their sensitivity to raw soybean oil meal.”
    YEAR: 1963 CITATION: Poultry Sci, 42, 61-70 [English]
    FDA #: F08145 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Bowman, D. E.
    TITLE: “Fractions derived from soybeans and navy beans which retard tryptic digestion of casein.”
    YEAR: 1944 CITATION: Proceed Soc Exp Biol Med, 57, 139-140 [English]
    FDA #: F15045 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Bowman, D. E.
    TITLE: “Differentiation of soy bean antitryptic factors.”
    YEAR: 1946 CITATION: Proceed Soc Exp Biol Med, 63, 547-550 [English]
    FDA #: F15830 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Bray, D. J.
    TITLE: “Pancreatic hypertrophy in laying pullets induced by unheated soybean meal.”
    YEAR: 1964 CITATION: Poultry Sci, 43 (2), 382-384 [English]
    FDA #: F08848 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Caldwell, K.
    TITLE: “Induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity in weanling rat pancreas by an orally administered soy protein isolate.”
    YEAR: 1987 CITATION: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 87, 483-489 [English]
    FDA #: F11099 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Card, L. E.
    TITLE: “The effect of soybean on hatchability.”
    YEAR: 1942 CITATION: Poultry Sci, 21, 467 [English]
    FDA #: F14763 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Carlson, C. W.; Saxena, H. C.; Jensen, L. S.; McGinnis, J.
    TITLE: “Rachitogenic activity of soybean fractions.”
    YEAR: 1964 CITATION: J Nutr, 82, 507-511 [English]
    FDA #: F15147 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Carlson, C. W.; McGinnis, J.; Jensen, L. S.
    TITLE: “Anti-rachitic effects of soybean preparations for turkey poults.”
    YEAR: 1964 CITATION: J Nutr, 82, 366-370 [English]
    FDA #: F15146 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Case, A. A.
    TITLE: “Poisonous seeds.”
    YEAR: — CITATION: Univ Missouri Handout, , 2 pages [English]
    FDA #: F06765 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Castanon, J. I. R.; Perez, L. J.
    TITLE: “Substitution of fixed amounts of soybean meal for field beans (Vicia faba), sweet lupines, (Lupinus albus), cull peas (Pisum sativum) and vetches (Vicia sativa) in diets for high performance laying leghorn hens.”
    YEAR: 1990 CITATION: Br Poultry Sci, 31 (1), 173-180 [English]
    FDA #: F04030 || GRIN: 300472
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: pea
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Pisum sativum
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Pisum sativum L.
    AUTHOR(S): Castanon, J. I. R.; Perez, L. J.
    TITLE: “Substitution of fixed amounts of soybean meal for field beans (Vicia faba), sweet lupines, (Lupinus albus), cull peas (Pisum sativum) and vetches (Vicia sativa) in diets for high performance laying leghorn hens.”
    YEAR: 1990 CITATION: Br Poultry Sci, 31 (1), 173-180 [English]
    FDA #: F04030 || GRIN: 22802
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Lupinus albus
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Lupinus albus L.
    AUTHOR(S): Castanon, J. I. R.; Perez, L. J.
    TITLE: “Substitution of fixed amounts of soybean meal for field beans (Vicia faba), sweet lupines, (Lupinus albus), cull peas (Pisum sativum) and vetches (Vicia sativa) in diets for high performance laying leghorn hens.”
    YEAR: 1990 CITATION: Br Poultry Sci, 31 (1), 173-180 [English]
    FDA #: F04030 || GRIN: 300667
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Vicia sativa
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Vicia sativa L.
    AUTHOR(S): Castanon, J. I. R.; Perez, L. J.
    TITLE: “Substitution of fixed amounts of soybean meal for field beans (Vicia faba), sweet lupines, (Lupinus albus), cull peas (Pisum sativum) and vetches (Vicia sativa) in diets for high performance laying leghorn hens.”
    YEAR: 1990 CITATION: Br Poultry Sci, 31 (1), 173-180 [English]
    FDA #: F04030 || GRIN: 300661
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Vicia faba
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Vicia faba L.
    AUTHOR(S): Cheeke, P. R.; Shull, L. R.
    TITLE: “Metal-binding substances and inorganic toxicants.”
    YEAR: 1985 CITATION: Cheeke PR & Shull LR (eds) Natural toxicants in feeds & poisonous plants. AVI Publ. Westport, Connecticut, (Chap 9), 314-331 [English]
    FDA #: FB0007 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Cheeke, P. R.; Shull, L. R.
    TITLE: “Tannins and polyphenolic compounds.”
    YEAR: 1985 CITATION: Cheeke PR & Shull LR (eds) Natural toxicants in feeds & poisonous plants. AVI Publ. Westport, Connecticut, (Chap 10), 332-357 [English]
    FDA #: FB0006 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Cheeke, P. R.
    TITLE: “Perspectives on human health concerns arising from natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants.”
    YEAR: 1990 CITATION: Vet Human Toxicol, 32 (Suppl), 71-75 [English]
    FDA #: F06437 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Cherington, M.; Greenberg, H.; soyer, A.
    TITLE: “Guanidine and germine in botulism.”
    YEAR: 1973 CITATION: Clin Toxicol, 6 (1), 83-89 [English]
    FDA #: F03455 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Clarke, E.; Wiseman, J.
    TITLE: “Effect of varying trypsin inhibitor activity of full fat soya on nutritional value for broiler chicks.”
