B5 Pantothenic ACID

B5 Pantothenic ACID

Also known as: Anti-Gray Hair Factor; Antidermatitis Factor; Pantothenic Acid

Description

Vitamin B5 is a water soluble Organic Acid that is present in all living Cells – it is regarded as a “B” Group Vitamin.

Topic Contents

Health Benefits of Vitamin B5
Substances Enhanced by Vitamin B5
Toxins Counteracted by Vitamin B5
Substances that Enhance the Function of Vitamin B5
Foods/Factors that Interfere with Vitamin B5

Negative Aspects of Vitamin B5
Dietary Sources of Vitamin B5
Forms of Vitamin B5
Dosage Information
Bioavailability of Vitamin B5

Commercial Availability of Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5 may Enhance the Function of these Substances

Amino Acids

Vitamin B5 may enhance the ability of Arginine to stimulate the release of human Growth Hormone (hGH).

Carbohydrates

Vitamin B5 may facilitate the conversion of dietary Carbohydrates into “useable” Energy. references

Enzymes

Vitamin B5 (Pantethine form) may increase the activity of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (by up to 71%). references

Hormones

Vitamin B5 is essential for the production of most Adrenal Hormones:

  • Vitamin B5 may enhance the endogenous production of Glucocorticoids (including Cortisone). references
  • Vitamin B5 is an essential cofactor for the production of most Steroid Hormones.

Vitamin B5 may enhance the ability of Arginine to stimulate the release of human Growth Hormone (hGH): references

  • Vitamin B5 (Calcium Pantothenate form administered intravenously) may stimulate the release of hGH.

Krebs Cycle

Vitamin B5 is an essential component of Coenzyme A (and subsequently Acetyl Coenzyme A). references
Vitamin B5 is an essential cofactor for the production of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).

Neurotransmitters

Vitamin B5 is a cofactor for the conversion of Acetylcholine’s precursors to Acetylcholine. references

Nucleic Compounds

Vitamin B5 may facilitate the synthesis of endogenous Nucleic Acids.

Phospholipids

Vitamin B5 may facilitate the conversion of Phosphatidylcholine (PC) to Acetylcholine.

Peptides

Vitamin B5 may increase Glutathione levels. references

Proteins

Vitamin B5 is required for the production of Hemoglobin. references

Quinones

Vitamin B5 is synergistic with Coenzyme Q10. references

Smart Drugs

Vitamin B5 may enhance the ability of Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) to stimulate Acetylcholine production. references
Vitamin B5 may be synergistic with Piracetam.

Vitamins

Vitamin B5 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of Choline to Acetylcholine. references

These Substances may Enhance the Function of Vitamin B5

Amino Acids

Alanine is a component of the Vitamin B5 molecule – Pantothenic Acid is a compound comprising Alanine and Pantoic Acid.

Microorganisms

Vitamin B5 may be manufactured within the body by Beneficial Bacteria within the Digestive Tract.

Vitamins

PABA (Para Aminobenzoic Acid) may improve the utilization of Vitamin B5.
Vitamin C may protect Vitamin B5 from oxidation.

These Factors may Interfere with Vitamin B5

Food Processing

Freezing may deplete the Vitamin B5 content of Foods.

These Foods may Interfere with Vitamin B5

Acidic Foods

Vitamin B5 may be destroyed by Acids such as Vinegar.

Vitamin B5 may Interfere with these Substances

Amino Acids

Vitamin B5 is an enemy of Taurine.

Pharmaceutical Drugs

Supplemental Vitamin B5 should not be used at the same time as Tetracyclines (as Vitamin B5 may interfere with the absorption and effectiveness of Tetracyclines).

No Cautions

No side effects have yet been observed from Vitamin B5 at dosages up to 1,500 mg per day.

