B1 Thiamine Description Forms of Vitamin B1

B1 Thiamine
Description
Forms of Vitamin B1

Benfotiamine is a pharmaceutical, fat-soluble analogue of Vitamin B1. Its bioavailability is 3.6 times higher than that of Thiamine Hydrochloride. References Fursultiamine (also known as: Allithiamin; Allithiamine; Thiamine Tetrahydrofurfuryl Disulfide; TTFD) is an analogue of Vitamin B1 that is highly fat-soluble and is therefore not subject to rate-limiting active transport systems associated with water-soluble forms of Vitamin B1. This means that larger quantities of this form can be absorbed by the body compared to water-soluble forms of Vitamin B1.Sulbutiamine (also known as Arcalion; Enerion; Surmenalit; Sulbuthiamine) is an analogue of Vitamin B1 that is highly fat-soluble and is therefore not subject to rate-limiting active transport systems associated with water-soluble forms of Vitamin B1. Thiamine Diphosphate (also known as Cocarboxylase; Thiamin Diphosphate; Thiamin Pyrophosphate; Thiamine Pyrophosphate; TDP; TPP) is a biologically active endogenous Coenzyme form of Vitamin B1.

Thiamine Hydrochloride (Thiamine HCl) consists of 89% Thiamine and 11% Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and is the most common form of Vitamin B1 used in Vitamin B1 supplements. Thiamine Monophosphate (also known as Thiamine Phosphate; TMP) is an endogenous form of Vitamin B1. Thiamine Nitrate (also known as Thiamine Mononitrate) is a form of Vitamin B1 used in some Vitamin B1 supplements. Thiamine Propyl Disulfide is an easily absorbed form of Vitamin B1. This section outlines the essential functions and therapeutic effects of Vitamin B1.

Health Benefits of Vitamin B1

Aging Process

The Brain’s Vitamin B1 content declines in tandem with the progression of the Aging Process (indicating that supplemental Vitamin B1 administered to elderly persons may help to prevent some aspects of Brain Aging): references

– Vitamin B1 may inhibit excessive Cross-Linking caused by Glucose. references

Cardiovascular System

Vitamin B1 may help to prevent Atherosclerosis. references
Vitamin B1 may improve Blood Circulation. [more info]
Vitamin B1 (200 mg per day) may increase left ventricular ejection fraction in 80% of Congestive Heart Failure patients. references

Vitamin B1 may improve the condition of Dilated Cardiomyopathy patients. references
Vitamin B1 may be required for normal muscle tone in the Heart. references
Vitamin B1 may help to prevent Heart Attacks and may be useful for strengthening the Heart in people who have previously suffered a Heart Attack. references

Vitamin B1 may counteract (myocardial) Ischemia. references
Vitamin B1 may facilitate the formation of Red Blood Cells. [more info]
Vitamin B1 may help to prevent Stroke. [more info]

Digestive System

Loss of Appetite may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references
Colitis may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. [more info]
Constipation may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references

Vitamin B1 may alleviate Hypochlorhydria (by facilitating the production of endogenous Hydrochloric Acid). [more info]
Vitamin B1 may be required for the maintenance of normal Muscle tone in the Intestines. [more info]
Nausea may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. [more info]

Vitamin B1 may be required for normal Muscle tone in the Stomach. [more info]

Ears/Hearing

Vitamin B1 may be required for the optimal function of the Acoustic Nerve. references

Excretory System

Vitamin B1 may help to prevent Diabetic Nephropathy. references

Vitamin B1 concentrates in the Kidneys.

Eyes/Vision

Vitamin B1 may help to prevent Cataracts. references
Glaucoma patients are often found to be deficient in Vitamin B1 (indicating that restoring Vitamin B1 levels to normal via supplementation may be beneficial for Glaucoma patients). references
The Benfotiamine form of Vitamin B1 may help to prevent the development and progression of (diabetic) Retinopathy in Diabetes Mellitus patients. references

Immune System

Many (75% of) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients have been found to be deficient in Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B1 deficiency has been found to contribute to the Central Nervous System impairment that occurs with the progression of AIDS. references
Vitamin B1 may help to prevent some types of Cancer (by detoxifying various carcinogenic chemicals):

– Vitamin B1 may help to prevent Cervical Cancer. references
– Vitamin B1 may help to prevent Colon Cancer. references
– Vitamin B1 may help to prevent Laryngeal Cancer. references
– Vitamin B1 may help to prevent Prostate Cancer. references

Vitamin B1 may stimulate the Immune System. [more info]

Metabolism

Vitamin B1 may help to prevent and treat (Lactic) Acidosis. references
Vitamin B1 possesses strong Antioxidant properties. references
Vitamin B1 (especially the Fursultiamine (TTFD) form of Vitamin B1) (150 mg per day) may improve several aspects of Athletic Performance: references

– The TTFD form of Vitamin B1 (150 mg per day) may improve grip strength and leg strength in athletes and may increase VO2 max in athletes.

Many Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients are found to be deficient in Vitamin B1 (indicating that Vitamin B1 may be useful for the treatment of CFS). references
Many Cirrhosis patients are found to be deficient in Vitamin B1. Supplemental Vitamin B1 has been recommended for Cirrhosis patients to help reverse this deficiency. references

Vitamin B1 may retard the process of Cross-Linking. references
The Benfotiamine form of Vitamin B1 may help to prevent the development and progression of various diabetic complications (including diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Nephropathy) in Diabetes Mellitus patients. references

Vitamin B1 is essential for the production of Energy (due to its essential role in the oxidation of Pyruvic Acid). references
Fatigue may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references
Vitamin B1 retards the production of endogenous Lactic Acid (by diverting Pyruvic Acid into the Krebs Cycle and thereby preventing its conversion to Lactic Acid). references

Vitamin B1 concentrates in the Liver.
Vitamin B1 (150 mg of the TTFD form of Vitamin B1 per day) may increase Stamina. references

Musculoskeletal System

Muscle Weakness may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency – 50% of the body’s Vitamin B1 concentrates in the Muscles: references

– Tender calves may be a symptom of Vitamin B1 deficiency.