    YEAR: 2004 CITATION: Acamovic et al (eds) Poisonous plants and related poisons. CABI. Wallingford, UK, 1 (Chap 77), 512-519
    FDA #: F25957 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Collins, J. L.; Beaty, B. F.
    TITLE: “Heat inactivation of trypsin inhibitor in fresh green soybeans and physiological responses of rats fed the beans.”
    YEAR: 1980 CITATION: J Food Sci, 45, 542-546 [English]
    FDA #: F14638 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merrill
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Cooper, M. R.; Johnson, A. W.
    TITLE: “Poisonous Plants in Britain and Their Effects on Animals and Man.”
    YEAR: 1984 CITATION: Ministry Agr Fish Food, Ref Book 161, [English]
    FDA #: —— || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Craig, J. F.; Kehoe, D.
    TITLE: “Plant poisoning.”
    YEAR: 1925 CITATION: Vet Record, 5 (38), 795-825 [English]
    FDA #: F06913 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soya bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Crane, T. D.
    TITLE: “Plant poisoning in animals – a bibliography. Part II.”
    YEAR: 1973 CITATION: Vet Bull, 43 (5), 231-249 [English]
    FDA #: F06919 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Crosby, D. G.
    TITLE: “Natural cholinesterase inhibitors in food.”
    YEAR: 1966 CITATION: NAS/NRC Toxicants occurring naturally in foods., , 112-116 [English]
    FDA #: F06942 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max L.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Cross, R. F.
    TITLE: “Observations on the bovine hemorrhagic disease caused by trichloroethylene-processed soybean oil meal.”
    YEAR: 1953 CITATION: J Am Vet Med Assoc, (Feb), 103-105 [English]
    FDA #: F04664 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean oil meal || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Culvenor, C. C. J.
    TITLE: “Toxic plants – a reevaluation.”
    YEAR: 1970 CITATION: Search, 1 (3), Sep, 103-110 [English]
    FDA #: F06951 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soy bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Dastur, J. F.
    TITLE: “Medicinal Plants of India and Pakistan.”
    YEAR: 1962 CITATION: DB Taraporevala Sons. Bombay, , 212 pages [English]
    FDA #: —— || GRIN: 35174
    COMMON NAME: Indian red wood tree || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Meliaceae || LATIN NAME: soymida febrifuga Adr. Juss.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: soymida febrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss.
    AUTHOR(S): Davidek, T.; Davidek, J.
    TITLE: “Biogenic amines.”
    YEAR: 1995 CITATION: Davidek J (ed) Natural toxic compounds of foods. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, (Chap 2; pt H), 108-123 [English]
    FDA #: 17711 || GRIN: soybean
    COMMON NAME: soy bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Dechary, J. M.
    TITLE: “Phytohemagglutinins – A survey of recent progress.”
    YEAR: 1968 CITATION: Vox Sang, 15, 401-409 [English]
    FDA #: F08026 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): DeMuelenaere, H. J. H.
    TITLE: “Toxicity and haemagglutinating activity of legumes.”
    YEAR: 1965 CITATION: Nature, 206 (4986), May 22, 827-828 [English]
    FDA #: F05498 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Desikachar, H. S. R.; De, S. S.
    TITLE: “Role of inhibitors in soybean.”
    YEAR: 1947 CITATION: Science, 106 (Oct 31), 421 [English]
    FDA #: F14221 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Dostalova, J.; Pokorny, J.
    TITLE: “Plant phenols.”
    YEAR: 1995 CITATION: Davidek J (ed) Natural toxic compounds of foods. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, (Chap 2: pt E), 75-95 [English]
    FDA #: 17711 || GRIN: soybean
    COMMON NAME: soy bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Drane, H. M.; Patterson, D. S. P.; Roberts, B. A.; Saba, N.
    TITLE: “Oestrogenic activity of soya-bean products.”
    YEAR: 1980 CITATION: Food Cosmet Toxicol, 18, 425-427 [English]
    FDA #: F12040 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Driedger, A.; Hatfield, E. E.
    TITLE: “Influence of tannins on the nutritive value of soybean meal for ruminants.”
    YEAR: 1972 CITATION: J Anim Sci, 34 (3), 465-468 [English]
    FDA #: F20468 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Duffus, C. M.; Smith, P. M.
    TITLE: “Legumes and their toxins.”
    YEAR: 1981 CITATION: Span, 24 (2), 63-65 [English]
    FDA #: F25226 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soya bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Duke, J. A.
    TITLE: “Switching from sirloin to soy.”
    YEAR: 1990 CITATION: Draft, , [English]
    FDA #: F15290 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Eldridge, A. C.; Kwolek, W. F.
    TITLE: “soybean isoflavones: Effect of environment and variety on composition.”
    YEAR: 1983 CITATION: J Agr Food Chem, 31, 394-396 [English]
    FDA #: F17879 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Ellenrieder, G.; Geronazzo, H.; Debojarski, A. B.
    TITLE: “Thermal inactivation of trypsin inhibitors in aqueous extracts of soybeans, peanuts, and kidney beans: presence of substances that accelerate inactivation.”
    YEAR: 1980 CITATION: Cereal Chem, 57 (1), 25-27 [English]
    FDA #: F13220 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Ellenrieder, G.; Blanco, S.; Bondoni, A.