Dietary Sources of Vitamin B5 note

(mg of Vitamin B5 per 100 grams)

Bee Foods: Royal Jelly
Cereal Grains: Wheat Germ 2.0 Brown Rice 1.1
Wild Rice 1.0 Wheat Bran 2.4
Dairy Foods: Milk 0.3 Blue Cheese 2.8
Camembert Cheese 1.2 Cheddar Cheese 0.36
Eggs: 1.6 Egg Yolks 1.8
Fish: Sardines 1.1 Salmon 1.3
Lobster 1.5 Herring 0.88
Crab 0.6 Oysters 0.5
Fruit: Avocado 1.1 Banana 0.3
Dates
Fungi: Mushrooms 2.2
Herbs: Dandelion Yerbamate
Eyebright Cornsilk
Legumes: Lentils 1.2 Green Peas
Split Peas 2.0 Soya Beans 1.7
Meats: Chicken 1.0 Pork
Beef Chicken Liver 6.0
Veal 1.1 Turkey 1.1
Brains 2.6 Beef Kidneys 3.9
Liver – Lamb 7.6 Liver – Pork 4.6
Nuts: Brazil Nuts 0.2 Cashew Nuts 1.2
Coconuts 0.3 Chestnuts 0.5
Almonds 0.5 Peanuts 2.8
Walnuts 0.6 Pecan Nuts 1.7
Hazelnuts 1.1
Sea Vegetables: Kelp
Seeds: Sunflower Seeds 1.4
Vegetables: Cauliflower 1 Sweet Potatoes
Green Beans Broccoli 1.2
Kale 1 Potato
Yeasts: Brewer’s Yeast 12.0 Torula Yeast 11.0
Forms of Vitamin B5

Calcium Pantothenate is the most prevalent form of supplemental Vitamin B5. It is comprised of 91.5% Pantothenic Acid + 7.5% Calcium.
d-Pantothenic Acid is a natural form of Vitamin B5 and the most common form of Vitamin B5 that is available in supplements (usually as Calcium Pantothenate).
Dexpanthenol is an Alcohol form of Pantothenic Acid. It is the active ingredient in some (topically-applied) cosmetics and toiletries.

Pantetheine is the condensation product of Pantothenic Acid and Aminoethanethiol – it is an intermediate product in the endogenous biosynthesis of Coenzyme A.
Pantethine is a natural form of Vitamin B5 that is regarded by some experts as the superior form of this Vitamin (it possesses superior Cell Respiration qualities above Pantothenic Acid).

Panthothenyl is the Acyl Radical of Pantothenic Acid.
Pantoyl is the Acyl Radical of Pantoic Acid.
Pantoyltaurine (also known as: Thiopanic Acid) is Pantothenic Acid in which the Carboxyl Group is replaced by a Sulfonic Acid Group. It is similar to Pantothenic Acid in structure except that Taurine replaces Beta-
Alanine in the molecule.

Dosage Recommendations

Minimum Dietary Intake

The RDA for children for Vitamin B5 is 5 mg per day, while for adults it is 10 mg per day.

Therapeutic Dosages

A more realistic daily intake for obtaining the health benefits of Vitamin B5 is 50 – 100 mg per day.
The optimal daily allowance (ODA) of Vitamin B5 (for adults) is 60 – 2,000 mg per day.
The therapeutic dosage of Vitamin B5 for alleviating certain ailments or enhancing certain aspects of health is 250 – 1,000 mg per day.

Blood Levels

Some medical texts set an optimal whole blood level of Vitamin B5 at 180 mcg per dL (4.56 – 8.21 micromoles per liter).

Average Human Intake

Most adults consume 4 – 7 mg of Vitamin B5 per day from dietary sources.

Bioavailability

Absorbed Vitamin B5 is transported to the body’s tissues via the Blood, primarily Red Blood Cells.
The maximum total blood Vitamin B5 concentration occurs 2 – 4.5 hours after oral ingestion of Pantetheine or Calcium Pantothenate.
The half-life of Vitamin B5 is approximately 2.5 hours.

The Dexpanthenol (Panthenol) form of Vitamin B5 is a small enough molecule to penetrate into the Hair Cortex where it bonds to the building blocks of the Hair.

Commercial Availability of Vitamin B5 Supplements

“Singular” Oral Vitamin B5 Products

The Calcium Pantothenate form of Vitamin B5 is widely available from health food stores and mail order supplement companies (worldwide) in the form of:

  • 100 mg capsules
  • 100 mg tablets
  • 250 mg capsules
  • 250 mg tablets
  • 500 mg capsules
  • 500 mg tablets
  • 550 mg capsules
  • 1,000 mg sustained release tablets
  • liquid
  • powder

The Pantethine form of Vitamin B5 is available from some health food stores and mail order supplement companies (mainly only in the USA) in the form of:

  • 140 mg capsules
  • 25 mg sublingual tablets

Consumer Advice

Pantethine is regarded by many researchers as the superior form of supplemental Vitamin B5 as it possesses superior Cell Respiration qualities compared to the other supplemental form of Vitamin B5 – Pantothenic Acid.