Muscular Atrophy may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references

Nervous System

Vitamin B1 may counteract the Adrenal Insufficiency that occurs as a result of Surgery. references
Aggressiveness may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency and supplemental Vitamin B1 may reduce Aggressive behavior. references
Vitamin B1 may help to reduce the craving for Alcohol in persons afflicted with Alcoholism: references

Vitamin B1 may help to treat the Delerium (Delirium Tremens) experienced by some Alcoholics during the Alcohol withdrawal period.

The Sulbutiamine form of Vitamin B1 may increase Alertness. references
Vitamin B1 may be beneficial for the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease (it may facilitate the synthesis and presynaptic release of Acetylcholine and may thereby improve some aspects of Mental Function in Alzheimer’s Disease patients): references

– Fursultiamine (an analog of Vitamin B1) – 100 mg per day – may exert a beneficial effect on Alzheimer’s Disease patients. It may produce improvement in emotional symptoms, mental function symptoms and intellectual function. references
– Vitamin B1 deficiency may increase the generation of Amyloid-Beta Protein in the Brains of Alzheimer’s Disease patients. references

Anorexia Nervosa may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references
Anxiety may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency and Vitamin B1 may alleviate some cases of Anxiety (by activating the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase enzyme, thereby inhibiting the conversion of Pyruvic Acid to Lactic Acid – Lactic Acid is an underlying cause of some cases of Anxiety). references

Apathy may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references
Vitamin B1 deficiency may be implicated in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). references
Vitamin B1 (100 mg per day of the Fursultiamine form of Vitamin B1 per day) may cause clinical improvement in Autism patients. references

Beriberi is the classic symptom of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references
Vitamin B1 may be required for the optimal function of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Vitamin B1 deficiency may lead to the break down of the Blood-Brain Barrier. references
High concentrations of Vitamin B1 are found in the Brain. references

Vitamin B1 may be essential for the optimal function of the Cerebellum. references

Vitamin B1 deficiency may lead to a reduction in the thickness of the Frontal Lobe and the Parietal Lobe of the Cerebral Cortex. references
Poor Concentration may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references

Confusion may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references
Vitamin B1 deficiency can result in damage (measured as a reduction in the thickness of) the Corpus Callosum of the Brain. references
Vitamin B1 deficiency may cause Delirium. [more info]

Depression may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references
Vitamin B1 is a component of some treatments that claim to alleviate Down’s Syndrome. [more info]
Headaches may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency and supplemental Vitamin B1 (1,000 – 4,000 mg per day) may alleviate Headaches in up to 78% of patients. references

Vitamin B1 may facilitate the survival of Neurons in the Hippocampus: references

– Vitamin B1 may prevent and compensate for Alcohol-induced damage to the Hippocampus of the Brain. references

Insomnia may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references
Vitamin B1 deficiency may result in lowered Intelligence levels and supplemental Vitamin B1 may increase Intelligence in some cases (e.g. in mentally retarded children). references
Irritability may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references

Vitamin B1 may improve Learning ability and Vitamin B1 deficiency may lead to severe impairment in Learning ability. references
Severe impairment of Memory may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency: references

– The Sulbutiamine form of Vitamin B1 may improve Long-Term Memory. references
– Vitamin B1 may improve Short-Term Memory (especially in persons whose Short-Term Memory is impaired as a result of excessive Alcohol (ethanol) consumption). references

Supplemental Vitamin B1 (50 mg per day) may improve Mood and Mood changes may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. references
Vitamin B1 (administered intraspinally via injection) may cause significant (but transient) improvement in the condition of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. references

Vitamin B1 may be an effective treatment for (the Trigeminal Neuralgia form of) Neuralgia. references
Neuropathy may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency:
references

– The Benfotiamine and Sulbutiamine forms of Vitamin B1 are particularly useful for the treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy.

Numbness (especially in the feet and hands) may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. [more info]
Vitamin B1 (1,000 – 4,000 mg per day) may alleviate Pain. references
Vitamin B1 is present in Synaptic Vesicles (where it is involved in synaptic transmission of Neurotransmitters and Nerve Impulses). references

Vitamin B1 deficiency may lead to loss of Neurons from the Thalamus area of the Brain. references
Vitamin B1 may help to prevent Travel Sickness. references
Wernicke’s Encephalopathy is caused by Vitamin B1 deficiency. Intramuscularly-injected Vitamin B1 is the standard treatment for Wernicke’s Encephalopathy.

Medical Procedures

Vitamin B1 may counteract the Adrenal Insufficiency that occurs as a result of Surgery. references

Oral Health

Mouth Ulcers may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency and 300 mg of supplemental Vitamin B1 per day (especially when combined with 20 mg of Vitamin B2 and 150 mg of Vitamin B6) may alleviate some cases of Mouth Ulcers. references
Sensitive Tongue or a burning sensation on the Tongue (known as Glossitis) may occur as a result of Vitamin B1 deficiency. [more info]

Sexual System

Vitamin B1 (100 mg per day) may reduce the Pain associated with Dysmenorrhea. references
The Sulbutiamine form of Vitamin B1 may be useful for the treatment of Male Impotence. references

Skin

Vitamin B1 may help to prevent the Cross-Linking of Collagen and Elastin in the Skin and supplemental Vitamin B1 (1,000 mg per day) may improve the visual appearance of the Skin. references