    TITLE: “Thermal inactivation of trypsin inhibitors in aqueous extracts of soybeans. Studies on substances that accelerate inactivation.”
    YEAR: 1981 CITATION: Cereal Chem, 58 (4), 291-293 [English]
    FDA #: F13219 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Epstein, W. L.
    TITLE: “Plant-induced dermatitis.”
    YEAR: 1987 CITATION: Annals Emerg Med, 16 (Sep), 950-955 [English]
    FDA #: F16381 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soya bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Eveleth, D. F.; Goldsby, A. I.
    TITLE: “Toxicosis of chickens caused by trichloroethylene-extracted soybean meal.”
    YEAR: 1953 CITATION: J Am Vet Med Assoc, 123, 38-39 [English]
    FDA #: F13772 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Fanguaf, R.; Vogt, H.
    TITLE: “[Toxicity trials in laying hens and chicks with Datura stramonium seeds, a common contaminant of soya bean consigments.]”
    YEAR: 1961 CITATION: Arch Geflugelkunde, 25, 167-171 [German]
    FDA #: F25777 || GRIN: 13323
    COMMON NAME: Stechapfel || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Solanaceae || LATIN NAME: Datura stramonium L.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Datura stramonium L.
    AUTHOR(S): Farmakalidis, E.; Murphy, P. A.
    TITLE: “Oestrogenic response of the CD-1 mouse to the soya-bean isoflavones genistein, genistin and daidzin.”
    YEAR: 1984 CITATION: Food Chem Toxicol, 22 (3), 237-239 [English]
    FDA #: F08844 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Farmakalidis, E.; Murphy, P. A.
    TITLE: “Semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatographic isolation of soybean isoflavones.”
    YEAR: 1984 CITATION: J Chromatogr, 295, 510-514 [English]
    FDA #: F14927 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Farmakalidis, E.; Murphy, P. A.
    TITLE: “Isolation of 6′-O-acetylgenistin and 6′-O-acetyldaidzin from toasted defatted soyflakes.”
    YEAR: 1985 CITATION: J Agr Food Chem, 33, 385-389 [English]
    FDA #: F14926 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Fenwick, R.
    TITLE: “Natural toxicants in food.”
    YEAR: 1987 CITATION: Nutr Food Sci, 104 (Jan-Feb), 10-12 [English]
    FDA #: 17711 || GRIN: soya
    COMMON NAME: soy bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Ferrando, R.
    TITLE: “Natural antinutritional factors present in European plant proteins.”
    YEAR: 1983 CITATION: Qual Plant Plant Foods Human Nutr, 32, 455-467 [English]
    FDA #: 17711 || GRIN: soybean
    COMMON NAME: soy bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Finzi, A.; Romboli, I.
    TITLE: “[Congenital blindness in chicks as a result of prolonged administration of raw soya bean meal to laying hens.]”
    YEAR: 1972 CITATION: Rivista Ital Sost Grasse, 49, 252-253 [Italian]
    FDA #: F22533 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Fishbein, L.
    TITLE: “Natural non-nutrient substances in the food chain.”
    YEAR: 1972 CITATION: Sci Total Environ, 1 (3), 211-244 [English]
    FDA #: 17711 || GRIN: soybean
    COMMON NAME: soy bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Flavin, D. F.
    TITLE: “The effects of soybean trypsin inhibitors on the pancreas of animals and man: A review.”
    YEAR: 1982 CITATION: Vet Human Toxicol, 24 (1), 25-28 [English]
    FDA #: F20731 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Fowler, M. E.
    TITLE: “References on plant poisoning in poultry and waterfowl.”
    YEAR: 1985 CITATION: Prepublication, , 13 pages [English]
    FDA #: F06214 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Frattali, V.
    TITLE: “soybean inhibitors. III. Properties of a low molecular weight soybean proteinase inhibitor.”
    YEAR: 1969 CITATION: J Biol Chem, 244 (2), 174-280 [English]
    FDA #: F16767 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Friend, D. W.; Corner, A. H.; Kramer, J. K. G.; Charlton, K. M.; Gilka, F.; Sauer, F. D.
    TITLE: “Growth, cardiopathology and cardiac fatty acids of swine fed diets containing soybean oil or low erucic acid rapeseed oil.”
    YEAR: 1975 CITATION: Can J Anim Sci, 55, 49-59 [English]
    FDA #: F10704 || GRIN: 409456
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Brassicaceae || LATIN NAME: Brassica campestris
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Brassica rapa L. subsp. campestris (L.) A. R. Clapham
    AUTHOR(S): Friend, D. W.; Gilka, F.; Corner, A. H.
    TITLE: “Growth, carcass quality and cardiopathology of boars and gilts fed diets containing rapeseed and soybean oils.”
    YEAR: 1975 CITATION: Can J Anim Sci, 55 (Dec), 571-578 [English]
    FDA #: F10702 || GRIN: 311781
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Brassicaceae || LATIN NAME: Brassica napus
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Brassica napus L. var. napus
    AUTHOR(S): Friend, D. W.; Gilka, F.; Corner, A. H.
    TITLE: “Growth, carcass quality and cardiopathology of boars and gilts fed diets containing rapeseed and soybean oils.”
    YEAR: 1975 CITATION: Can J Anim Sci, 55 (Dec), 571-578 [English]
    FDA #: F10702 || GRIN: 409456
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Brassicaceae || LATIN NAME: Brassica campestris
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Brassica rapa L. subsp. campestris (L.) A. R. Clapham
    AUTHOR(S): Garlich, J. D.; Nesheim, M. C.