Topical Products

Panthenol is the active ingredient in some topically-applied Skin and Hair care products (e.g. Pantene Pro-V Shampoo).

This section outlines the essential functions and therapeutic properties of Vitamin B5.

Health Benefits of Vitamin B5

Adrenal Glands

Impaired Adrenal Gland function (including impaired production of Adrenal Hormones) may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references

  • Adrenal Cortex failure may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references

Vitamin B5 (1,000 mg per day) may alleviate Adrenal Insufficiency. references

Aging & Life Extension

Vitamin B5 may retard the process of Cross-Linking (a process that is integral to the progression of the Aging Process). references
Vitamin B5 may possess Life Extension properties. references

Cardiovascular System

(Orthostatic) Hypotension may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references
Vitamin B5 may enhance the production of Red Blood Cells. references

Digestive System

Vitamin B5 may alleviate Constipation by stimulating peristalsis and Constipation can occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references
The Pantethine form of Vitamin B5 (600 – 900 mg) may alleviate some cases of Heartburn (according to some naturopaths). references

Hypochlorhydria (insufficient production of Hydrochloric Acid) may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references
Vomiting may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references

Hair

Gray Hair may be a symptom of Vitamin B5 deficiency in rats (this finding does not necessarily extrapolate to humans, although there is scientific speculation that Vitamin B5 may prevent human graying of the Hair also – however no studies have yet been performed to refute nor confirm this claim). references
The Panthenol form of Vitamin B5 (applied topically via shampoo products) may improve Hair Condition. [more info]

Vitamin B5 deficiency may cause Hair Loss (Hair Loss is known to be a symptom of Vitamin B5 deficiency in animals, but this has not been proven (nor disproven) in humans). references

Immune System

Vitamin B5 (500 mg per day) may be useful for the treatment of Allergies. references
Vitamin B5 may increase the body’s production of Antibodies. references
Vitamin B5 may help to prevent Bacterial & Viral Diseases (by stimulating the production of Antibodies). references

Vitamin B5 (10 – 15 grams per day [a very large dosage] as an adjunct to Vitamin E) has been successfully used for the treatment of some cases of Lupus Erythematosus. references
Vitamin B5 (Pantethine form) may increase the body’s production of and Macrophages and may activate Macrophages. references

Vitamin B5 (Pantethine form) may activate NK Lymphocytes. references

Metabolism

Vitamin B5 is a potent Antioxidant. references
Vitamin B5 may improve Athletic Performance (due to its role in the production of Energy). references
Vitamin B5 (900 mg of the Pantethine form of Vitamin B5 per day) may lower total serum Cholesterol levels (by an average of 19%): references

  • Note that forms of Vitamin B5 other than Pantethine are not effective for the lowering of serum Cholesterol levels.
  • Pantethine may reduce the synthesis of endogenous Cholesterol from Mevalonic Acid.
  • Pantethine (900 mg per day) may increase HDL Cholesterol levels. references
  • Pantethine (900 mg per day) may lower LDL Cholesterol levels. references

Vitamin B5 may retard the process of Cross-Linking. references
Vitamin B5 may be essential for the conversion of Fats, Carbohydrates and Proteins into Energy (due to its role as a precursor for the production of Adenosine Triphosphate and Acetyl Coenzyme A). references
Fatigue may occur as a symptom of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references

Vitamin B5 (especially the Pantethine form) may alleviate Hepatitis A. references
Hypoglycemia may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references
Vitamin B5 may alleviate Lethargy. [more info]

Vitamin B5 (especially the Pantethine form) may inhibit the ability of Alcohol (ethanol) and Carbon Tetrachloride to damage the Liver. It may also inhibit the ability of Ibuprofen to destroy Liver cells: references

  • The Pantethine form of Vitamin B5 (600 mg per day) may cause the total resolution of some cases of Fatty Liver. references

Vitamin B5 may facilitate weight loss in persons afflicted with Obesity (by facilitating the processes of thermogenesis, beta-oxidation and peristalsis): references

  • Pantethine (600 mg per day) may stimulate the transfer of Visceral Fat to Subcutaneous Tissue (which may be beneficial for persons afflicted with Obesity). references

Vitamin B5 may increase Stamina. references
Vitamin B5 (600 mg – 1,200 mg of the Pantethine form of Vitamin B5 per day) may lower elevated serum Triglycerides levels: references

  • Note that forms of Vitamin B5 other than Pantethine are not effective for the lowering of serum Triglyceride levels.

Musculoskeletal System

Muscle Weakness may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references
Vitamin B5 may be useful for the treatment of Myasthenia Gravis (due to its ability to increase Coenzyme A and Acetylcholine levels).
Vitamin B5 may reduce the Joint Pain and Joint Stiffness associated with Osteoarthritis. references

Vitamin B5 may reduce the Joint Pain and Joint Stiffness associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis and many Rheumatoid Arthritis patients have been found to be deficient in Vitamin B5. references

Nervous System

Loss of Appetite may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references
Vitamin B5 may help to treat Autism. references
Impaired motor Coordination may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references

Depression may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references
Vitamin B5 may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of Epilepsy.
Headache may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references

Irritability may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references
Vitamin B5 may be helpful in the treatment of the Neuritis form of Neuropathy.
Numbness may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references

Vitamin B5 may help the body to counteract Stress (due to its role in the production of Corticosteroid Adrenal Hormones). references

Oral Health

Vitamin B5 (100 mg per day) may alleviate Bruxism (grinding of the Teeth). references

Respiratory System

Vitamin B5 may alleviate (allergic) Rhinitis: references

  • Vitamin B5 (500 mg per day) may alleviate Hay Fever. references

Vitamin B5 deficiency may increase the risk of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. references
Vitamin B5 (500 mg per day) may alleviate Sinusitis. references

Skin

Vitamin B5 may totally resolve some cases of Acne. references
Dermatitis may occur as a result of Vitamin B5 deficiency. references
The Dexpanthenol form of Vitamin B5 (applied topically as an ingredient in Skin Creams) may alleviate Dry Skin. references

Vitamin B5 (in high doses of 2 – 20 grams per day) may decrease the size of the Pores in persons afflicted with Enlarged Pores. references
Vitamin B5 (1,000 mg per day) may improve Skin appearance after a few weeks of use. references
The Dexpanthenol form of Vitamin B5 (applied topically as an ingredient in Skin Creams) may improve the barrier function of the Stratum Corneum. references

Vitamin B5 may accelerate the healing of Wounds (including Wounds that occur as a result of Surgery: references

  • Vitamin B5 may accelerate the healing of Burns. references

Vitamin B5 may help to prevent Wrinkles. references

This section outlines the detoxification properties of Vitamin B5.

Vitamin B5 may Counteract these Toxic Substances

Aldehydes

Vitamin B5 (Pantethine form only) may stimulate the detoxification of Acetaldehyde (by increasing the activity of the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase enzyme which metabolizes Acetaldehyde). references

Electromagnetic Radiation

Vitamin B5 may protect Cell Membranes against the toxic effects of exposure to Ultra-Violet Radiation. references

Envirotmental Toxins

Vitamin B5 may inhibit Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver damage. references

Lipopigments

Vitamin B5 may cause the gradual removal of Lipofuscin from the body. references

Organic Acids

Vitamin B5 may inhibit the excessive production of Lactic Acid in persons who undertake Endurance Exercise. references

Pharmaceutical Drugs

Vitamin B5 may inhibit the ability of Ibuprofen to damage Liver Cells.
Vitamin B5 may reduce the toxicity of many types of Pharmaceutical Antibiotics. references

Recreational Drugs

Vitamin B5 may be beneficial for the treatment of Alcoholism (due to its ability to reduce the toxic effects of Alcohol (ethanol) and its ability to protect the Liver from the toxic effects of Alcohol). references
Vitamin B5 may protect against the toxic effects of Tobacco smoke.

Also known as: Alcopan-250; Bepanthen; Butanamide; Cozyme; D-Panthenol; Ilopan; Intrapan; Motilyn; Pantenyl; Panthenol; Panthoderm; Pantothenol; Pantothenyl Alcohol; Pantothenylol; Panyonyl

Description

Dexpanthenol (more commonly known as Panthenol) is an Alcohol form of Vitamin B5 (it is a modified form of Pantothenic Acid).

Health Benefits of Dexpanthenol

Other health benefits of Dexpanthenol are listed under the topic for Vitamin B5.