    TITLE: “Effect of sodium taurocholate on fat malabsorption induced by feeding unheated soybean proteins.”
    YEAR: 1965 CITATION: Proceed Soc Exp Biol Med, 118, 1022-1025 [English]
    FDA #: F13618 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Garlich, J. D.; Nesheim, M. C.
    TITLE: “Relationship of fractions of soybeans and a crystalline soybean trypsin inhibitor to the effects of feeding unheated soybean meal to chicks.”
    YEAR: 1966 CITATION: J Nutr, 88, 100-110 [English]
    FDA #: F13619 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Goldberg, A.; Guggenheim, K.
    TITLE: “Effect of antibiotics on pancreatic enzymes of rats fed soybean flour.”
    YEAR: 1964 CITATION: Arch Biochem Biophys, 108, 250-254 [English]
    FDA #: F13637 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Gorrill, A. D. L.; Thomas, J. W.; Stewart, W. E.; Morrill, J. L.
    TITLE: “Exocrine pancreatic secretion by calves fed soybean and milk protein diets.”
    YEAR: 1967 CITATION: J Nutr, 92 (1), 256 [English]
    FDA #: F04969 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Gosselin, S. J.; Loudy, D. L.; Tarr, M. J.; Balistreri, W. F.; Setchell, K. D.; Johnston, J. O.; Kramer, L. W.; Dresser,
    TITLE: “Veno-occlusive disease of the liver in captive cheetah.”
    YEAR: 1988 CITATION: Vet Pathol, 25, 48-57 [English]
    FDA #: F22298 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Grant, G.; Dorward, P. M.; Pusztai, A.
    TITLE: “Pancreatic enlargement is evident in rats fed diets containing raw soybeans (Glycine max) or cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) for 800 days but not in those fed diets based on kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius).”
    YEAR: 1993 CITATION: J Nutr, 123 (12), 2207-2215 [English]
    FDA #: F25292 || GRIN: 312013
    COMMON NAME: kidney bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: common bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Phaseolus vulgaris
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris
    AUTHOR(S): Grant, G.; Dorward, P. M.; Pusztai, A.
    TITLE: “Pancreatic enlargement is evident in rats fed diets containing raw soybeans (Glycine max) or cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) for 800 days but not in those fed diets based on kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius).”
    YEAR: 1993 CITATION: J Nutr, 123 (12), 2207-2215 [English]
    FDA #: F25292 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Grant, G.; Dorward, P. M.; Pusztai, A.
    TITLE: “Pancreatic enlargement is evident in rats fed diets containing raw soybeans (Glycine max) or cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) for 800 days but not in those fed diets based on kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius).”
    YEAR: 1993 CITATION: J Nutr, 123 (12), 2207-2215 [English]
    FDA #: F25292 || GRIN: 22805
    COMMON NAME: lupin seed || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Lupinus angustifolius
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Lupinus angustifolius L.
    AUTHOR(S): Grant, G.; Dorward, P. M.; Pusztai, A.
    TITLE: “Pancreatic enlargement is evident in rats fed diets containing raw soybeans (Glycine max) or cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) for 800 days but not in those fed diets based on kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius).”
    YEAR: 1993 CITATION: J Nutr, 123 (12), 2207-2215 [English]
    FDA #: F25292 || GRIN: 41645
    COMMON NAME: cowpea || STANDARD COMMON NAME: catjang cowpea
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Vigna unguiculata
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. cylindrica (L.) Verdc.
    AUTHOR(S): Grant, G.; Dorward, P. M.; Buchan, W. C.; Armour, J. C.; Pusztai, A.
    TITLE: “Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body omposition and organ weights.”
    YEAR: 1995 CITATION: Br J Nutr, 73 (1), 17-29 [English]
    FDA #: 27632 || GRIN: kidney bean
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: Phaseolus vulgaris || LATIN NAME: Phaseolus vulgaris L.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Grant, G.; Dorward, P. M.; Buchan, W. C.; Armour, J. C.; Pusztai, A.
    TITLE: “Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body omposition and organ weights.”
    YEAR: 1995 CITATION: Br J Nutr, 73 (1), 17-29 [English]
    FDA #: 17711 || GRIN: soya bean
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: Glycine max || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Grant, G.; Dorward, P. M.; Buchan, W. C.; Armour, J. C.; Pusztai, A.
    TITLE: “Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body omposition and organ weights.”
    YEAR: 1995 CITATION: Br J Nutr, 73 (1), 17-29 [English]
    FDA #: 22805 || GRIN: lupin seed
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: Lupinus angustifolius || LATIN NAME: Lupinus angustifolius L.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Grant, G.; Dorward, P. M.; Buchan, W. C.; Armour, J. C.; Pusztai, A.
    TITLE: “Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body omposition and organ weights.”
    YEAR: 1995 CITATION: Br J Nutr, 73 (1), 17-29 [English]
    FDA #: 300675 || GRIN: cowpea
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: Vigna unguiculata || LATIN NAME: Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Greenberg, J.; Taylor, D. J.; Bond, H. W.; Sherman, J. F.
    TITLE: “Toxicity of amine-extracted soybean meal.”
    YEAR: 1959 CITATION: J Agr Food Chem, 7 (8), 573-576 [English]
    FDA #: F07988 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Guley, M.; soylemezoglu, T.