Hair

Dexpanthenol (applied topically via shampoo products) is a small enough molecule to actually penetrate into the Hair cortex where it bonds to the building blocks of the Hair and may strengthen the Hair by up to 20%. [more info]

Skin

Dexpanthenol (applied topically) may accelerate the healing of Decubitis Ulcers. [more info]
Dexpanthenol (applied topically) may help to prevent (contact) Dermatitis. references
Dexpanthenol (applied topically as an ingredient in Skin Creams) may alleviate Dry Skin. references

Dexpanthenol (cream applied topically) may reduce Itching. references
Dexpanthenol (applied topically) may improve the barrier function of the Stratum Corneum. references
Dexpanthenol (applied topically) may alleviate the symptoms of Sunburn. references

Dexpanthenol (cream applied topically) may accelerate the healing of Wounds: references

  • Dexpanthenol (cream applied topically) may alleviate the symptoms of Burns and may accelerate the healing of Burns. references

Dexpanthenol may Counteract the Toxic Effects of these Substances

Skin Improvers

Dexpanthenol (applied topically concurrently with Retin-A) may minimize the Erythema that is commonly caused by topical Retin-A. references

Dietary Sources of Dexpanthenol

Dexpanthenol is found in some dietary sources of Vitamin B5.

Bioavailability references

Compared to Pantothenic Acid, Dexpanthenol is more bioavailable when applied topically. After its absorption throught the Skin, Dexpanthenol is converted to Pantothenic Acid.

Commercial Availability of Dexpanthenol

Topical Products

Dexpanthenol is an active ingredient in some topically applied cosmetics and toiletries including:

  • Skin Creams
  • Hair Shampoos
  • Liquids for topical application to Skin
  • Progesterone Creams

Pharmaceutical Topical Products

Dexpanthenol is an active ingredient (comprising up to 5%) of several OTC Pharmaceutical topical Skin creams/ointments including:

  • Bepanthen cream (which contains 50 mg Dexpanthenol per 1,000 mg)
  • Bepantol Ointment

Chemical Data

Chemically, Dexpanthenol is Pantothenic Acid with -CH2OH replacing the terminal -COOH in Pantothenic Acid.

Chemical Names

D-(+)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide
(R)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide
2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethyl-, (R)-; (+)-Panthenol

N-pantoyl-3-propanolamine

Molecular Formula

C9H19NO4

PANETHINE
Also known as: Lactobacillus bulgaricus Factor
Also known as: d-Pantethine

Description

Pantethine is the disulfide form of Vitamin B5.

Health Benefits of Pantethine

The health benefits of supplemental Pantethine that are common to all forms of Vitamin B5 are described under the topic for Vitamin B5.

Cardiovascular System

Pantethine may help to prevent Arrhythmias. references

Digestive System

Pantethine (600 – 900 mg) may alleviate some cases of Heartburn (according to some naturopaths). references

Eyes/Vision

Pantethine may help to prevent Cataracts. references

Immune System

Pantethine may activate Macrophages. references
Pantethine may activate NK Lymphocytes. references

Metabolism

Pantethine (900 mg per day) may lower total serum Cholesterol levels: references

  • Pantethine may reduce the synthesis of endogenous Cholesterol from Mevalonic Acid.
  • Pantethine (900 mg per day) may increase HDL Cholesterol levels. references
  • Pantethine (900 mg per day) may lower LDL Cholesterol levels. references

Pantethine may alleviate Hepatitis A. references
Pantethine may inhibit the ability of Alcohol (ethanol) and Carbon Tetrachloride to damage the Liver. It may also inhibit the ability of Ibuprofen to destroy Liver cells: references

  • Pantethine (600 mg per day) may cause the total resolution of some cases of Fatty Liver. references

Pantethine (600 mg per day) may stimulate the transfer of Visceral Fat to Subcutaneous Tissue (which may be beneficial for persons afflicted with Obesity): references

  • Pantethine may stimulate the transfer of Visceral Fat to Subcutaneous Tissue. references

Pantethine (600 mg – 1,200 mg per day) may lower elevated serum Triglycerides levels: references

  • People who are deficient in Pantethine develop elevated serum Triglycerides and the administration of 900 mg of Pantethine per day may result in an average reduction of Triglycerides of 32%.

Pantethine may Enhance the Function of these Substances

Only those substances that are specifically enhanced by the Pantethine form of Vitamin B5 are listed below. Pantethine also enhances the function of those substances listed under the topic for Vitamin B5.

Alcohols

Pantethine may stimulate the detoxification of Acetaldehyde (by increasing the activity of the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase enzyme). references

Enzymes

Pantethine may increase the activity of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (by up to 71%). references

Pantethine may Counteract the Toxicity of these Substances

Environmental Toxins

Pantethine may inhibit the ability of Carbon Tetrachloride to damage the Liver. [more info]

Recreational Drugs

Pantethine may reduce the toxicity of Alcohol (ethanol) and protects the Liver from the toxic effects of Alcohol. references

These Substances may Enhance the Function of Pantethine

Vitamins

Pantethine is produced within the body from two molecules of Pantetheine.

Dosage Recommendations

The therapeutic dosage of Pantethine is 600 – 900 mg per day.

Commercial Availability of Pantethine Supplements

“Singular” Oral Pantethine Products

Pantethine is available from some health food stores and mail order supplement companies (mainly only in the USA) in the form of:

  • 25 mg sublingual tablets
  • 140 mg capsules
  • 250 mg capsules (Pantethine Octahydrate)
  • 300 mg tablets
  • 300 mg capsules
  • 450 mg capsules

Formulas

Pantethine is a component of some mixed Vitamin B5 formulas (e.g. capsules containing 150 mg Pantethine combined with Pantothenic Acid). Such formulas are usually only sold in the USA.

Consumer Advice

Pantethine is regarded by many researchers as the superior form of supplemental Vitamin B5 as it possesses superior Cell Respiration qualities compared to the other supplemental form of Vitamin B5 – Pantothenic Acid.

Chemical Data

Molecular Formula

Description

Pantetheine is a form of Vitamin B5 that is the condensation product of Pantothenic Acid and Aminoethanethiol.

Biological Function of Pantetheine

Pantetheine is an intermediate product in the endogenous biosynthesis of Coenzyme A (CoA).

Pantetheine may Enhance the Function of these Substances

Vitamins

Pantetheine is involved in the biosynthesis of Pantethine (an endogenous Disulfide formed from two molecules of Pantetheine).

These Substances may Enhance the Function of Pantetheine

Enzymes

Pantetheine Kinase catalyzes the conversion of Pantetheine to Pantetheine 4’-Phosphate (a further intermediate in the biosynthesis of Coenzyme A).

Chemical Data

Chemical Name

N-pantothenyl-2-aminoethanethiol

Molecular Formula

HOCH2C(CH3)2CHOH-CO-NH-CH 2CH2CO-NH-CH2CH2SH
C11H22N2O4S

Pantothenic Acid

Also known as: d-Pantothenamide; d-Pantothenic Acid; Pantothenate; Vitamin B5

Description

Pantothenic Acid is the most common definition of Vitamin B5 – Pantothenic Acid is the primary form of Vitamin B5 that exists in Blood Plasma.

Health Benefits of Pantothenic Acid

Because Pantothenic Acid is the compound that is most representative of Vitamin B5, its health benefits are listed under the topic for Vitamin B5.

Commercial Availability of Pantothenic Acid

“Singular” Oral Pantothenic Acid Products

Supplemental Pantothenic Acid (in the form of Calcium Pantothenate) is available from health food stores and mail order supplement companies (worldwide) in the form of:

  • 100 – 550 mg capsules
  • 100 – 500 mg tablets
  • 1,000 mg sustained release tablets
  • liquid
  • loose Calcium Pantothenate powder

These Substances Enhance the Function of Pantothenic Acid

Substances that enhance generalized Vitamin B5 activity are listed under the topic for Vitamin B5.

Amino Acids

The Beta-Alanine form of Alanine is a precursor for the endogenous biosynthesis of Pantothenic Acid.

Enzymes

The Pantothenate Synthase enzyme catalyzes the conversion of Beta-Alanine and Pantoic Acid (Pantoate) to Pantothenic Acid.

Organic Acids

Pantoic Acid is a precursor for the endogenous production of Pantothenic Acid.

Chemical Data

Chemical Name

N-(2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-Dimethylbutyryl)-3-Aminopropionic Acid

Molecular Formula

C9H17O5N
HOCH2C(CH3)2CHOH-CO-NH-CH2CH2COOH