    TITLE: “Toxicological research on the extracts of Dryopteris filix-mas (male fern) growing in the Black Sea region (Turkey).”
    YEAR: 1976 CITATION: Ankara Univ Eczacilik Fak Mecm, 6 (2), 214-236 [Turkish]
    FDA #: —– || GRIN: —
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Gupta, Y. P.
    TITLE: “Anti-nutritional and toxic factors in food legumes: a review.”
    YEAR: 1987 CITATION: Plant Foods Human Nutr, 37, 201-228 [English]
    FDA #: F22269 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Hallab, A. H.; Tannous, R. I.
    TITLE: “Dietary toxins.”
    YEAR: 1976 CITATION: McLaren DS (ed) Nutrition in the Community, (Chap 12), 133-139 [English]
    FDA #: 17711 || GRIN: soybean
    COMMON NAME: soy bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Ham, W. E.; Sandstedt, R. M.
    TITLE: “A proteolytic inhibiting substance in the extract from unheated soybean meal.”
    YEAR: 1944 CITATION: J Biol Chem, 154, 505-506 [English]
    FDA #: F13796 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Ham, W. E.; Sandstedt, R. M.; Mussehl, F. E.
    TITLE: “The proteolytic inhibiting substance in the extract from unheated soybean meal and its effect upon growth in chicks.”
    YEAR: 1945 CITATION: J Biol Chem, 161, 635-642 [English]
    FDA #: F13797 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Hanson, L. E.; Pritchard, W. R.; Rehfeld, C. E.; Perman, V.; Sautter, J. H.; Schultze, M. O.
    TITLE: “Studies on trichloroethylene-extracted feeds. IX. Experiments with swine fed trichloroethylene-extracted soybean oil meal.”
    YEAR: 1956 CITATION: J Anim Sci, 15, 368-375 [English]
    FDA #: F19682 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Harwood, J. P.; McCabe, N.; Jackson, B. A.
    TITLE: “Long-term dietary effects of soy protein in Cebus monkeys.”
    YEAR: 1988 CITATION: Prepublication, , [English]
    FDA #: F20144 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Hayes, R. E.; Bookwalter, G. N.; Bagley, E. B.
    TITLE: “Antioxidant activities of soybean flour and derivatives – A review.”
    YEAR: 1977 CITATION: J Food Sci, 42, 1527 [English]
    FDA #: F18084 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Hemken, R. W.; VanDerSall, J. H.; Sass, B. A.; Hibbs, J. W.
    TITLE: “Goitrogenic effects of a corn silage-soybean meal supplemented ration.”
    YEAR: 1971 CITATION: J Dairy Sci, 54, 85-88 [English]
    FDA #: F10935 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Hibbs, C. M.
    TITLE: “Cyanide and nitrate toxicoses of cattle.”
    YEAR: 1979 CITATION: Vet Human Toxicol, 21 (6), 401-403 [English]
    FDA #: F10942 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Hill, E. G.; Misra, K. P.; Canfield, T. H.; Johnson, E. L.; Perman, V.; Pritchard, W. R.; Sautter, J. H.; Schultze, M. O
    TITLE: “Studies on trichloroethylene-extracted feeds. 8. The relative resistance of avian species to the toxic factor in trichloroethylene-extracted soybean oil meal.”
    YEAR: 1956 CITATION: Poultry Sci, 35, 686-692 [English]
    FDA #: F08757 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Holm, G. C.; Eveleth, D. F.; Dinusson, W. E.
    TITLE: “Trichloroethylene soybean meal poisoning in sheep.”
    YEAR: 1953 CITATION: J Am Vet Med Assoc, 122 (May), 380-382 [English]
    FDA #: F06168 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Honig, D. H.; Hockridge, M. E.; Gould, R. M.; Rackis, J. J.
    TITLE: “Determination of cyanide in soybeans and soybean products.”
    YEAR: 1983 CITATION: J Agr Food Chem, 31 (2), 272-275 [English]
    FDA #: F04171 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Hove, E. L.; King, S.
    TITLE: “Composition, protein quality, and toxins of seeds of the grain legumes Glycine max, Lupinus spp., Phaseolus spp., Pisum sativum, and Vicia faba.”
    YEAR: 1978 CITATION: NZ J Agr Res, 21, 457-462 [English]
    FDA #: F10967 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Hughes, C. L. J.
    TITLE: “Phytochemical mimicry of reproductive hormones and modulation of herbivore fertility by phytoestrogens.”
    YEAR: 1988 CITATION: Environ Health Perspectives, 78, 171-175 [English]
    FDA #: F04363 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Hydovitz, J. D.
    TITLE: “Occurrence of goiter in an infant on a soy diet.”
    YEAR: 1960 CITATION: New England J Med, 262 (7), 351-353 [English]
    FDA #: F13838 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soy || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Imre, Z.; Ersoy, O.; Yurdun, T.
    TITLE: “Cardiac glycoside composition in the leaves of Digitalis schischkinii.”
    YEAR: 1983 CITATION: Toxicon, 21 (3), 449 [English]
    FDA #: F20923 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Ishaaya, I.; Birk, Y.
    TITLE: “soybean saponins. IV. The effect of proteins on the inhibitory activity of soybean saponins on certain enzymes.”
    YEAR: 1965 CITATION: J Food Sci, 30, 118-120 [English]
    FDA #: F15909 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Ishii, Y.
    TITLE: “Extraction and ion chromatographic determination of free and combined oxalic acids in vegetables.”
    YEAR: 1991 CITATION: Analyt Sci, 7 (2), 263-266 [English]
    FDA #: F23487 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Jaffe, W. G.
    TITLE: “Toxic proteins and peptides.”
    YEAR: 1973 CITATION: NAS/NRC Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods, 2nd ed., (Chap 5), 106-129 [English]
    FDA #: F10276 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Janssen, M. M. T.
    TITLE: “Antinutritives.”
    YEAR: 1989 CITATION: DeVries J (ed) Food safety and toxicity. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, (Chap 3), 39-52 [English]
    FDA #: 17711 || GRIN: soybean
    COMMON NAME: soy bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Jensen, L. S.; Martinson, R.; Schumaier, G.
    TITLE: “A foot pad dermatitis in turkey poults associated with soybean meal.”
    YEAR: 1970 CITATION: Poultry Sci, 49, 76-82 [English]
    FDA #: F16938 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Kalac, P.
    TITLE: “Lectins (Hemagglutins).”
    YEAR: 1995 CITATION: Davidek J (ed) Natural toxic compounds of foods. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, (Chap 2; pt F), 95-103 [English]
    FDA #: 17711 || GRIN: soybean
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: Glycine max || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Kaldas, R. S.; Hughes, C. L. J.
    TITLE: “Reproductive and general metabolic effects of phytoestrogens in mammals.”
    YEAR: 1989 CITATION: Reproductive Toxicol, 3, 81-89 [English]
    FDA #: F23699 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Kimura, S.; Suwa, J.; Ito, M.; Sato, H.
    TITLE: “Experimental studies on the role of defatted soybean in the development of malignant goiter.”
    YEAR: 1979 CITATION: Miller EC et al (eds) Naturally occurring carcinogens mutagens & modulators of Carcinogenesis. University Park Press. Baltimore, , 101-110 [English]
    FDA #: F16496 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Kinghorn, A. D.
    TITLE: “Carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic toxins from plants.”
    YEAR: 1983 CITATION: Keeler RF & Tu AT (eds) Handbook of natural toxins. 1. Plant & fungal toxins. Marcel Dekker. New York, 1 (Chap 7), 239-298 [English]
    FDA #: F06550 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max L.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Kingsbury, J. M.
    TITLE: “Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada.”
    YEAR: 1964 CITATION: Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, , [English]
    FDA #: —— || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Kitagawa, I.; Saito, M.; Taniyama, T.; Yoshikawa, M.
    TITLE: “Saponin and sapogenol. XXXVIII. Structure of soyasaponin A2, a bisdesmoside of soyasapogenol A, from soybean, the seeds of Glycine max Merrill.”
    YEAR: 1985 CITATION: Chem Pharmaceut Bull, 33 (2), 598-608 [English]
    FDA #: F09289 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Kitagawa, I.; Saito, M.; Taniyama, T.; Yoshikawa, M.
    TITLE: “Sapon and sapogenol. XXXIX. Structure of soyasaponin A1, a bidesmoside of soyasapogenol A, from soybean, the seeds of Glycine max Merrill.”
    YEAR: 1985 CITATION: Chem Pharmaceut Bull, 33 (3), 1069-1076 [English]
    FDA #: F09290 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Klose, A. A.; Hill, B.; Fevold, H. L.
    TITLE: “Presence of a growth inhibiting substance in raw soybeans.”
    YEAR: 1946 CITATION: Proceed Soc Exp Biol Med, 62, 10-12 [English]
    FDA #: F15501 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Klungsoyr, J.; Scheline, R. R.
    TITLE: “Metabolism of safrole in the rat.”
    YEAR: 1983 CITATION: Acta Pharmacol Toxicol, 52, 211-216 [English]
    FDA #: F16437 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Kogel, K. H.; Beissmann, B.
    TITLE: “Isolation and characterization of elicitors.”
    YEAR: 1992 CITATION: Linkskens HF & Jackson JF (eds) Plant toxin analysis. Springer Verlag. New York, , 239-257 [English]
    FDA #: F06470 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Koplik, R.; Prugar, J.; Davidek, J.
    TITLE: “Other toxic compounds.”
    YEAR: 199 CITATION: Davidek J (ed) Natural toxic compounds of foods. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, (Chap 2; pt K), 143-163 [English]
    FDA #: 17711 || GRIN: soybean
    COMMON NAME: soy bean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: Fabaceae
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    STANDARD PLANT NAME:
    AUTHOR(S): Korte, R.
    TITLE: “Toxic constituents in some legumes for human consumption.”
    YEAR: 1974 CITATION: Sci New Guinea, 2 (1), 34-38 [English]
    FDA #: F23350 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Glycine max
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Kuan, S. S.; Francis, O. J.; Carman, A. S.; Umrigar, P. P.; Ware, G. M.
    TITLE: “Determination of phytoestrogens in soy-based infant formulas.”
    YEAR: 1991 CITATION: Toxicon, 30 (5-6), 527 [English]
    FDA #: F17495 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Kung, H. C.; Chipley, J. R.; Latshaw, J. D.
    TITLE: “Investigations into hepatotoxin(s) in moldy soybeans.”
    YEAR: 1975 CITATION: Poultry Sci, 54, 1784 [English]
    FDA #: F05065 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Kunitz, M.
    TITLE: “Crystalline soybean trypsin inhibitor. I. Method of isolation.”
    YEAR: 1946 CITATION: J Genl Physiol, 29, 149-154 [English]
    FDA #: F15201 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Kunitz, M.
    TITLE: “Crystalline soybean trypsin inhibitor. II. General properties.”
    YEAR: 1947 CITATION: J Genl Physiol, 30, 291-310 [English]
    FDA #: F15202 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Kunitz, M.
    TITLE: “Isolation of a crystalline protein compound of trypsin and of soybean trypsin-inhibitor.”
    YEAR: 1947 CITATION: J Genl Physiol, 30, 311-320 [English]
    FDA #: F15203 || GRIN: —–
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: — || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: —
    AUTHOR(S): Kwong, E.; Barnes, R. H.; Fiala, G.
    TITLE: “The role of cystine in counteracting toxic properties of soybean trypsin inhibitor.”
    YEAR: 1964 CITATION: Fed Proceed, 23 (2 Part 1), 500 [English]
    FDA #: F15205 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Langer, P.
    TITLE: “Naturally occurring food toxicants: goitrogens.”
    YEAR: 1983 CITATION: Rechcigl M Jr (ed) CRC handbook of naturally occurring food toxicants. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, , 101-129 [English]
    FDA #: F10135 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Lecks, H. I.; Baker, D.
    TITLE: “Pseudotumor cerebre an allergic phenomenon? A discussion of 17 cases including two of infants manifesting pseudotumor cerebre while receiving soybean feedings.”
    YEAR: 1965 CITATION: Clin Pediat, 4 (1), 32-37 [English]
    FDA #: F05933 || GRIN: 17711
    COMMON NAME: soybean || STANDARD COMMON NAME: soy bean
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: —
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Glycine max (L.) Merr.
    AUTHOR(S): Leiner, I.
    TITLE: “Significance for humans of biologically active factors in soybeans and other food legumes.”
    YEAR: 1979 CITATION: J Am Oil Chem Soc, 56, 121-129 [English]
    FDA #: F19803 || GRIN: 10535
    COMMON NAME: chick pea || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Cicer arietinum
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Cicer arietinum L.
    AUTHOR(S): Leiner, I.
    TITLE: “Significance for humans of biologically active factors in soybeans and other food legumes.”
    YEAR: 1979 CITATION: J Am Oil Chem Soc, 56, 121-129 [English]
    FDA #: F19803 || GRIN: 8319
    COMMON NAME: red gram || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Cajanus
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.
    AUTHOR(S): Leiner, I.
    TITLE: “Significance for humans of biologically active factors in soybeans and other food legumes.”
    YEAR: 1979 CITATION: J Am Oil Chem Soc, 56, 121-129 [English]
    FDA #: F19803 || GRIN: 300661
    COMMON NAME: — || STANDARD COMMON NAME: —
    FAMILY: Fabaceae || LATIN NAME: Vicia faba
    STANDARD PLANT NAME: Vicia faba L.
    THIS IS A EDUCATIONAL SITE, USES OF THIS INFORMATION IS ENTIRELY THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THOSE WHO WISH TO CHOSE TO USE THIS INFO FOR PERSONAL HEALTH OR USES AT THE DISCRETION OF THOSE INDIVIDUAL(S), THE RESPONSIBLITY IS YOURS ALONE THIS SIGHT IS DESIGNED FOR EDUCATIONAL INPUT AND TO ILLUMINATE WHAT MIGHT NOT BE COMMON TO THOSE WHO HAVE NOT HEARD OF THESE CONCEPTS. LET WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE BE YOUR GUIDES

    #171
    Avatarwebmaster
    Keymaster

    ISRAELI HEALTH MINISTRY ISSUES SOY WARNING

    Scientists, doctors and nutritionists who have warned that soy is not a health food and poses special risks to infants and children received support this week from the Israeli Health Ministry, which issued a health advisory recommending that soy foods be eaten only in moderation. “The Israeli Health Ministry strongly recommended that consumption of soy foods be limited for young children and adults and that soy formula be avoided altogether by Infants,” said Kaayla T. Daniel, PhD, author of The Whole Soy Story: The Dark Side of America’s Favorite Health Food. “This is giant step forward. I hope that Israel’s action will encourage other government agencies to alert their citizens to the fact that it is a myth that soy is a ‘health food’ and that there are very real dangers from making soy a staple of their diets. Dr. Daniel noted that there are hundreds of studies linking soy foods and soy infant formula to digestive problems, thyroid dysfunction, ADD/ADHD, dementia, reproductive disorders and even cancer. “The Israeli Ministry took this matter very seriously and based its advice upon the conclusions reached by a 13-member committee of nutritionists, oncologists, pediatricians and other specialists who spent more than a year examining the evidence. The committee concluded that the estrogen-like plant hormones in soy can cause adverse effects on the human body, including cancer promotion and reproductive problems. They strongly urged that consumption of soy foods be minimized until absolute safety has been proven. ” According to the Jerusalem Post (July 20), soy is widely used in Israel by people of all ages because it is a cheap substitute for meat and soy infant formula is especially popular among haredi families who choose not to mix milk-based baby formulas with meat meals. The Health Ministry plans to distribute information about the dangers of soy foods and soy infant formula to pediatricians, health care workers and the public. It firmly recommends that babies that cannot be breast fed receive cow’s milk formula and be given soy infant formula only as a last resort. Day care centers and schools, many of which now frequently serve soy foods several times a day, are being told to limit them to no more than one serving per day and no more than three times per week. Finally, doctors should closely monitor the blood thyroxine levels of babies and toddlers suffering from hypothyroidism who are on soy infant formula and/or eating soy foods because of the well-known adverse effects of soy on the thyroid. “The Israeli Health Ministry’s recommendations are in accord with those made by the United Kingdom’s Chief Medical Officer and the British Dietetic Association, both of which have alerted pediatricians and parents to use soy infant formula only in unusual circumstances,” said Dr. Daniel. “In New Zealand, the Health Ministry has suggested that doctors carefully monitor the thyroids of infants on soy formula. However, no country has come close to Israel’s warning against Soy foods for children up to age 18. This sets an important precedent.” Although the Israeli Health Ministry stopped short of making recommendations on soy consumptions for adults, it found that the evidence on soy foods alleviating menopausal symptoms is inconsistent, that soy phytoestrogens can increase breast cancer risk and that they can reduce male fertility. The Ministry determined that soy has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol but stated that there is no clear proof that it reduces the risk of heart disease. “The bottom line,” said Dr. Daniel “is that the Israeli Health Ministry looked long and hard at the evidence and reached the appropriate conclusion that we should eat soy only occasionally and in moderation because possible benefits are far outweighed by proven risks.” ( My Notes on this is that based on my research as well that Soy should not be consumed at all and under no circumstances due to the fact that there has already been several studies done with xenoestrogen mixing, and even at a minute combining has caused huge problems for reproductive cancers, as well as other types of cancer, and the studies based on what the ministry of health with Israel. Britain and New Zealand and even the FDA studies done in the USA show in my humble opinion that there are better choices and to avoid this substance. It is a lethal toxin being sold to the consumer….. Check your packaging if it says “ artificial falvour, natural flavour, msg, vegetable oil, margarine, TVP, HVP, Soy, Soy Protein…..this is all soy and this will tell you how much exposure you are getting to this ….and above they are saying to minimize exposure…. Tony )

    #172
    Avatarwebmaster
    Keymaster

    EDITORIAL and COMMENTS

    FOOD POISONING

    I was reading today another article on Soy….. Seems to me the food and drug administration in the US and the Health protection branch in Canada are doing there damnedest to poison the food supply…and to create severe problems for the people of the their respective countries. Now you ask me why do I say this …. In Europe they have been studying why there is an upswing in birth defects especially those of the males ( they have seen a rise in hypospadias…..this is where the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the male penis) They have attributed this to Soy and pesticides ( usually soy based) Now it amazes me that anyone can come along and make claims about genisten and daizaden and how wonderful these phytoestrogens will benefit males in reducing testosterone which in turn is supposed to relieve or offset prostrate cancer …nothing could be further from the truth if anything they will make this worse…as for women this to will increase your cancer risk significantly in the breast uterus and cervix…wonderful food eh and then you have moms convinced that giving soy milk is better then cows milk!!!!!!!!!! WHAT A SALES PITCH TO SAY THE LEAST…moms do your sons a favor give them rice milk ..almond milk.. sesame and pumpkin seed milk.. possibly goats milk or raw cows milk which hasn’t had any milk producing hormone pumped into it…if you give them soy you will 1) impede there ability to have the right amount of testosterone to produce a healthy immune system for the male physiology 2) without the right amount of T ( testosterone) in there diet they cannot develop properly as normal males with normal sex organs 3) there brains will not be able to function as it should due to the imbalance of the male hormones they should have, and that are required for them to solve and figure things out ( test were done on rats in mazes with the males and females when the males had there hormonal levels where they should the males were able to figure out the maze quicker and easier then the females…but when they were given a diet that was high in estrogen they got misty and confused and could not figure out the maze any better then the females) so do you want a dummy for a son give them there ration of soy milk or tofu or hvp or vege oil or tvp or artificial flavourings …If this seems a bit harsh it is because it will leave a message inside of you that what you feed your families could be the difference between being hooked on pharmaceuticals( drugs from your pharmacist and doctors) or a free life of drugs

    Again you might ask why I point this out well it is because of Codex coming over from Europe to the north american continent and they are going to regulate for you how and what you can buy as a “safe food” or a “safe supplement” these institutions have never had any regard for our safety …in fact now they have found a way with nano technology to increase the potency of pesticides and herbicides with less of the chemical ..yippee now they can increase the dose of the poison with less, and hook us faster on there drugs or reduce the “herd” ( us) quicker and quieter without anyone being the wiser and in about 5-10 years they will come up with a study on how dangerous this stuff is and as a result the soil is totally devoid of any life giving properties and now food will cost 10X’S MORE AS A RESULT DUE TO THE FACT THAT MOST THINGS ARE TO POISONOUS TO CONSUME… but what they hell eh, we will let the next generation come up with a solution…where have I heard this before …at the rate this continues between the food toxicity that exist now and with this new tech in place death tolls from “new diseases” will also be on the rise. before you call me a fatalist remember the oil industry the auto industry and alot of other manufacturing industries had started to clean up there messes in the late 70’s and early eighties. but when they realized the extent of the clean up and what it was costing they did a good p.r. and all of a sudden nothing more has been done and in fact they said we will have to figure a better tech in the future to resolve this…..where or when is this future?????

    hope we are around to see it….

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